High-definition video

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 vertical lines (North America) or 576 vertical lines (Europe) is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is generally the minimum even though the majority of systems greatly exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal (60 frames/second North America, 50 fps Europe), by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts. Some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique which is often known as filmizing.


The first electronic scanning format, 405 lines, was the first "high definition" television system, since the mechanical systems it replaced had far fewer. From 1939, Europe and the US tried 605 and 441 lines until, in 1941, the FCC mandated 525 for the US. In wartime France, René Barthélemy tested higher resolutions, up to 1,042. In late 1949, official French transmissions finally began with 819. In 1984, however, this standard was abandoned for 625-line color on the TF1 network.


Modern HD specifications date to the early 1980s, when Japanese engineers developed the HighVision 1,125-line interlaced TV standard (also called MUSE) that ran at 60 frames per second. The Sony HDVS system was presented at an international meeting of television engineers in Algiers, April 1981 and Japan's NHK presented its analog HDTV system at a Swiss conference in 1983.

The NHK system was standardized in the United States as Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standard #240M in the early 1990s, but abandoned later on when it was replaced by a DVB analog standard. HighVision video is still usable for HDTV video interchange, but there is almost no modern equipment available to perform this function. Attempts at implementing HighVision as a 6 MHz broadcast channel were mostly unsuccessful. All attempts at using this format for terrestrial TV transmission were abandoned by the mid-1990s.

Europe developed HD-MAC (1,250 lines, 50 Hz), a member of the MAC family of hybrid analogue/digital video standards; however, it never took off as a terrestrial video transmission format. HD-MAC was never designated for video interchange except by the European Broadcasting Union.

The current high-definition video standards in North America were developed during the course of the advanced television process initiated by the Federal Communications Commission in 1987 at the request of American broadcasters. In essence, the end of the 1980s was a death knell for most analog high definition technologies that had developed up to that time.


The FCC process, led by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) adopted a range of standards from interlaced 1,080-line video (a technical descendant of the original analog NHK 1125/30 Hz system) with a maximum frame rate of 30 Hz, (60 fields per second) and 720-line video, progressively scanned, with a maximum frame rate of 60 Hz. In the end, however, the DVB standard of resolutions (1080, 720, 480) and respective frame rates (24, 25, 30) were adopted in conjunction with the Europeans that were also involved in the same standardization process. The FCC officially adopted the ATSC transmission standard (which included both HD and SD video standards) in 1996, with the first broadcasts on October 28, 1998.


In the early 2000s, it looked as if DVB would be the video standard far into the future. However, both Brazil and China have adopted alternative standards for high-definition video that preclude the interoperability that was hoped for after decades of largely non-interoperable analog TV broadcasting.

Technical details

Vector Video Standards2
This chart shows the most common display resolutions, with the color of each resolution type indicating the display ratio (e.g., red indicates a 4:3 ratio).

High definition video (prerecorded and broadcast) is defined threefold, by:

  • The number of lines in the vertical display resolution. High-definition television (HDTV) resolution is 1,080 or 720 lines. In contrast, regular digital television (DTV) is 480 lines (upon which NTSC is based, 480 visible scanlines out of 525) or 576 lines (upon which PAL/SECAM are based, 576 visible scanlines out of 625). However, since HD is broadcast digitally, its introduction sometimes coincides with the introduction of DTV. Additionally, current DVD quality is not high-definition, although the high-definition disc systems Blu-ray Disc and the HD DVD are.
  • The scanning system: progressive scanning (p) or interlaced scanning (i). Progressive scanning (p) redraws an image frame (all of its lines) when refreshing each image, for example 720p/1080p. Interlaced scanning (i) draws the image field every other line or "odd numbered" lines during the first image refresh operation, and then draws the remaining "even numbered" lines during a second refreshing, for example 1080i. Interlaced scanning yields image resolution if subject is not moving, but loses up to half of the resolution and suffers "combing" artifacts when subject is moving.
  • The number of frames or fields per second (Hz). In Europe more common (50 Hz) television broadcasting system and in USA (60 Hz). The 720p60 format is 1,280 × 720 pixels, progressive encoding with 60 frames per second (60 Hz). The 1080i50/1080i60 format is 1920 × 1080 pixels, interlaced encoding with 50/60 fields, (50/60 Hz) per second. Two interlaced fields formulate a single frame, because the two fields of one frame are temporally shifted. Frame pulldown and segmented frames are special techniques that allow transmitting full frames by means of interlaced video stream.

Often, the rate is inferred from the context, usually assumed to be either 50 Hz (Europe) or 60 Hz (USA), except for 1080p, which denotes 1080p24, 1080p25, and 1080p30, but also 1080p50 and 1080p60.

A frame or field rate can also be specified without a resolution. For example, 24p means 24 progressive scan frames per second and 50i means 25 progressive frames per second, consisting of 50 interlaced fields per second. Most HDTV systems support some standard resolutions and frame or field rates. The most common are noted below. High-definition signals require a high-definition television or computer monitor in order to be viewed. High-definition video has an aspect ratio of 16:9 (1.78:1). The aspect ratio of regular widescreen film shot today is typically 1.85:1 or 2.39:1 (sometimes traditionally quoted at 2.35:1). Standard-definition television (SDTV) has a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio, although in recent years many broadcasters have transmitted programs "squeezed" horizontally in 16:9 anamorphic format, in hopes that the viewer has a 16:9 set which stretches the image out to normal-looking proportions, or a set which "squishes" the image vertically to present a "letterbox" view of the image, again with correct proportions.

Common high-definition video modes

Video mode Frame size in pixels (W×H) Pixels per image1 Scanning type Frame rate (Hz)
720p (also known as HD Ready) 1,280×720 921,600 Progressive 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94, 60, 72
1080i (also known as Full HD) 1,920×1,080 2,073,600 Interlaced 25 (50 fields/s), 29.97 (59.94 fields/s), 30 (60 fields/s)
1080p (also known as Full HD) 1,920×1,080 2,073,600 Progressive 24 (23.976), 25, 30 (29.97), 50, 60 (59.94)
1440p (also known as Quad HD) 2,560×1,440 3,686,400 Progressive 24 (23.976), 25, 30 (29.97), 50, 60 (59.94)

Ultra high-definition video modes

Video mode Frame size in pixels (W×H) Pixels per image1 Scanning type Frame rate (Hz)
2000 2,048×1,536 3,145,728 Progressive 24, 60
2160p (also known as 4K UHD) 3,840×2,160 8,294,400 Progressive 60, 120
2540p 4,520×2,540 11,480,800 Progressive 24, 30
4000p 4,096×3,072 12,582,912 Progressive 24, 30, 60
4320p (also known as 8K UHD) 7,680×4,320 33,177,600 Progressive 60, 120

Note: 1 Image is either a frame or, in case of interlaced scanning, two fields. (EVEN and ODD)

Also, there are less common but still popular UltraWide resolutions, such as 2560×1080p (1080p UltraWide).

HD content

High-definition image sources include terrestrial broadcast, direct broadcast satellite, digital cable, high definition disc (BD), digital cameras, Internet downloads, and video game consoles.

  • Most computers are capable of HD or higher resolutions over VGA, DVI, HDMI and/or DisplayPort.
  • The optical disc standard Blu-ray Disc can provide enough digital storage to store hours of HD video content. Digital Versatile Discs or DVDs (that hold 4.7 GB for a Single layer or 8.5 GB for a Double layer), are not always up to the challenge of today's high-definition (HD) sets. Storing and playing HD movies requires a disc that holds more information, like a Blu-ray Disc (which hold 25 GB in single layer form and 50 GB for double layer) or the now defunct High Definition Digital Versatile Discs (HD DVDs) which held 15 GB or 30 GB in, respectively, single and double layer variations.

Blu-ray Discs were jointly developed by 9 initial partners including Sony and Phillips (which jointly developed CDs for audio), and Pioneer (which developed its own Laser-disc previously with some success) among others. HD-DVD discs were primarily developed by Toshiba and NEC with some backing from Microsoft, Warner Bros., Hewlett Packard, and others. On February 19, 2008 Toshiba announced it was abandoning the format and would discontinue development, marketing and manufacturing of HD-DVD players and drives.

Types of recorded media

The high resolution photographic film used for cinema projection is exposed at the rate of 24 frames per second but usually projected at 48, each frame getting projected twice helping to minimise flicker. One exception to this was the 1986 National Film Board of Canada short film Momentum, which briefly experimented with both filming and projecting at 48 frame/s, in a process known as IMAX HD.

Depending upon available bandwidth and the amount of detail and movement in the image, the optimum format for video transfer is either 720p24 or 1080p24. When shown on television in PAL system countries, film must be projected at the rate of 25 frames per second by accelerating it by 4.1 percent. In NTSC standard countries, the projection rate is 30 frames per second, using a technique called 3:2 pull-down. One film frame is held for three video fields (1/20 of a second), and the next is held for two video fields (1/30 of a second) and then the process is repeated, thus achieving the correct film projection rate with two film frames shown in 1/12 of a second.

Older (pre-HDTV) recordings on video tape such as Betacam SP are often either in the form 480i60 or 576i50. These may be upconverted to a higher resolution format, but removing the interlace to match the common 720p format may distort the picture or require filtering which actually reduces the resolution of the final output.

Non-cinematic HDTV video recordings are recorded in either the 720p or the 1080i format. The format used is set by the broadcaster (if for television broadcast). In general, 720p is more accurate with fast action, because it progressively scans frames, instead of the 1080i, which uses interlaced fields and thus might degrade the resolution of fast images.

720p is used more for Internet distribution of high-definition video, because computer monitors progressively scan; 720p video has lower storage-decoding requirements than either the 1080i or the 1080p. This is also the medium for high-definition broadcasts around the world and 1080p is used for Blu-ray movies.

HD in filmmaking

Film as a medium has inherent limitations, such as difficulty of viewing footage while recording, and suffers other problems, caused by poor film development/processing, or poor monitoring systems. Given that there is increasing use of computer-generated or computer-altered imagery in movies, and that editing picture sequences is often done digitally, some directors have shot their movies using the HD format via high-end digital video cameras. While the quality of HD video is very high compared to SD video, and offers improved signal/noise ratios against comparable sensitivity film, film remains able to resolve more image detail than current HD video formats. In addition some films have a wider dynamic range (ability to resolve extremes of dark and light areas in a scene) than even the best HD cameras. Thus the most persuasive arguments for the use of HD are currently cost savings on film stock and the ease of transfer to editing systems for special effects.

Depending on the year and format in which a movie was filmed, the exposed image can vary greatly in size. Sizes range from as big as 24 mm × 36 mm for VistaVision/Technirama 8 perforation cameras (same as 35 mm still photo film) going down through 18 mm × 24 mm for Silent Films or Full Frame 4 perforations cameras to as small as 9 mm × 21 mm in Academy Sound Aperture cameras modified for the Techniscope 2 perforation format. Movies are also produced using other film gauges, including 70 mm films (22 mm × 48 mm) or the rarely used 55 mm and CINERAMA.

The four major film formats provide pixel resolutions (calculated from pixels per millimeter) roughly as follows:

  • Academy Sound (Sound movies before 1955): 15 mm × 21 mm (1.375) = 2,160 × 2,970
  • Academy camera US Widescreen: 11 mm × 21 mm (1.85) = 1,605 × 2,970
  • Current Anamorphic Panavision ("Scope"): 17.5 mm × 21 mm (2.39) = 2,485 × 2,970
  • Super-35 for Anamorphic prints: 10 mm × 24 mm (2.39) = 1,420 × 3,390

In the process of making prints for exhibition, this negative is copied onto other film (negative → interpositive → internegative → print) causing the resolution to be reduced with each emulsion copying step and when the image passes through a lens (for example, on a projector). In many cases, the resolution can be reduced down to 1/6 of the original negative's resolution (or worse). Note that resolution values for 70 mm film are higher than those listed above.

HD on the World Wide Web/HD streaming

A number of online video streaming/on demand and digital download services offer HD video, among them YouTube, Vimeo, Hulu, Amazon Video On Demand, Netflix Watch Instantly, and others. Due to heavy compression, the image detail produced by these formats are far below that of broadcast HD, and often even inferior to DVD-Video (3-9 Mbit/s MP2) upscaled to the same image size.[1] The following is a chart of numerous online services and their HD offering:

World Wide Web HD resolutions

Source Codec Highest resolution (W×H) Total bit rate/bandwidth Video bit rate Audio bit rate
Amazon Video[note 1] VC-1[2] 1280×720[3] 2.5-6 Mbit/s
BBC iPlayer H.264[4] 1280×720[5][note 2] 3.2 Mbit/s[4] 3 Mbit/s[4] 192 kbit/s[4]
blinkbox 1280×720 2.25 Mbit/s (SD) and 4.5 Mbit/s (HD) 2.25 - 4.5 Mbit/s 192 kbit/s
Blockbuster Online 1280×720
CBS.com/TV.com 1920×1080[6] 3.5 Mbit/s and 2.5 Mbits (720p)[6]
DaCast VP6, H.264[7] Unknown 5 Mbit/s[8]
Hulu On2 Flash VP6[9] 1280×720[10] 2.5 Mbit/s[11]
iPlayerHD FLV, QuickTime H.264, MP4 H.264[12] 1920×1080[13] 2 Mbit/s and 5 Mbit/s[14]
iTunes/Apple TV QuickTime H.264[15] 1920×1080[15]
MetaCDN MPEG-4, FLV, OGG, WebM, 3GP[16] No Limit[17]
Netflix Watch Instantly VC-1[18] 3840×2160[19] 25 Mbit/s[20] 2.6 Mbit/s and 3.8 Mbit/s (1080p)[21]
PlayStationStore Movies & TV Shows H.264/MPEG-4 AVC[22] 1920×1080[22] 8 Mbit/s[22] 256 kbit/s[22]
StreamShark H.264, FLV, OGV, WebM, VP8, VP9[23] 1920×1080[24]
Vimeo H.264[25] 1920×1080[26] 4 Mbit/s[27] 320 kbit/s[28]
Vudu H.264[29] 1920×1080[30] 4.5 Mbit/s[31]
Xbox Video[note 3] 1920×1080[32]
YouTube H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, VP9 7680×4320
StreamHash Mp4[33] 1920×1080[34]
  1. ^ Formerly "Amazon Unbox", which now refers to a video player software, and later "Amazon Video on Demand".
  2. ^ During live events "BBC iPlayer" streams have a resolution of 1024×576.
  3. ^ Formerly "Xbox Live Marketplace Video Store", but replaced by "Xbox Video" in 2012.

HD in video surveillance

An increasing number of manufacturers of security cameras now offer HD cameras. The need for high resolution, color fidelity, and frame rate is acute for surveillance purposes to ensure that the quality of the video output is of an acceptable standard that can be used both for preventative surveillance as well as for evidence purposes. These needs, however, must be balanced against the additional storage capacity required by HD video.

HD in video gaming

Both the PlayStation 3 game console and Xbox 360 can output native 1080p through HDMI or component cables, but the systems have few games which appear in 1080p; most games only run natively at 720p or less, but can be upscaled to 1080p. The Wii can output up to 480p (enhanced-definition) over component, which while not HD, is very useful for HDTVs as it avoids de-interlacing artifacts. The Wii can also output 576i in PAL regions.

Visually, native 1080p produces a sharper and clearer picture compared to upscaled 1080p. Though only a handful of games available have the native resolution of 1080p, all games on the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 can be upscaled up to this resolution. Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 games are labeled with the output resolution on the back of their packaging, although on Xbox 360 this indicates the resolution it will upscale to, not the native resolution of the game.

Generally, PC games are only limited by the display's resolution size. Drivers are capable of supporting very high resolutions, depending on the chipset of the video card. Many game engines support resolutions of 5760×1080 or 5760×1200 (typically achieved with three 1080p displays in a multi-monitor setup) and nearly all will display 1080p at minimum. 1440p and 4K are typically supported resolutions for PC gaming as well.

Currently all consoles, Nintendo's Wii U and Nintendo Switch, Microsoft's Xbox One, and PlayStation 4 display games 1080p natively. The Nintendo Switch is an unusual case, due to its hybrid nature as both a home console and a handheld: the built-in screen displays games at 720p maximum, but the console can natively display imagery at 1080p when docked. PlayStation 4 is able to display in 4K, though strictly only for displaying pictures.

See also


  1. ^ "Why HD movie downloads are a big lie". Ziff-Davis. 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  2. ^ "Amazon.com -- News Release". Amazon.com. 2006-09-07. Retrieved 2009-10-16. ...using the ultra-efficient VC-1 Advanced Profile codec.
  3. ^ "Amazon.com: Help > Digital Products > Amazon Video On Demand". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2009-10-16. Our 2.5 Mbps HD files are streamed in high-quality 720p resolution.
  4. ^ a b c d "What do I need to know about HD on BBC iPlayer?". BBC. We use h.264 with a bitrate of 3.2Mbps and 192kbps audio
  5. ^ "What do I need to know about HD on BBC iPlayer?". BBC. In order to be classed as "true" high definition, we encode in at least 1280x720 resolution, or 720p.
  6. ^ a b "CBS.com - HD Video - System Requirements". CBS.com. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
  7. ^ "Streaming Service for Flash, RTMP, H.264 & VP6". DaCast. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  8. ^ "Live Streaming Service". DaCast. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  9. ^ "Hulu - About". Hulu. Retrieved 2009-10-16. Hulu videos are streamed as Flash video files (FLV files). These files are encoded using the On2 Flash VP6 codec...
  10. ^ "Hulu - About". Hulu. Retrieved 2009-10-16. HD videos on Hulu are streamed at 1280 x 720 resolution.
  11. ^ "Hulu - About". Hulu. Retrieved 2009-10-16. Hulu currently supports four different streams including 480kbps, 700kbps, 1,000kbps (an H.264 encode that is not on On2 VP6) and 2.5Mbps.
  12. ^ "Learn More About iPlayerHD". iPlayerHD.com. Retrieved 2009-12-16. We support FLV and H264 as MOV and MP4.
  13. ^ "Learn More About iPlayerHD". iPlayerHD.com. Retrieved 2009-12-16. iPlayerHD will deliver video at any resolution including SD 720 x 480, and HD 480, 720 and 1080.
  14. ^ "Learn More About iPlayerHD". iPlayerHD.com. Retrieved 2009-12-16. Your video will be delivered at bit-rates up to 5,000 kbps or 5 mbps.
  15. ^ a b "Video quality reference table from best to worst".
  16. ^ "MetaCDN Technical Specs". MetaCDN. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  17. ^ "Live Streaming Service". MetaCDN. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  18. ^ Hunt, Neil (2008-11-06). "The Official Netflix Blog: Encoding for streaming". Netflix. Retrieved 2009-10-16. ...but settled on second-generation HD encodes with VC1AP
  19. ^ "You Can Now Stream 4K Netflix on Windows 10". MakeUseOf. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  20. ^ "Internet Connection Speed Recommendations". Help Center. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  21. ^ Hunt, Neil (2008-11-06). "The Official Netflix Blog: Encoding for streaming". Netflix. Retrieved 2009-10-16. second-generation HD encodes ... at 2600kbps and 3800kbps
  22. ^ a b c d Dipert, Brian (2008-07-17). "Online Video Content Distribution: Sony's PlayStation 3 Enters The Ring (Albeit With A Sound-Hampered Hand Tied Behind Its Back)". EDN. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
  23. ^ "StreamShark Technical Specifications". StreamShark. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  24. ^ "Live Streaming Service". StreamShark. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  25. ^ "Vimeo - Compression guidelines on Vimeo". Vimeo. Retrieved 2009-10-16. For best results, we recommend using H.264 (sometimes referred to as MP4) for the video codec and AAC (short for Advanced Audio Codec) for the audio codec.
  26. ^ "Vimeo - Compression guidelines on Vimeo". Vimeo. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 640x480 for standard definition 4:3 video, 853x480 for widescreen DV, or 1920x1080 for high definition.
  27. ^ "Vimeo - Compression guidelines on Vimeo". Vimeo. Retrieved 2009-10-16. Use 2000 kbits/sec for standard definition 4:3 video, 3000 kbits/sec for widescreen DV, or 5000 kbits/sec for high definition footage.
  28. ^ "Vimeo - Compression guidelines on Vimeo". Vimeo. Retrieved 2009-10-16. You'll want to set the bit rate to 320 kbps and the sample rate to 44.100 kHz.
  29. ^ Sturgeon, Shane (2008-02-21). "Showdown: Apple TV vs. VUDU". HDTV Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-05-12. Retrieved 2009-11-05. ...all HD content is ... encoded with H.264 High Profile
  30. ^ "Streaming Requirements". Vudu. Retrieved 2010-02-09. HDX (1080p)
  31. ^ "Streaming Requirements". Vudu. Retrieved 2010-02-09. HDX (1080p) requires 4500 kbps
  32. ^ "XBox Video". Microsoft. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  33. ^ "StreamHash Version". StreamHash. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  34. ^ "Video Streaming Software". StreamHash. Retrieved 2017-01-02.

Further reading

External links


1080i (also known as Full HD or BT.709) is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen. The "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced"; this indicates that only the odd lines, then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn alternately, so that only half the number of actual image frames are used to produce video. A related display resolution is 1080p, which also has 1080 lines of resolution; the "p" refers to progressive scan, which indicates that the lines of resolution for each frame are "drawn" in on the screen sequence.

The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 (a rectangular TV that is wider than it is tall), so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels (2.1 million pixels) and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard.

The choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats.

Avid DNxHD

Avid DNxHD ("Digital Nonlinear Extensible High Definition") is a lossy high-definition video post-production codec developed by Avid for multi-generation compositing with reduced storage and bandwidth requirements. It is an implementation of SMPTE VC-3 standard.

Bink Video

Bink Video is a proprietary file format (extensions .bik and .bk2) for video developed by RAD Game Tools.

The format includes its own proprietary video and audio compression algorithms (video and audio codecs) supporting resolutions from 320×240 all the way up to high definition video.

It is bundled as part of the RAD Video Tools along with RAD Game Tools' previous video codec, Smacker video. It is a hybrid block-transform and wavelet codec capable of using 16 different encoding techniques allowing it to compress any type of video. The codec places emphasis on lower decoding requirements over other video codecs with specific optimizations for the different computer game consoles it supports.

It has been primarily used for full-motion video sequences in video games, and has been used in games for Windows, Mac OS, Xbox 360, Xbox, GameCube, Wii, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 2, Dreamcast, Nintendo DS, and PSP.The format was reverse-engineered by the FFmpeg project and Bink decoding is supported by the open-source libavcodec library.Bink 2, a new version of the format, was released in 2013. This new format is available for Windows (standard, Windows 8 Store and Windows 8 Phone), Mac OS, Linux, Sony PlayStation 4, PlayStation 3, and PS Vita, Xbox One, Xbox 360, Wii and Wii U, Nintendo Switch, Android and iOS. Bink 2 is faster than Bink 1, and supports higher resolutions as well.


Broadcast-safe video (broadcast legal or legal signal) is a term used in the broadcast industry to define video and audio compliant with the technical or regulatory broadcast requirements of the target area or region the feed might be broadcasting to. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the regulatory authority; in most of Europe, standards are set by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU).


DishHD is a high-definition direct-to-home (DTH) satellite television service in Asia. The DishHD channel lineup is sold in two packages (Standard and Premier). DishHD programming includes both high-definition video channels as well as premium audio channels. The DishHD Premier Package provides consumers with the best HD channel selection in Taiwan

DishHD is also the only TV service provider that offers the complete on-screen program guide and menu option in English version.

DishHD has over 400 dealers selling the DishHD service.DishHD is also sold in Mainland China by some Private sellers. The DishHD corporate office is located in Taipei, Taiwan.

Final Cut Express

Final Cut Express is a discontinued video editing software suite created by Apple Inc. It was the consumer version of Final Cut Pro and was designed for advanced editing of digital video as well as high-definition video, which was used by many amateur and professional videographers. Final Cut Express was considered a step above iMovie in terms of capabilities, but a step underneath Final Cut Pro and its suite of applications. As of June 21, 2011, Final Cut Express was discontinued, in favor of Final Cut Pro X.

General Exchange Format

General eXchange Format (GXF), is a file exchange format for the

transfer of simple and compound clips between television program storage systems. It is a container format that can contain Motion JPEG (M-JPEG), MPEG, or DV-based video compression standards, with associated audio, time code, and user data that may include user-defined metadata.

GXF was developed by Grass Valley Group, then standardized by SMPTE as SMPTE 360M, and was extended in SMPTE RDD 14-2007 to include high-definition video resolutions.

GXF has a fairly simple data model compared with SMPTE MXF container format since it should be used for file transfers and not as a storage format with no editing capabilities. SMPTE RDD 14-2007 is only 57 pages long, compared with many hundreds of pages for the MXF standards.


HDCAM, introduced in 1997, is a high-definition video digital recording videocassette version of digital Betacam, using an 8-bit discrete cosine transform (DCT) compressed 3:1:1 recording, in 1080i-compatible down-sampled resolution of 1440×1080, and adding 24p and 23.976 progressive segmented frame (PsF) modes to later models. The HDCAM codec uses rectangular pixels and as such the recorded 1440×1080 content is upsampled to 1920×1080 on playback. The recorded video bit rate is 144 Mbit/s. Audio is also similar, with four channels of AES3 20-bit, 48 kHz digital audio.

Like Betacam, HDCAM tapes are produced in small and large cassette sizes; the small cassette uses the same form factor as the original Betamax.

The main competitor to HDCAM is the DVCPRO HD format offered by Panasonic. It uses a similar compression scheme and bit rates ranging from 40 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s depending on frame rate.

HDCAM is standardized as SMPTE 367M, also known as SMPTE D-11.


iMovie is a video editing software application sold by Apple Inc. for the Mac and iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPad Mini and iPod Touch). It was originally released in 1999 as a Mac OS 8 application bundled with the first FireWire-enabled consumer Mac model – the iMac DV. Since version 3, iMovie has been a macOS-only application included with the iLife suite of Mac applications. Since 2003, iMovie is included free with all new Mac computers.

iMovie imports video footage to the Mac using either the FireWire interface on most MiniDV format digital video cameras or the computer's USB port. It can also import video and photo files from a hard drive. From there, the user can edit the photos and video clips and add titles, themes, music, and effects, including basic color correction and video enhancement tools and transitions such as fades and slides. iMovie is also available as an app for the iPhone.

Marco Brambilla

Marco Brambilla is a Milan-born, New York City-based video collage and installation artist, known for his elaborate recontextualizations of popular and found imagery, which Vanity Fair has called "critiques and masterpieces of visual overload."His work has been exhibited worldwide, including the Museum of Modern Art, Kunsthalle Bern, the Guggenheim Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the ARCO foundation, Madrid, and the New Museum of Contemporary Art.Brambilla brought his collision of collage to the mainstream with a one-minute music video for the Kanye West song, "Power" (2010), as well as collaborations with the likes of Ferrari.His video installations have been screened at Venice Film Festival (2011) and the Sundance Film Festival (2012), and in May 2011, Brambilla's first major retrospective opened at the Santa Monica Museum of Art.Transit, a collection of photographs Brambilla took in and around airports, was published by Booth-Clibborn Editions in 2000.Brambilla lives and works in New York City.

Musion Eyeliner

The Musion Eyeliner is a proprietary high definition video projection system that allows moving images to appear within a live stage setting. The system is patented. The Musion eyeliner was invented by Uwe Maass the owner of the original patent.

Nikon D3100

The Nikon D3100 is a 14.2-megapixel DX format DSLR Nikon F-mount camera announced by Nikon on August 19, 2010. It replaced the D3000 as Nikon's entry level DSLR. It introduced Nikon's new EXPEED 2 image processor and was the first Nikon DSLR featuring full high-definition video recording with full-time autofocus and H.264 compression, instead of Motion JPEG compression. It was also the first Nikon DSLR to provide high-definition video recording at more than one frame rate.Use is assisted by two Guide Modes: Easy Operation and Advanced Operation tutorial. On April 19, 2012, the D3200 superseded the D3100 as Nikon's entry-level DSLR.

Outdoor Channel

Outdoor Channel is an American pay television channel focused on the outdoors, offering programming that includes hunting, fishing, Western lifestyle, off-road motorsports and adventure. The network can be viewed on multiple platforms including high definition, video on demand as well as on its own website. In 2013, Outdoor Channel was acquired by Kroenke Sports Enterprises.As of February 2015, Outdoor Channel is available to approximately 35.8 million pay television households (30.8% of households with television) in the United States. In December 2013, the Outdoor Channel was planned to relocate to Colorado from its current location of Temecula, California, supported by Colorado Economic Development Commission.In March 2019, the channel became available in Australia via the ad-supported streaming service 7plus.


Pixlet is a video codec created by Apple and based on wavelets, designed to enable viewing of full-resolution, HD movies in real time at low DV data rates. According to Apple's claims, it allows for a 20–25:1 compression ratio. Similar to DV, it does not use interframe compression, making it suitable for previewing in production and special effects studios. It is designed to be an editing codec; however, low bitrates make it poorly suited to broadcast use.

The name Pixlet is a contraction of 'Pixar wavelet'. When it was introduced by Steve Jobs at Worldwide Developers Conference 2003, it was said that the codec was developed at the request of animation company Pixar.

A Power Macintosh with at least a 1 GHz PowerPC G4 processor is required for real-time playback of half-resolution high-definition video (960x540).

Pixlet, while part of the cross-platform QuickTime, is only available on Macs running Mac OS X v10.3 or later. QuickTime X cannot decode Pixlet files.

FFmpeg version 3.3 and later can decode Pixlet files. On March 21, 2019, Apple announced that Pixlet is among the codecs that will no longer be supported in its own software after the successor to macOS Mojave is released, due to the transition to 64-bit-only software. In the same announcement, Apple noted that third-party developers could maintain support by building support directly into their apps.


SMPTE 274M is a standard published by SMPTE which defines the 1080 line high definition video formats including 1080p25 and 1080p30. It is frequently carried on serial digital interface physical cables defined by the SMPTE 292M standard.


SMPTE 296M is a standard published by SMPTE which defines the 720 line high definition video formats including 720p50 and 720p60. It is frequently carried on serial digital interface physical cables defined by the SMPTE 292M standard.

Williams Stadium

Arthur L. Williams Stadium is a 25,000 seat football stadium located on the campus of Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia, USA. The stadium was built in 1989 and plays host to Liberty Flames football, which is a part of the NCAA Division I - Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). A new field house has recently been constructed at the north end of the stadium. This new facility houses a new home locker room, coaches offices, meeting rooms and training facility as well as a 16,000-square-foot (1,500 m2) weight room. In the 2009 off season, Liberty University added a video scoreboard on the north end of the field. The video scoreboard measured 20 feet (6 m) tall and 36 feet (11 m) wide. This video board was replaced by a massive new high-definition video board in time for the 2018 football season.

In September 2011, a ribbon video board was added to the facade of the upper deck. This too was replaced by a state of the art ribbon video board on both the eastern and western facades of the upper deck in 2018.

The stadium was named in 1994 to honor Arthur L. Williams, Jr. who was a major contributor to the University.

High-definition (HD)
Analog broadcast
(All defunct)
Digital broadcast
Filming and storage
HD media and
Video recorded to film

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.