|High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding|
|Filename extensions||MPEG/3GPP Container
ADTS Stream - NOT raw - Contains Headers
|Internet media type|
|Type of format||Audio compression format|
|Contained by||MPEG-4 Part 14, 3GP and 3G2, ISO base media file format, Audio Data Interchange Format (ADIF), Audio Data Transport Stream (ADTS)|
High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding (HE-AAC) is an audio coding format for lossy data compression of digital audio defined as an MPEG-4 Audio profile in ISO/IEC 14496-3. It is an extension of Low Complexity AAC (AAC LC) optimized for low-bitrate applications such as streaming audio. HE-AAC version 1 profile (HE-AAC v1) uses spectral band replication (SBR) to enhance the compression efficiency in the frequency domain. HE-AAC version 2 profile (HE-AAC v2) couples SBR with Parametric Stereo (PS) to enhance the compression efficiency of stereo signals. It is a standardized and improved version of the AACplus codec.
The progenitor of HE-AAC was developed by Coding Technologies under the trade name CT-aacPlus. CT-aacPlus combined MPEG-2 AAC LC with the Coding Technologies invented spectral band replication (SBR). CT-aacPlus is the codec used by XM Radio for their satellite radio service. Subsequently, Coding Technologies submitted their SBR to MPEG as a basis of HE-AAC.
HE-AAC version 1 was standardized as a profile of MPEG-4 Audio in 2003 by MPEG and published as part of MPEG-4 in document ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd 1:2003. The HE-AAC version 2 profile was standardized in 2006 as ISO/IEC 14496-3:2005/Amd 2:2006. A parametric stereo coding tool used in HE-AAC v2 was standardized in 2004 by MPEG and published in document ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd 2:2004.
HE-AAC version 2 was also standardized under the name Enhanced aacPlus by 3GPP for 3G UMTS multimedia services in September 2004 (3GPP TS 26.401). It is based on the AAC LC, SBR and Parametric Stereo coding tools defined in the MPEG-4 Audio standard (and it refers to ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd.1:2003 - Bandwidth Extension, ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd.2:2004 - Parametric Coding for High Quality Audio, ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001 and ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd.1:2003/DCOR1). In addition it includes further tools such as error concealment, spline resampler, and stereo-to-mono downmix. It was also published by ETSI as TS 126 401 V6.1.0 in December 2004.
Prior to the standardization of HE AAC v2 by MPEG, Coding Technologies submitted the combination of HE-AAC v1 coupled with Parametric Stereo under the name Enhanced AAC+. As a result, aacPlus v2 and eAAC+ are now common trade names that refer to HE-AAC v2. AAC+ and aacPlus are common trade names that refer to HE-AAC v1.
Testing indicates that material decoded from 64 kbit/s HE-AAC does not yet have similar audio quality to material decoded from MP3 at 128 kbit/s using high quality encoders. The test, taking bitrate distribution and RMSD into account, is a tie between mp3PRO, HE AAC and Ogg Vorbis.
Further controlled testing by 3GPP during their revision 6 specification process indicates that HE-AAC and its derivative MPEG-4 HE-AAC v2 provide "Good" audio quality for music at low bit rates (e.g., 24 kbit/s).
A 2011 Public Listening Test compared the two best-rated HE AAC encoders at that time to Opus and Ogg Vorbis, indicated statistically significant superiority at 64 kbit/s for Opus over all other contenders, and second ranked Apple HE AAC statistically superior to both Ogg Vorbis and Nero HE AAC which were tied for third place.
MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 AAC LC decoders without SBR support will decode the AAC LC part of the audio, resulting in audio output with only half the sampling frequency, thereby reducing the audio bandwidth. This usually results in the high-end, or treble, portion of the audio signal missing from the audio product.
Orban Opticodec-PC Streaming and File Encoders were the first commercially available encoders supporting AAC-LC/HE-AAC back in 2003. They are now deprecated and replaced with StreamS Encoders from StreamS/Modulation Index with many more features, including support xHE-AAC/Unified Speech and Audio Coding. They are now in use at some of the largest content providers, and are considered to be the standard of the industry for live encoding.
Sony supports HE-AAC encoding since SonicStage version 4.
XLD, an OS X audio encoding program, offers encoding from any of its supported formats to HE-AAC.
Nokia PC Suite may encode audiofiles to eAAC+ format before transmitting them to mobile phone.
HE-AAC is supported in the open source FAAD/FAAD2 decoding library and all players incorporating it, such as VLC media player, Winamp, foobar2000, Audacious Media Player, SonicStage and Die Plattenkiste.
The Nero AAC Codec supports decoding HE and HEv2 AAC.
iTunes 9.2 and iOS 4 include full decoding of HE-AAC v2 parametric stereo streams.
Dolby released Dolby Pulse decoders and encoders in September 2008. HE-AAC v2 is the core of Dolby Pulse so files and streams encoded in Dolby Pulse will playback on AAC, HE-AAC v1 and v2 decoders. Conversely files and streams encoded in AAC, HE-AAC v1 or v2 will playback on Dolby Pulse decoders.
Dolby Pulse provides the following additional capabilities beyond HE-AAC v2:
Dolby has additionally released a PC decoder as an SDK suitable for integration into PC applications requiring Dolby Pulse, HE-AAC or AAC playback capabilities.
|AIMP||Windows||A Winamp-like alternative music player.|
|Adobe Flash Player||Windows, OS X, Chrome OS, Linux||Browser plug-in. Supports AAC+ from any RTMP source.|
|Amarok (software)||Windows, Linux||Open-source music player.|
|Audacious Media Player||Windows, Linux||Open-source music player.|
|Deadbeef||Linux, Android||Open-source music player.|
|Die Plattenkiste||Windows||Freeware internet radio application (in German).|
|foobar2000||Windows||Freeware music player.|
|FStream||OS X, iOS||Internet radio application.|
|GuguRadio||iOS||Internet radio application.|
|Internet Radio Player||Android||Internet radio player.|
|Internet Radio Box||iOS||Internet radio application.|
|iTunes||Windows, OS X||Freeware music player. Pre-installed on Mac computers.|
|JetAudio||Windows, Android||Shareware media player.|
|MediaHuman Audio Converter||Windows, OS X||Freeware audio converter.|
(Supports conversion of MP3, AAC, AIFF, WAV etc.)
|MPlayer||Windows, OS X and Linux||Open-source media player.|
|Mpv (media player)||Windows, OS X and Linux||Open-source media player.|
|QuickTime X||OS X||Media player pre-installed on OS X Snow Leopard or later.|
|RealPlayer||Windows, OS X, Linux, Android||Freemium media player. |
(HE-AAC v2 will only play in mono)
|Rhythmbox||Linux||Open-source music player.|
|Snowtape||OS X||Shareware internet radio application.|
|streamWriter||Windows||Open-source internet radio application.|
|StreamS HiFi Radio||iOS||Paidware internet radio player.|
|Tunein radio||iOS, Android, Windows Phone, Blackberry||Internet radio player.|
|VLC media player||Windows, OS X, Linux, iOS, Android||Open-source media player.|
|Winamp||Windows, OS X, Android||Freeware media player.|
|XiiaLive||Android, iOS||Internet radio player.|
|Kodi||Windows, Linux, OS X, Android||Open-source media player.|
|Media Player Classic||Windows||Open-source media player|
HE-AAC is marketed under the trademark aacPlus by Coding Technologies and under the trademark Nero Digital by Nero AG. Sony Ericsson, Nokia and Samsung use AAC+ to label support for HE AAC v1 and eAAC+ to label support for HE-AAC v2 on their phones. Motorola uses AAC+ to indicate HE AAC v1 and "AAC+ Enhanced" to indicate HE AAC v2.
Patent licenses are required for end-product companies that make hardware or software products that include HE AAC encoders and/or decoders. Unlike the MP3 format before April 23, 2017, content owners are not required to pay license fees to distribute content in HE AAC.
HE-AAC profile was first standardized in ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd 1:2003. HE-AAC v2 profile (HE-AAC with Parametric Stereo) was first specified in ISO/IEC 14496-3:2005/Amd 2:2006. The Parametric Stereo coding tool used by HE-AAC v2 was standardized in 2004 and published as ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd 2:2004.
The current version of the MPEG-4 Audio (including HE-AAC standards) is published in ISO/IEC 14496-3:2009.
Enhanced aacPlus is required audio compression format in 3GPP technical specifications for 3G UMTS multimedia services and should be supported in IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) and Transparent end-to-end Packet-switched Streaming Service (PSS). HE-AAC version 2 was standardized under the name Enhanced aacPlus by 3GPP for 3G UMTS multimedia services in September 2004 (3GPP TS 26.401).
HE-AAC and HE-AAC v2 audio coding for DVB applications is standardized by TS 101 154. AacPlus v2 by Coding Technologies is also standardized by the ETSI as TS 102 005 for Satellite services to Handheld devices (DVB-SH) below 3 GHz.
In December 2007, Brazil started broadcasting terrestrial DTV standard called International ISDB-Tb that implements video coding H.264 with audio AAC LC on main program (single or multi) and video H.264 with audio HE-AACv2 in the 1Seg mobile sub-program.
The following is the summary of the different versions of HE-AAC:
|Version||Common trade names||Codec feature||Standards|
|HE-AAC v1||aacPlus v1, eAAC, AAC+, CT-aacPlus||AAC LC + SBR||ISO/IEC 14496-3:2001/Amd 1:2003|
|HE-AAC v2||aacPlus v2, eAAC+, AAC++, Enhanced AAC+||AAC LC + SBR + PS||ISO/IEC 14496-3:2005/Amd 2:2006|
|xHE-AAC||aacPlus v2, eAAC+, AAC++, Enhanced AAC+||AAC LC + SBR + PS + USAC||ISO/IEC 23003-3:2012/Amd 2:2012|
|title=at position 1 (help)
ATSC-M/H (Advanced Television Systems Committee - Mobile/Handheld) is a U.S. standard for mobile digital TV that allows TV broadcasts to be received by mobile devices.ATSC-M/H is a mobile TV extension to preexisting terrestrial TV broadcasting standard ATSC A/53. It corresponds to the European DVB-H and 1seg extensions of DVB-T and ISDB-T terrestrial digital TV standards respectively. ATSC is optimized for a fixed reception in the typical North American environment and uses 8VSB modulation. The ATSC transmission method is not robust enough against Doppler shift and multipath radio interference in mobile environments, and is designed for highly directional fixed antennas. To overcome these issues, additional channel coding mechanisms are introduced in ATSC-M/H to protect the signal.Digital Radio Mondiale
Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM; mondiale being Italian and French for "worldwide") is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for analogue radio broadcasting including AM broadcasting, particularly shortwave, and FM broadcasting. DRM is more spectrally efficient than AM and FM, allowing more stations, at higher quality, into a given amount of bandwidth, using various MPEG-4 audio coding formats.
Digital Radio Mondiale is also the name of the international non-profit consortium that has designed the platform and is now promoting its introduction. Radio France Internationale, TéléDiffusion de France, BBC World Service, Deutsche Welle, Voice of America, Telefunken (now Transradio) and Thomcast (now Ampegon) took part at the formation of the DRM consortium.
The principle of DRM is that bandwidth is the limited element, and computer processing power is cheap; modern CPU-intensive audio compression techniques enable more efficient use of available bandwidth, at the expense of processing resources.Digital radio in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, the roll-out of digital radio is proceeding since engineering test transmissions were started by the BBC in 1990 followed by a public launch in September 1995. The UK currently has the world's biggest digital radio network, with 103 transmitters, three national DAB ensembles and 48 local and regional DAB ensembles broadcasting over 250 commercial and 34 BBC radio stations across the UK. In the capital, London there are already more than 64 different digital stations available. In addition to DAB and DAB+, radio stations are also broadcast on digital television platform as well as internet radio in the UK. Digital radio ensemble operators and stations need a broadcasting licence from the UK's media regulator Ofcom to broadcast.
In the long term there will be a switchover from analogue to digital radio when the AM and FM services will cease. The government has set criteria on the coverage and proportion of digital listening before this occurs. In 2018 the criteria of over 50% of digital radio listening was met which will now require the UK Government to review digital radio in view of a potential switchover. In the same year, the BBC stated it would keep some FM radio for the foreseeable future.Digital radio in the United Kingdom is being promoted by radio stations and the broadcasting industry on the premise that it provides superior quality sound over AM, a wider choice of radio stations, is easier to use, and is resistant to the interference which other broadcast media are susceptible to. On the other hand, critics say that coverage is not yet sufficient and the quality can be less than that of FM.
In the UK, 50.9% of all radio listening hours by the first quarter of 2018 were through digital platforms, with DAB making up for the majority of digital radio listening (72.3%), and 63.7% of UK households claim to have access to a DAB radio set. However in the second quarter, digital listening had dropped back to 50.2%FAAC
FAAC or Freeware Advanced Audio Coder is a software project which includes the AAC encoder FAAC and decoder FAAD2. It supports MPEG-2 AAC as well as MPEG-4 AAC. It supports several MPEG-4 Audio object types (LC, Main, LTP for encoding and SBR, PS, ER, LD for decoding), file formats (ADTS AAC, raw AAC, MP4), multichannel and gapless encoding/decoding and MP4 metadata tags. The encoder and decoder is compatible with standard-compliant audio applications using one or more of these object types and facilities. It also supports Digital Radio Mondiale.FAAC and FAAD2, being distributed in C source code form, can be compiled on various platforms and are distributed free of charge. FAAD2 is free software. FAAC contains some code which is published as Free Software, but as a whole it is only distributed under a proprietary license.
FAAC was originally written by Menno Bakker.MPEG-4 Part 3
MPEG-4 Part 3 or MPEG-4 Audio (formally ISO/IEC 14496-3) is the third part of the ISO/IEC MPEG-4 international standard developed by Moving Picture Experts Group. It specifies audio coding methods. The first version of ISO/IEC 14496-3 was published in 1999.The MPEG-4 Part 3 consists of a variety of audio coding technologies – from lossy speech coding (HVXC, CELP), general audio coding (AAC, TwinVQ, BSAC), lossless audio compression (MPEG-4 SLS, Audio Lossless Coding, MPEG-4 DST), a Text-To-Speech Interface (TTSI), Structured Audio (using SAOL, SASL, MIDI) and many additional audio synthesis and coding techniques.MPEG-4 Audio does not target a single application such as real-time telephony or high-quality audio compression. It applies to every application which requires the use of advanced sound compression, synthesis, manipulation, or playback.
MPEG-4 Audio is a new type of audio standard that integrates numerous different types of audio coding: natural sound and synthetic sound, low bitrate delivery and high-quality delivery, speech and music, complex soundtracks and simple ones, traditional content and interactive content.MediaHuman Audio Converter
MediaHuman Audio Converter is a freeware audio conversion utility developed by MediaHuman Ltd.. The program is used to convert across different audio formats, split lossless audio files using CUE and extract audio from video files. The app can be run on Mac
starting from OS X 10.6 and on Windows XP and higher.
This software does not support CD burning and CD ripping.SHOUTcast
SHOUTcast DNAS is cross-platform proprietary software for streaming media over the Internet. The software, developed by Nullsoft, is available free of charge. It allows digital audio content, primarily in MP3 or High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding format, to be broadcast to and from media player software, enabling the creation of Internet radio "stations".
The most common use of SHOUTcast is for creating or listening to Internet audio broadcasts; however, video streams exist as well. Some traditional radio stations use SHOUTcast to extend their presence onto the Web.
SHOUTcast Radio is a related website which provides a directory of SHOUTcast stations.
See Compression methods for techniques and Compression software for codecs