High Bridge (New York City)

The High Bridge (originally the Aqueduct Bridge) is the oldest bridge in New York City, having originally opened as part of the Croton Aqueduct in 1848 and reopened as a pedestrian walkway in 2015 after being closed for over 45 years. A steel arch bridge with a height of 140 ft (43 m) over the Harlem River, it connects the New York City boroughs of the Bronx and Manhattan. The eastern end is located in the Highbridge section of the Bronx near the western end of West 170th Street, and the western end is located in Highbridge Park in Manhattan, roughly parallel to the end of West 174th Street.[2]

Although the bridge was originally completed in 1848 as a stone arch bridge, the Harlem River span was replaced with a steel arch during a 1927 renovation. The bridge was closed to all traffic from the 1970s until its restoration, which began in 2009. The bridge was reopened to pedestrians and bicycles on June 9, 2015.

The bridge is operated and maintained by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

High Bridge
High Bridge jeh
View of the closed bridge from Highbridge Park in 2008
Coordinates40°50′32″N 73°55′49″W / 40.842308°N 73.930277°WCoordinates: 40°50′32″N 73°55′49″W / 40.842308°N 73.930277°W
CarriesPedestrians and bicycles
CrossesHarlem River and Metro-North
LocaleManhattan and the Bronx,
New York City
OwnerCity of New York
Maintained byNYC Parks
Preceded byAlexander Hamilton Bridge
Followed byMacombs Dam Bridge
Characteristics
DesignArch bridge
Total length1,450 ft (440 m)[1]
Clearance below140 ft (43 m)[1]
History
Opened1848 (original aqueduct)
Rebuilt1927 (partly rebuilt)
2015 (reopened as walkway)
Closed1970s–2015

Construction and history

Croton Aqueduct - Harper's 1860 - Section of the high bridge over the Harlem River
A print from Harper's Magazine, 1860
View of the High Bridge, NY 1861
View of the High Bridge, 1861.

Construction

High Bridge and high service works & reservoir
The High Bridge, High Bridge Water Tower, and Highbridge Reservoir in 1871

Originally designed as a stone arch bridge, the High Bridge had the appearance of a Roman aqueduct. Construction on the bridge was started in 1837, and was completed in 1848 as part of the Croton Aqueduct, which carried water from the Croton River to supply the then burgeoning city of New York some 10 miles (16 km) to the south. The bridge has a height of 140 ft (43 m) above the 620-foot-wide (190 m) Harlem River, with a total length of 1,450 ft (440 m).[1] The design of the bridge was originally awarded to Major David Bates Douglass, who was fired from the project.[3] The design then fell to the aqueduct's engineering team, led by John B. Jervis. James Renwick, Jr., who later went on to design the landmark Saint Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, participated in the design.

The Croton Aqueduct had to cross the Harlem River at some point, and the method was a major design decision. A tunnel under the river was considered, but tunneling technology was in its infancy at the time, and the uncertainty of pursuing this option led to its rejection. This left a bridge, with the Water Commission, engineers and the public split between a low bridge and a high bridge. A low bridge would have been simpler, faster, and cheaper to construct. When concerns were raised to the New York Legislature that a low bridge would obstruct passage along the Harlem River to the Hudson River, a high bridge was ultimately chosen.

The contractors for the project were George Law, Samuel Roberts and Arnold Mason. [4] Mason had prior engineering experience working on the Erie Canal and the Morris Canal.[5]

Usage

In 1864, a walkway was built across the High Bridge. The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks), the bridge's current maintainer, described the walkway as the bridge's contemporary High Line. However, the bridge was not used for vehicles.[6]

In 1928, to improve navigation in the Harlem River, the five masonry arches that spanned the river were demolished and replaced with a single steel arch of about 450 feet (140 m).[1] Of the masonry arches of the original 1848 bridge, only one survives on the Manhattan side, while some ten survive on the Bronx side.

Use of the structure to deliver water to the island ceased on December 15, 1949.

By 1954, The New York Times reported that the commissioner of the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity said that "the bridge entailed serious problems of maintenance and vandalism."[7] Robert Moses agreed to take responsibility for the bridge, which was transferred to the Parks Department in 1955.[8] There were incidents, in 1957 and 1958, of pedestrians throwing sticks, stones, and bricks from the bridge, seriously injuring passengers on Circle Line tour boats which passed under the bridge.[9] Concerns due to these incidents supposedly contributed to the bridge being closed as early as 1960, although NYC Parks said that it was not closed until 1970, when high crime and fiscal crisis led to the contraction of many city services and public spaces.[10] However, a reporter for the New York Times wrote that when he had tried to walk across the bridge in 1968, it was closed.[11]

Aqueduct

The High Bridge was part of the first reliable and plentiful water supply system in New York City. As the City was devastated by cholera in 1832 and the Great Fire in 1835, the inadequacy of the water system of wells-and-cisterns became apparent. Numerous corrective measures were examined.[10] In the final analysis, only the Croton River in northern Westchester County was found to carry water sufficient in quantity and quality to serve the City. The delivery system was begun in 1837, and was completed in 1848.[10]

The Old Croton Aqueduct was the first of its kind ever constructed in the United States. The innovative system used a classic gravity feed, dropping 13 inches (330 mm) per mile, or about 1/4" per 100' (~0.02%)[12] and running 41 miles (66 km) into New York City through an enclosed masonry structure crossing ridges, valleys, and rivers. University Avenue was later built over the southernmost mainland portion of the aqueduct, leading to the bridge. Though the carrying capacity was enlarged in 1861–1862 with a larger tube, the bridge (obsolete due to opening of the New Croton Aqueduct[10]) ceased to carry water in 1917.[1] In the 1920s the bridge's masonry arches were declared a hazard to ship navigation by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, and the City considered demolishing the entire structure. Local organizations called to preserve the historic bridge, and in 1927 five of the original arches across the river were replaced by a single steel span, the remaining arches were retained.[1]

Restoration

Bronxians arrive Manhattan on Hibridge jeh
Reopening day, June 9, 2015. Bronxites arrive for the opening ceremony
Gold plated scissors & Green ribbon HB jeh
Gold-plated scissors and green ribbon to be used to open the bridge

In November 2006 the Department of Parks and Recreation announced that the bridge would reopen to pedestrians in 2009.[13] This date was repeatedly put off. A $20 million renovation project would include strengthening the arch, improving staircases, cameras on both ends of the bridge, and boat beacon lights among other features.[14]

In 2009 preliminary planning, funded by PlaNYC, began for restoring the High Bridge.[13] The High Bridge Coalition raised funds and public awareness to restore High Bridge to pedestrian and bicycle traffic, joining the Highbridge Parks in both Manhattan and the Bronx that together cover more than 120 acres (0.49 km2) of parkland, and providing a link in New York's greenway system.[15] In early 2010 a contract was signed with Lichtenstein Consulting Engineers and Chu & Gassman Consulting Engineers (MEP sub-consultant) to provide designs for the restored bridge.[16]

On January 11, 2013, the mayor's office announced the bridge would reopen for pedestrian traffic by 2014,[17] but in August 2014, the open was postponed to spring of 2015.[18] In May 2015, the Parks Department announced a July opening[19] and a July 25 festival.[20] The ribbon was cut for the restored bridge at about 11:30 a.m. on June 9, 2015, with the bridge open to the general public at noon.[17][21][22]

High Bridge Water Tower

2014 High Bridge Water Tower from below north
The tower, seen from the north
2014 High Bridge Water Tower top from below southwest
The top of the tower, seen from the south
High Bridge Water Tower from High Bridge span
From mid-span of High Bridge

The High Bridge Water Tower, in Highbridge Park between West 173rd and 174th Streets, on top of the ridge on the Manhattan side of High Bridge, was built in 1866–1872 to help meet the ever-increasing demands on the city's water system. The 200-foot (61 m) octagonal tower, which was authorized by the State Legislature in 1863, was designed by John B. Jervis, the engineer who supervised the building of the High Bridge Aqueduct. Water was pumped up 100 feet (30 m) to a 7-acre (2.8 ha) reservoir next to the tower – now the site of a play center and public pool built in 1934–1936 – which then provided water to be lifted to the tower's 47,000 US gallons (180 m3) tank. This "high service" improved the water system's gravity pressure, necessary because of the increased use of flush toilets.[23][24][25]

The High Bridge system reached its full capacity by 1875.[25] With the opening of the Croton Aqueduct, the High Bridge system became less relied upon; during World War I it was completely shut down when sabotage was feared.[25] In 1949 the tower was removed from service,[23][25] and a carillon, donated by the Altman Foundation, was installed in 1958.[25]

The tower's cupola was damaged by an arson fire in 1984. It was reconstructed, and the tower's load-bearing exterior stonework – which Jervis designed in a mixture of Romanesque Revival and neo-Grec styles – was cleaned and restored in 1989–1990 by the William A. Hall Partnership.[24][25] Christopher Gray has said of the tower's design that "Its rock-faced granite gives the tower a chunky, fortified appearance, as if it were a lookout for a much larger castle complex that was never built.... The granite is competently handled, but the details are not very inspired or elegant. The tower is more picturesque than beautiful."[25]

The interior of the tower, which was never open to the public, features a wide well-detailed iron spiral staircase with six large landings and paired windows.[25]

The High Bridge Water Tower was designated a New York City landmark by the Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1967.[23]

Gallery

High Bridge, New York City, 1900

A print from 1900, showing original stone arches

HighbridgeNewYork

The transition from the steel arch over the Harlem River to the stone arches over the Major Deegan Expressway

HarlemRiverBridges

Three Harlem River bridges: High Bridge nearest; Alexander Hamilton Bridge; and Washington Bridge, farthest. Washington Heights on left; the Bronx on right

Interior spiral staircase (3), Highbridge Water Tower, Manhattan, 2008-10-04

Interior staircase of the High Bridge Water Tower

High Bridge looking east

The Bronx-bound view from the span's approximate center

High Bridge re-opening - plaque High Bridge Construction

High Bridge Construction (1848)

High Bridge re-opening first weekend - plaque The High Bridge

The High Bridge (1839–1848)

High Bridge re-opening first weekend - plaque Steel Arch

Steel Arch (1927–1928)

High Bridge re-opening first weekend - plaque Changing City

Changing City (1934–1936)

High Bridge re-opening - plaque High Bridge Restoration

High Bridge Restoration (2015)

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Croton Water Supply System". ASCE Metropolitan Section. American Society of Civil Engineers. n.d. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
  2. ^ Ramey, Corinne (June 8, 2015). "The Grass Is Greener on the Other Side". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  3. ^ Eldredge, Niles & Horenstein, Sidney (2014). Concrete Jungle: New York City and Our Last Best Hope for a Sustainable Future. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-520-27015-2.
  4. ^ Hough, Franklin Benjamin. Gazetteer of the State of New York: Embracing a Comprehensive Account of the History and Statistics of the State, with Geological and Topographical Descriptions, and Recent Statistical Tables, 1872, page 416
  5. ^ Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, Vols. 43-45, page 4
  6. ^ "History of the High Bridge: NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  7. ^ O'Kane, Lawrence. "Span is 'Swapped' on City Boat Ride". The New York Times (July 8, 1954).
  8. ^ "River Landmarks to be Park Units". The New York Times (January 20, 1955)
  9. ^ "Boys Stone Boat, Hurt Sight-Seers". The New York Times (April 21, 1958)
  10. ^ a b c d Dwyer, Jim (2015-06-04). "A Stunning Link to New York's Past Makes a Long-Awaited Return". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  11. ^ Bird, David (1968-10-27). "A 32-Mile-Long Swath of Green From the Country to the City". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-09-11.
  12. ^ "An Engineering Marvel". Friends of the Old Croton Aqueduct. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  13. ^ a b "High Bridge PlaNYC Project Overview". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
  14. ^ Hughes, C. J. (May 20, 2007). "Living In: High Bridge, the Bronx - Home of the Bronx Roar". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  15. ^ "The High Bridge & Highbridge Parks" (PDF). High Bridge Coalition. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  16. ^ Aaron, Brad (February 11, 2010). "High Bridge Restoration Off and Running". Streetsblog New York City. Retrieved July 1, 2010.
  17. ^ a b Artz, Kristen (January 11, 2013). "Mayor Bloomberg Breaks Ground On Project To Restore The High Bridge Over Harlem River And Reopen It To Pedestrians And Bicyclists". NYC, the official website of the City of New York. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  18. ^ Clarke, Erin (August 28, 2014). "High Bridge's Reopening Slated for Spring". NY1. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  19. ^ "The High Bridge Reconstruction Project". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
  20. ^ "High Bridge Events". NYC Parks. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  21. ^ "High Bridge reopens to bikes, pedestrians" Archived July 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. MyFox TV
  22. ^ Foderaro, Lisa W. (June 10, 2015). "High Bridge Reopens After More Than 40 Years". The New York Times. p. A19. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  23. ^ a b c New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009), Postal, Matthew A., ed., Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1, p. 210
  24. ^ a b White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010), AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195383867, p.566
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h Gray, Christopher (October 9, 1988). "Streetscapes: The High Bridge Water Tower; Fire-Damaged Landmark To Get $900,000 Repairs". The New York Times.

External links

Aqueduct Bridge

Aqueduct Bridge may refer to:

Potomac Aqueduct Bridge

Aqueduct Bridge (Indiana), see List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana

High Bridge (New York City)

Günay Erdem

Günay Erdem (born 18 April 1978) is a Turkish Architect (graduated) and self-taught Landscape architect. Günay Erdem together with his brother Sunay Erdem leads architectural and urban design practice Erdem Architects which they founded in 1998.

Differently from majority of other architects and landscape architects Günay Erdem dissolves the boundaries of these two disciplines in his designs. Using this interdisciplinary approach Günay Erdem‘s both architectural and urban designs gains unique innovative characteristics.

Günay Erdem designed many architectural and urban design projects in 40 different countries. He won National Architecture Award in National Architecture Exhibition 2010/Category:Presentation of Ideas.

Highbridge, Bronx

Highbridge is a residential neighborhood geographically located in the central-west section of the Bronx, New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Jerome Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and the Harlem River to the west. Ogden Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through Highbridge. ZIP codes include 10451, 10452, and 10456.

Highbridge Park

Highbridge Park is located in Washington Heights on the banks of the Harlem River near the northernmost tip of the New York City borough of Manhattan, between 155th Street and Dyckman Street. The park is operated by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. The City maintains the southern half of the park, while the northern half is maintained by the non-profit New York Restoration Project.Prominent in the park are the Manhattan end of the restored High Bridge, which was re-opened in June 2015, the High Bridge Water Tower, and the Highbridge Play Center.

Highbridge Reservoir

Highbridge Reservoir received water from a portion of the Croton Aqueduct system. It was located on Amsterdam Avenue between 172nd Street and 174th Street, in Upper Manhattan adjacent to the High Bridge Water Tower and the High Bridge across the Harlem River Valley. The reservoir covered about 7 acres (28,000 m2), was 16 feet (4.9 m) deep, and had a total capacity of 10,794,000 US gallons (40,860,000 L).In 1863, the New York Legislature authorized construction of the reservoir and water tower to supply water pressure to buildings located at high elevations in the surrounding area. The project was designed by John B. Jervis, the chief engineer of the Croton Aqueduct. Construction began in 1866 and was completed in 1872. Steam engines pumped water up from the aqueduct approximately 100 feet (30 m) into the reservoir and then pumped it another 200 feet (61 m) to the top of the water tower in to a tank with a capacity of 47,000 US gallons (180,000 L).By 1934, the reservoir had not been used for fifteen years and was proposed by New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation Commissioner, Robert Moses, as the site of a new park. In the spring of 1934, Highbridge Reservoir was taken over by the Office of Parks for the construction of the Highbridge Play Center of Highbridge Park, including an outdoor swimming pool.

List of bridges in the United States

This list of bridges in the United States is organized by state and includes notable bridges (both existing and destroyed) in the United States of America. There are more than 600,000 bridges in the USA.

New York City water supply system

New York City's water supply system is one of the most extensive municipal water systems in the world. This complex system relies on a combination of aqueducts, reservoirs, and tunnels to meet the daily needs of New York City's more than eight million residents and its many visitors.

Thanks to well-protected wilderness watersheds, New York's water treatment process is simpler than in other American cities. One advantage of the system is that 95% of the total water supply is supplied by gravity. The other 5% needs to be pumped to maintain pressure, but this is sometimes increased in times of drought when the reservoirs are at lower than normal levels.The city has sought to restrict development throughout its watershed. One of its largest watershed protection programs is the Land Acquisition Program, under which the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has purchased or protected, through conservation easement, over 130,000 acres (53,000 ha) since 1997.

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