High-dynamic-range video

High-dynamic-range video (HDR video) describes video having a dynamic range greater than that of standard-dynamic-range video (SDR video).[1]Key characteristics of HDR video are brighter whites, deeper blacks, and at least a 10-bit color depth (compared to 8-bit for SDR video) in order to maintain precision across this extended range. [2] While technically distinct, the term "HDR video" is commonly understood to imply wide color gamut as well.

Technology

Capture

Example of HDR time-lapse video

In February and April 1990, Georges Cornuéjols introduced the first real-time HDR camera combining two successively[3] or simultaneously[4]-captured images.

In 1991, the first commercial video camera using consumer-grade sensors and cameras was introduced that performed real-time capturing of multiple images with different exposures, and producing an HDR video image, by Hymatom, licensee of Cornuéjols.

Also in 1991, Cornuéjols introduced the principle of non linear image accumulation HDR+ to increase the camera sensitivity:[5] in low-light environments, several successive images are accumulated, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio.

Later, in the early 2000s, several scholarly research efforts used consumer-grade sensors and cameras.[6] A few companies such as RED and Arri have been developing digital sensors capable of a higher dynamic range.[7][8] RED EPIC-X can capture time-sequential HDRx[9] images with a user-selectable 1–3 stops of additional highlight latitude in the "x" channel. The "x" channel can be merged with the normal channel in post production software. The Arri Alexa camera uses a dual gain architecture to generate an HDR image from two exposures captured at the same time.[10]

With the advent of low-cost consumer digital cameras, many amateurs began posting tone mapped HDR time-lapse videos on the Internet, essentially a sequence of still photographs in quick succession. In 2010, the independent studio Soviet Montage produced an example of HDR video from disparately exposed video streams using a beam splitter and consumer grade HD video cameras.[11] Similar methods have been described in the academic literature in 2001 and 2007.[12][13]

Modern movies have often been filmed with cameras featuring a higher dynamic range, and legacy movies can be converted even if manual intervention would be needed for some frames (as when black-and-white films are converted to color). Also, special effects, especially those that mix real and synthetic footage, require both HDR shooting and rendering. HDR video is also needed in applications that demand high accuracy for capturing temporal aspects of changes in the scene. This is important in monitoring of some industrial processes such as welding, in predictive driver assistance systems in automotive industry, in surveillance video systems, and other applications. HDR video can be also considered to speed image acquisition in applications that need a large number of static HDR images are, for example in image-based methods in computer graphics.

OpenEXR was created in 1999 by Industrial Light and Magic (ILM) and released in 2003 as an open source software library.[14][15] OpenEXR is used for film and television production.[15]

Display

Display devices capable of greater dynamic range have been researched for decades, primarily with flat panel technologies like plasma, SED/FED and OLED.

TV sets with enhanced dynamic range and upscaling of existing SDR/LDR video/broadcast content with reverse tone mapping have been anticipated since early 2000s.[16][17] In 2016, HDR conversion of SDR video was released to market as Samsung's HDR+ (in LCD TV sets)[18] and Technicolor SA's HDR Intelligent Tone Management.[19]

As of 2018, high-end consumer-grade HDR displays can achieve 1,000 cd/m2 of luminance, at least for a short duration or over a small portion of the screen, compared to 250-300 cd/m2 for a typical SDR display.[2]

Production

Academy Color Encoding System (ACES) was created by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and released in December 2014.[20] ACES is a complete color and file management system that works with almost any professional workflow and it supports both HDR and wide color gamut. More information can be found at https://www.ACESCentral.com (WCG).[20]

Video interfaces that support at least one HDR Format include HDMI 2.0a, which was released in April 2015 and DisplayPort 1.4, which was released in March 2016.[21][22] On December 12, 2016, HDMI announced that Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) support had been added to the HDMI 2.0b standard.[23][24][25] HDMI 2.1 was officially announced on January 4, 2017, and added support for Dynamic HDR, which is dynamic metadata that supports changes scene-by-scene or frame-by-frame.[26][27]

The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) created a standard for dynamic metadata: SMPTE ST 2094 or Dynamic Metadata for Color Volume Transform (DMCVT).[28] SMPTE ST 2094 was published in 2016 as six parts and includes four applications from Dolby, Philips, Samsung, and Technicolor.[28]

Standards

Perceptual Quantizer

Perceptual Quantizer (PQ), published by SMPTE as SMPTE ST 2084, is a transfer function that allows for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) video with a luminance level of up to 10,000 cd/m2 and can be used with the Rec. 2020 color space.[29][30][31][32] PQ is a non-linear electro-optical transfer function (EOTF). On April 18, 2016, the Ultra HD Forum announced industry guidelines for UHD Phase A, which uses Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) and PQ transfer functions with a bit depth of 10-bits and the Rec. 2020 color space.[33] On July 6, 2016, the ITU announced Rec. 2100, which uses HLG or PQ as transfer functions with a Rec. 2020 color space.[34][35]

The PQ OETF is as follows[34]:

where

  • is the signal value, with a range of .
  • is the normalized linear optical luminance, with representing the peak luminance of 10,000 cd/m2.

HDR10

HDR10 Media Profile, more commonly known as HDR10, was announced on August 27, 2015, by the Consumer Technology Association and uses the wide-gamut Rec. 2020 color space, a bit depth of 10-bits, and the SMPTE ST 2084 (PQ) transfer function – a combination later also standardized in ITU-R BT.2100.[36] It also uses SMPTE ST 2086 "Mastering Display Color Volume" static metadata to send color calibration data of the mastering display, such as MaxFALL (Maximum Frame Average Light Level) and MaxCLL (Maximum Content Light Level) static values, encoded as SEI messages within the video stream. HDR10 is an open standard supported by a wide variety of companies, which includes monitor and TV manufacturers such as Dell, LG, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, and Vizio,[37][38] as well as Sony Interactive Entertainment, Microsoft and Apple which support HDR10 on their PlayStation 4, Xbox One video game console and Apple TV platforms, respectively.[39][40][41]

HDR10+

HDR10+, also known as HDR10 Plus, was announced on April 20, 2017, by Samsung and Amazon Video. HDR10+ updates HDR10 by adding dynamic metadata that can be used to more accurately adjust brightness levels on a scene-by-scene or frame-by-frame basis.[42][43][44] This function is based on Samsung application SMPTE ST 2094-40.[28][45][42][43][44] HDR10+ is an open standard and is royalty-free; it is supported by Colorfront's Transkoder and MulticoreWare's x265.[42][43][44] A certification and logo program for HDR10+ device manufacturers will be made available with an annual administration fee and no per unit royalty.[46] An authorized test center conducts a certification program for HDR10+ devices.[46]

On August 28, 2017, Samsung, Panasonic, and 20th Century Fox created the HDR10+ Alliance to promote the HDR10+ standard.[47] HDR10+ video started being offered by Amazon Video on December 13, 2017.[48] On January 5, 2018, Warner Bros. announced their support for the HDR10+ standard.[49] On January 6, 2018, Panasonic announced Ultra HD Blu-ray players with support for HDR10+.[50]

Dolby Vision

Dolby Vision is an HDR format from Dolby Laboratories that can be optionally supported by Ultra HD Blu-ray discs and streaming video services.[51][52] Dolby Vision is a proprietary format and Dolby SVP of Business Giles Baker has stated that the royalty cost for Dolby Vision is less than $3 per TV.[53][54][55] Dolby Vision includes the Perceptual Quantizer (SMPTE ST 2084) electro-optical transfer function, up to 4K resolution, and a wide-gamut color space (ITU-R Rec. 2020). The primary difference between Dolby Vision and HDR10+ is that Dolby Vision allows for 12-bit color depth (in 2018 only pro reference monitors and some projectors can do this) and 10,000 cd/m2 maximum brightness (actual max is 4,000 cd/m2 with 2018 pro reference monitors, also the maximum of HDR10+).[56] It can encode mastering display colorimetry information using static metadata (SMPTE ST 2086) but also provide dynamic metadata (SMPTE ST 2094-10, Dolby format) for each scene.[28] Examples of Ultra HD (UHD) TVs that support Dolby Vision include LG, TCL, Sony and Vizio.[57] MulticoreWare's x265 encoder supports Dolby Vision as of version 3.0.[58]

Hybrid Log-Gamma

Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) is a HDR standard jointly developed by the BBC and NHK.[59] It is compatible with standard dynamic range (SDR) displays, although it requires 10-bit color depth. HLG defines a non-linear optical-electro transfer function (OETF) in which the lower half of the signal values use a gamma curve and the upper half of the signal values use a logarithmic curve.[1][60] The HLG standard is royalty-free and is compatible with SDR displays.[59][61] HLG is defined in ATSC 3.0, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) UHD-1 Phase 2, and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Rec. 2100.[34][62][63] HLG is supported by HDMI 2.0b, HEVC, VP9, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[23][64][65][66] HLG is supported by video services such as the BBC iPlayer, DirecTV, Freeview Play, and YouTube.[67][68][69][70][71]

SL-HDR1

SL-HDR1 is a HDR standard that was jointly developed by STMicroelectronics, Philips International B.V., and Technicolor R&D France.[72] It was standardised as ETSI TS 103 433 in August 2016.[73] SL-HDR1 provides direct backwards compatibility by using static (SMPTE ST 2086) and dynamic metadata (using SMPTE ST 2094-20 Philips and 2094-30 Technicolor formats) to reconstruct a HDR signal from a SDR video stream that can be delivered using SDR distribution networks and services already in place. SL-HDR1 allows for HDR rendering on HDR devices and SDR rendering on SDR devices using a single layer video stream.[73] The HDR reconstruction metadata can be added either to HEVC or AVC using a supplemental enhancement information (SEI) message.[73]

Guidelines and recommendations

ITU-R Rec. 2100

Rec. 2100 is a technical recommendation by ITU-R for production and distribution of HDR content using 1080p or UHD resolution, 10-bit or 12-bit color, HLG or PQ transfer functions, and wide color gamut using the Rec. 2020 color space.[34][35]

UHD Phase A

UHD Phase A are guidelines from the Ultra HD Forum for distribution of SDR and HDR content using Full HD 1080p and 4K UHD resolutions. It requires color depth of 10-bits per sample, a color gamut of Rec. 709 or Rec. 2020, a frame rate of up to 60 fps, a display resolution of 1080p or 2160p, and either standard dynamic range (SDR) or high dynamic range that uses Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) transfer functions.[74] UHD Phase A defines HDR as having a dynamic range of at least 13 stops (213=8192:1) and WCG as a color gamut that is wider than Rec. 709.[74] UHD Phase A consumer devices are compatible with HDR10 requirements and can process Rec. 2020 color space and HLG or PQ at 10 bits.

Mastering display metadata

For consumers displays that have limited color volume (i.e. do not provide peak brightness/contrast and color gamut required by the standards), SMPTE defines metadata for describing the scenes as they appear on the mastering display. SMPTE ST 2086 "Mastering Display Color Volume Metadata Supporting High Luminance and Wide Color Gamut Images" describes static data such as MaxFALL (Maximum Frame Average Light Level) and MaxCLL (Maximum Content Light Level). SMPTE ST 2094 "Content-Dependent Metadata for Color Volume Transformation of High Luminance and Wide Color Gamut Images" includes dynamic metadata that can change from scene to scene. This includes ST 2094-10 (Dolby Vision format), Colour Volume Reconstruction Information (CVRI) SMPTE ST 2094-20 (Philips format) and Colour Remapping Information (CRI) defined in ST 2094-30 (Technicolor format), and HDR10+ ST 2094-40 (Samsung format).

History

The HEVC specification incorporates the Main 10 profile on their first version that supports 10 bits per sample.

On April 8, 2015, The HDMI Forum released version 2.0a of the HDMI Specification to enable transmission of HDR. The Specification references CEA-861.3, which in turn references the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ), which was standardized as SMPTE ST 2084.[21] The previous HDMI 2.0 version already supported the Rec. 2020 color space.

On June 24, 2015, Amazon Video was the first streaming service to offer HDR video using HDR10 Media Profile video.[75][76]

On November 17, 2015, Vudu announced that they had started offering titles in Dolby Vision.[77]

On March 1, 2016, the Blu-ray Disc Association released Ultra HD Blu-ray with mandatory support for HDR10 Media Profile video and optional support for Dolby Vision.[51][52]

On April 9, 2016, Netflix started offering both HDR10 Media Profile video and Dolby Vision.[78]

On July 6, 2016, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced Rec. 2100 that defines two HDR transfer functions—HLG and PQ.[34][35]

On July 29, 2016, SKY Perfect JSAT Group announced that on October 4, they will start the world's first 4K HDR broadcasts using HLG.[79]

On September 9, 2016, Google announced Android TV 7.0, which supports Dolby Vision, HDR10, and HLG.[65][80]

On September 26, 2016, Roku announced that the Roku Premiere+ and Roku Ultra will support HDR using HDR10.[81]

On November 7, 2016, Google announced that YouTube would stream HDR videos that can be encoded with HLG or PQ.[82][67]

On November 17, 2016, the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Steering Board approved UHD-1 Phase 2 with a HDR solution that supports Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) and Perceptual Quantizer (PQ).[62][83] The specification has been published as DVB Bluebook A157 and will be published by the ETSI as TS 101 154 v2.3.1.[62][83]

On January 2, 2017, LG Electronics USA announced that all of LG's SUPER UHD TV models now support a variety of HDR technologies, including Dolby Vision, HDR10, and HLG (Hybrid Log Gamma), and are ready to support Advanced HDR by Technicolor.

On September 12, 2017, Apple announced that the new Apple TV 4K would support both HDR10 and Dolby Vision, and that the iTunes Store would sell and rent 4K HDR content.[41]

See also

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1080p

1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as full HD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens.

1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, smartphones, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders, smartphones and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution.

A Star Is Born (2018 film)

A Star Is Born is a 2018 American musical romantic drama film produced and directed by Bradley Cooper (in his directorial debut) and written by Eric Roth, Cooper and Will Fetters. A remake of the 1937 film of the same name, it stars Cooper, Lady Gaga, Dave Chappelle, Andrew Dice Clay, and Sam Elliott, and follows a hard-drinking musician (Cooper) who discovers and falls in love with a young singer (Gaga). It marks the fourth remake of the original 1937 film, after the 1954 musical, the 1976 musical, and the 2013 Bollywood film, Aashiqui 2.

Talks of a remake of A Star Is Born began in 2011, with Clint Eastwood attached to direct and Beyoncé set to star. The film was in development hell for several years with various actors approached to co-star, including Christian Bale, Leonardo DiCaprio, Will Smith, and Tom Cruise. In March 2016, Cooper signed on to star and direct, and Lady Gaga joined the cast in August 2016. Principal photography began at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in April 2017.

A Star Is Born premiered at the 75th Venice International Film Festival on August 31, 2018, and was theatrically released in the United States on October 5, 2018, by Warner Bros. The film has grossed over $423 million worldwide and received critical acclaim, with praise for Cooper, Gaga, and Elliott's performances and Cooper's direction, as well as the screenplay, cinematography and music. It was chosen by both the National Board of Review and American Film Institute as one of the Top 10 Films of 2018. The film received numerous accolades, including five nominations at the 76th Golden Globe Awards, including Best Motion Picture – Drama, winning Best Original Song for Gaga's "Shallow". The film also received eight nominations at the 91st Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor (Cooper), Best Actress (Gaga), Best Supporting Actor (Elliott) and Best Original Song ("Shallow").

Arlo Technologies

Arlo Technologies is a home automation company, which makes wireless security cameras. Arlo was considered a brand by Netgear, prior to its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange in August 2018.As of August 2018, Arlo have shipped 11.7 million devices with 2.85 million registered users which generates on average in excess of 88 million daily video streams.

Digital Picture Exchange

Digital Picture Exchange (DPX) is a common file format for digital intermediate and visual effects work and is a SMPTE standard (ST 268-1:2014). The file format is most commonly used to represent the density of each colour channel of a scanned negative film in an uncompressed "logarithmic" image where the gamma of the original camera negative is preserved as taken by a film scanner. For this reason, DPX is the worldwide-chosen format for still frames storage in most digital intermediate post-production facilities and film labs. Other common video formats are supported as well (see below), from video to purely digital ones, making DPX a file format suitable for almost any raster digital imaging applications. DPX provides, in fact, a great deal of flexibility in storing colour information, colour spaces and colour planes for exchange between production facilities. Multiple forms of packing and alignment are possible. The DPX specification allows for a wide variety of metadata to further clarify information stored (and storable) within each file.

The DPX file format was originally derived from the Kodak Cineon open file format (.cin file extension) used for digital images generated by Kodak's original film scanner. The original DPX (version 1.0) specifications are part of SMPTE 268M-1994. The specification was later improved and published by SMPTE as ANSI/SMPTE 268M-2003. Academy Density Exchange (ADX) support for the Academy Color Encoding System are added in the current version of the standard SMPTE ST 268-1:2014. Extensions for high-dynamic-range video and wide color gamut are standardized in SMPTE ST 268-2:2018.

DisplayPort

DisplayPort (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, and it can also carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.DisplayPort was designed to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link. The interface is backward compatible with other interfaces, such as HDMI and DVI, through the use of either active or passive adapters.

Dynamic range

Dynamic range (abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR) is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume. It is often used in the context of signals, like sound and light. It is measured either as a ratio or as a base-10 (decibel) or base-2 (doublings, bits or stops) logarithmic value of the difference between the smallest and largest signal values.Electronically reproduced audio and video is often processed to fit the original material with a wide dynamic range into a narrower recorded dynamic range that can more easily be stored and reproduced; This processing is called dynamic range compression.

High-dynamic-range imaging

High-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) is a high dynamic range (HDR) technique used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than is possible with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques. The aim is to present a similar range of luminance to that experienced through the human visual system. The human eye, through adaptation of the iris and other methods, adjusts constantly to adapt to a broad range of luminance present in the environment. The brain continuously interprets this information so that a viewer can see in a wide range of light conditions.

HDR images can represent a greater range of luminance levels than can be achieved using more traditional methods, such as many real-world scenes containing very bright, direct sunlight to extreme shade, or very faint nebulae. This is often achieved by capturing and then combining several different, narrower range, exposures of the same subject matter. Non-HDR cameras take photographs with a limited exposure range, referred to as LDR, resulting in the loss of detail in highlights or shadows.

The two primary types of HDR images are computer renderings and images resulting from merging multiple low-dynamic-range (LDR) or standard-dynamic-range (SDR) photographs. HDR images can also be acquired using special image sensors, such as an oversampled binary image sensor.

Due to the limitations of printing and display contrast, the extended luminosity range of an HDR image has to be compressed to be made visible. The method of rendering an HDR image to a standard monitor or printing device is called tone mapping. This method reduces the overall contrast of an HDR image to facilitate display on devices or printouts with lower dynamic range, and can be applied to produce images with preserved local contrast (or exaggerated for artistic effect).

High dynamic range

High dynamic range (HDR) is a dynamic range higher than what is considered to be standard dynamic range. The term is often used in discussing display devices, photography, 3D rendering, and sound recording including digital imaging and digital audio production. The term may apply to an analog or digitized signal, or to the means of recording, processing, and reproducing such signals.

Hybrid Log-Gamma

Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) is a high dynamic range (HDR) standard that was jointly developed by the BBC and NHK. The HLG standard is royalty-free and was approved as ARIB STD-B67 by the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB). HLG is compatible with standard dynamic range (SDR) displays. HLG is defined in ATSC 3.0, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) UHD-1 Phase 2, and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Rec. 2100. HLG is supported by HDMI 2.0b, HEVC, VP9, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. HLG is supported by video services such as BBC iPlayer, DirecTV, Freeview Play, and YouTube.

LG G6

The LG G6 is an Android smartphone developed by LG Electronics as part of the LG G series. It was announced during Mobile World Congress on February 26, 2017, as the successor to the 2016 LG G5.

The G6 is distinguished by its 5.7 display, which features a taller, 2:1 aspect ratio (marketed as 18:9), than the 16:9 aspect ratio of most smartphones. A variant, called the LG G6+ was announced on June 19, 2017 with 128 GB storage and a Hi-Fi Quad DAC.

List of Qualcomm Snapdragon systems-on-chip

This is a list of Qualcomm Snapdragon chips. Snapdragon is a family of mobile system on a chip (SoC) made by Qualcomm for use in smartphones, tablets, and smartbook devices.

OETF

OETF may refer to:

Ta'if Regional Airport (ICAO code), Saudi Arabia

Opto-electronic transfer function, in high dynamic range video

PlayStation 4

The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, and on February 22, 2014, in Japan. It competes with Microsoft's Xbox One and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.

Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops; AMD stated that it was the "most powerful" APU it had developed to date. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices ("Remote Play"), the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely ("Share Play"). The console's controller was also redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, and an integrated touchpad among other changes. The console also supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia.

The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, and for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes similarly to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios also praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors; developers described the performance difference between the console and Xbox One as "significant" and "obvious". Heightened demand also helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3. As of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide.

On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games. The company also released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, and the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.

Power Pros

Jikkyō Powerful Pro Yakyū, marketed internationally as Power Pros, is a traditionally Japan-only baseball video game series created by Konami. It is known for its super deformed characters, and fast-paced, but deep gameplay. Most game in the series is developed under license from the Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), which enables the use of the league's team names, stadiums and colors in the games, and the Japan Professional Baseball Players Association (JPBPA), which enables the use of the league's player names and likenesses. There's also six games in the series with the Major League Baseball (MLB) and Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA) licence, two with the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) and Korea Professional Baseball Players Association (KPBPA), and one with the World Baseball Classic licence. It is long running in Japan, starting out in 1994 for the Super Famicom. The game has also appeared on the Sega Saturn (1995–1997), the PlayStation (1994–2003), the Nintendo 64 (1997–2001), the PlayStation 2 (2000–2009), the Dreamcast (2000), the Nintendo GameCube (2002–2006), Wii (2007–2009), PlayStation 3 (2010–2016), PlayStation 4 (since 2016) as well as the PlayStation Portable (2007–2013) and the PlayStation Vita (since 2012).

The series has also released a spinoff on handheld systems between 1999 and 2014 under the title Power Pro Kun Pocket, with versions for the Game Boy Color, Game Boy Advance, and Nintendo DS. The series originally designed as being the side-story of Success mode, and was part of the main series, but Konami retroactively declared it as a separate series.

On May 12, 2006, a version of Power Pro was released featuring Major League Baseball players, under the title Jikkyō Powerful Major League. The Power Pro series has featured online play since its tenth incarnation on the PS2 and its first handheld version on the PlayStation Portable. A version of Power Pro was announced for the PlayStation 3, first shown at the Tokyo Game Show in 2005, but it would take another five years for the series to reach the PS3, with the system instead getting Power Pro's sister series, Professional Baseball Spirits for the interim. On August 3, 2007, an American release of the series was announced for both the PlayStation 2 and the Wii. The game, titled MLB Power Pros, was published by 2K Sports, and features a Success Mode set within Major League Baseball.The most distinctive feature of the Power Pro series is its odd depiction of characters. The basic design of the Power Pro baseball player is a short figure with an excessively wide, gashapon capsule-shaped head, lacking a mouth, nose, ears with expression being mainly in the eyebrows. Power Pros characters are somewhat similar to the character Rayman, in that they do not have legs and thus their feet are not connected to their body. Power Pros characters do have arms and hands, however, their hands are fingerless and bear more resemblance to a sphere than a human hand. The Power Pro series has used this comic design for every single one of its games.

In Japan, the series has been critically acclaimed and commercially successful, while in North America it received mixed to generally favourable reviews and sold poorly. As of September 2016, the series sold 21.4 million copies in Japan.

Samsung Galaxy Note 7

The Samsung Galaxy Note 7 (marketed as Samsung Galaxy Note7) is a now-discontinued Android phablet smartphone that was produced and marketed by Samsung Electronics. Unveiled on 2 August 2016, it was officially released on 19 August 2016 as a successor to the Galaxy Note 5. It was Samsung's first phone with a symmetrical connector and the last phone in the Galaxy Note Series to have a home button. Although it is the sixth main device in the Galaxy Note series, Samsung branded its series number as "7" instead of "6", so that consumers would not perceive it as being inferior to the flagship Samsung Galaxy S7.

The Galaxy Note 7 is an evolution of the Galaxy Note 5 that inherited hardware components and improvements from the Galaxy S7, including the restoration of expandable storage and IP68 water resistance, and new features such as a dual-sided curved display, support for high-dynamic-range (HDR) color, improvements to the bundled stylus and new software features which utilize it, an iris recognition system, and a USB-C port. Demand for the Galaxy Note 7 on-launch was high, breaking pre-order records in South Korea and causing international releases to be delayed in some markets due to supply shortages. The Galaxy Note 7 also received positive reviews from critics, praising the quality of its construction, HDR support, as well as its streamlined user interface, although it was panned for its high price and increasing similarities in overall specifications to the main Galaxy S series phones.

On 2 September 2016, Samsung suspended sales of the Galaxy Note 7 and announced an informal recall, after it was found that a manufacturing defect in the phones' batteries had caused some of them to generate excessive heat, resulting in fires. A formal U.S. recall was announced on 15 September 2016. Samsung exchanged the affected phones for a new revision, which utilized batteries sourced from a different supplier. However, after reports emerged of incidents where these replacement phones also caught fire, Samsung recalled the Galaxy Note 7 worldwide on 10 October 2016, and permanently ceased production of the device on 11 October. Due to the recalls, Samsung has issued software updates in some markets that are intended to "eliminate their ability to work as mobile devices", including restricting battery capacity, and blocking their ability to connect to wireless networks. Samsung has stated that it intends to recycle reusable silicon and components from the recalled models, and release refurbished models "where applicable".

The recall had a major impact on Samsung's business in the third quarter of 2016, with the company projecting that its operating profits would be down by 33% in comparison to the previous quarter. Credit Suisse analysts estimated that Samsung would lose at least US$17 billion in revenue from the production and recall of the Galaxy Note 7. The Note 7 had the shortest life span of any Samsung phone.

In July 2017, 9 months after the Note7 recall, Samsung released a refurbished version of the Galaxy Note 7 called Galaxy Note Fan Edition (marketed as Samsung Galaxy Note FE). It has a smaller battery of 3200 mAh and is supplied with Android Nougat with Samsung Experience UI, the operating system of the Galaxy S8. The successor to the Galaxy Note 7, the Galaxy Note 8, was announced on 23 August 2017 and released almost a month later.

Standard-dynamic-range video

Standard-dynamic-range video describes images/rendering/video using a conventional gamma curve, and therefore presenting a dynamic range that is considered standard, as opposed to high-dynamic-range video. The conventional gamma curve was based on the limits of the cathode ray tube (CRT) which allows for a maximum luminance of 100 cd/m2. The first CRT television sets were manufactured in 1934 and the first color CRT television sets were manufactured in 1954.

Thunderbolt (interface)

Thunderbolt is the brand name of a hardware interface standard developed by Intel (in collaboration with Apple) that allows the connection of external peripherals to a computer. Thunderbolt 1 and 2 use the same connector as Mini DisplayPort (MDP), whereas Thunderbolt 3 re-uses the Type-C connector from USB. It was initially developed and marketed under the name Light Peak, and first sold as part of a consumer product on 24 February 2011.Thunderbolt combines PCI Express (PCIe) and DisplayPort (DP) into two serial signals, and additionally provides DC power, all in one cable. Up to six peripherals may be supported by one connector through various topologies.

Xbox One

Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft. Announced in May 2013, it is the successor to Xbox 360 and the third console in the Xbox family. It was first released in North America, parts of Europe, Australia, and South America in November 2013, and in Japan, China, and other European countries in September 2014. It is the first Xbox game console to be released in China, specifically in the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone. Microsoft marketed the device as an "all-in-one entertainment system", hence the name 'Xbox One'. The Xbox One line mainly competes against consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 4 and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.

Moving away from its predecessor's PowerPC-based architecture, Xbox One marks a shift back to the x86 architecture used in the original Xbox; it features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built around the x86-64 instruction set. Xbox One's controller was redesigned over the Xbox 360's, with a redesigned body, D-pad and triggers capable of delivering directional haptic feedback. The console places an increased emphasis on cloud computing, as well as social networking features, and the ability to record and share video clips or screenshots from gameplay, or live-stream directly to streaming services such as Mixer and Twitch. Games can also be played off-console via a local area network on supported Windows 10 devices. The console can play Blu-ray Disc, and overlay live television programming from an existing set-top box or a digital tuner for digital terrestrial television with an enhanced program guide. The console optionally included a redesigned Kinect sensor, marketed as the "Kinect 2.0", providing improved motion tracking and voice recognition.

Xbox One received mostly positive reviews for its refined controller design, multimedia features, and voice navigation. Its quieter and cooler design was praised for making the console more reliable than its predecessor on-launch, but the console was generally criticized for running games at a technically lower graphical level than the PlayStation 4. Its original user interface was panned for being nonintuitive, although changes made to it and other aspects of the console's software post-launch received positive reception. Its Kinect received praise for its improved motion-tracking accuracy, its face recognition logins, and its voice commands.

The original Xbox One model was succeeded by Xbox One S in 2016, which has a smaller form factor and support for HDR10 high-dynamic-range video, as well as support for 4K video playback and upscaling of games from 1080p to 4K. It was praised for its smaller size, its on-screen visual improvements, and its lack of an external power supply, but its regressions such as the lack of a native Kinect port were noted. A high-end model, Xbox One X, was unveiled in June 2017 and released in November; it features upgraded hardware specifications, and support for rendering games at 4K resolution.

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