Hibiscus[2][3] is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large, comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are renowned for their large, showy flowers and those species are commonly known simply as "hibiscus", or less widely known as rose mallow. Other names include hardy hibiscus, rose of sharon, and tropical hibiscus.

The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. The generic name is derived from the Greek name ἰβίσκος (hibiskos) which Pedanius Dioscorides gave to Althaea officinalis (c. 40–90 AD).[4][5]

Several species are widely cultivated as ornamental plants, notably Hibiscus syriacus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.[6]

A tea made from hibiscus flowers is known by many names around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is known for its red colour, tart flavour, and vitamin C content.

Hibiscus flower TZ
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Hibisceae
Genus: Hibiscus

679 species

  • Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
  • Bombycodendron Hassk.
  • Brockmania W.Fitzg.
  • Pariti Adans.
  • Wilhelminia Hochr.


The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petals, colour from white to pink, red, orange, peach,[7] yellow or purple,[8] and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower colour in certain species, such as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[9] The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of red and white colours. It is an example of complete flowers.

Hibiscus Flower's Life Cycle Stages
Stages in the life-cycle of a flower


Bunga raya belum kembang
Hujung bunga raya merah

In temperate zones, probably the most commonly grown ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the common garden hibiscus, also known in some areas as the "rose of Althea" or "rose of Sharon" (but not to be confused with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also called "rose of Sharon"). In tropical and subtropical areas, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its many showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus.

Several hundred species are known, including:

Formerly placed here


Hawaiian Flower
A white Hibiscus arnottianus in Hawaii
Hibiscus Madonna
(Giant) tropical Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Madonna'
Hibiscus lobatus (Lahan Jaswand) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 9075
Hibiscus lobatus

Symbolism and culture

The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and appears frequently in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India, often with the goddess and the flower merging in form. The hibiscus is used as an offering to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.

In the Philippines, the gumamela (local name for hibiscus) is used by children as part of a bubble-making pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed until the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles. Together with soap, hibiscus juices produce more bubbles.

The hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn behind the left ear, the woman is married or has a boyfriend. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or openly available for a relationship. The yellow hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower.

Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her first novel Purple Hibiscus after the delicate flower.

The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic material rot away.

As a national and state symbol

The hibiscus is a national symbol of Haiti,[23] and the national flower of nations including the Solomon Islands and Niue.[24] Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea,[25] and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia.[24] Hibiscus brackenridgei is the state flower of Hawaii.[26]


Many species are grown for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs, and are used to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.[27]

Hibiscus is a very hardy, versatile plant and in tropical conditions it can enhance the beauty of any garden. Being versatile it adapts itself easily to balcony gardens in crammed urban spaces and can be easily grown in pots as a creeper or even in hanging pots. It is a perennial and flowers through the year. As it comes in a variety of colors, it's a plant which can add vibrancy to any garden.

The only infestation that gardeners need to be vigilant about is mealybug. Mealybug infestations are easy to spot as it is clearly visible as a distinct white cottony infestation on buds, leaves or even stems. To protect the plant you need to trim away the infected part, spray with water, and apply an appropriate pesticide.


One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used in paper-making.

Rope and construction

The inner bark of the sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus), also called 'hau', is used in Polynesia for making rope, and the wood for making canoe floats. The ropes on the missionary ship Messenger of Peace were made of fibres from hibiscus trees.[28]


The tea made of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its red colour, tartness and unique flavour. Additionally, it is highly nutritious because of its vitamin C content.

It is known as bissap in West Africa, "Gul e Khatmi" in Urdu & Persian, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Central America (the flower being flor de jamaica) and Orhul in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a common name for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and many other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is known as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa; not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the common name sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is known as soobolo in one of the local languages.

In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be prepared by first steeping the petals in hot water until the colors are leached from the petals, then adding lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/red to a bright red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally cold water/ice cubes.

In the Arab world, hibiscus tea is known as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as both a hot and a cold drink.


Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and used as a garnish, usually for desserts.[29]

The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is noted in Visayas in the Philippines as being a souring ingredient for almost all local vegetables and menus. Known as labog in the Visayan area, (or labuag/sapinit in Tagalog), the species is an ingredient in cooking native chicken soup.

Hibiscus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.

Reddish-yellow hibiscus cultivar

Folk medicine

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is described as having a number of medical uses in Indian Ayurveda.[30]

Claimed effects on blood pressure

It has been claimed that sour teas derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa may lower blood pressure.[31][32]

Precautions and contraindications

Pregnancy and lactation

While the mechanism is not well understood, previous animal studies have demonstrated both an inhibitory effect of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively.[8][33] The extract of H. sabdariffa has been shown to stimulate contraction of the rat bladder and uterus;[8] the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive effects in the form of estrogen activity in rats.[33] These findings have not been observed in humans. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also thought to have emmenagogue effects which can stimulate menstruation and, in some women, cause an abortion.[34][35][36] Due to the documented adverse effects in animal studies and the reported pharmacological properties, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not recommended for use during pregnancy.[36]

Hybiscus (2573113226)
Yellow hibiscus cultivar

Drug interactions

It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was found to reduce the excretion of diclofenac upon co-administration.[37] Additionally, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a common Sudanese beverage, was found to reduce chloroquine bioavailability.[38] However, no statistically significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink.[39] Further studies are needed to demonstrate clinical significance.


  1. ^ "Genus: Hibiscus L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  3. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  4. ^ Lawton, Barbara Perry (2004). Hibiscus: Hardy and Tropical Plants for the Garden. Timber Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-88192-6545.
  5. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ἰβίσκος
  6. ^ Brickell, Christopher, ed. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 534. ISBN 9781405332965.
  7. ^ "Hibiscus (National Gardening Association)". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  8. ^ a b c A.M.Fouda, M.Y.Daba & G.M. Dahab. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa on contractility of the rat bladder and uterus. Can.J.Physiol.Pharmacol. 85:1020-1031. (2007)
  9. ^ Lee, David Webster (2007). Nature's Palette: the Science of Plant Color. University of Chicago Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-226-47052-8.
  10. ^ "Hibiscus abelmoschus L. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  11. ^ "Hibiscus abelmoschus var. betulifolius Mast. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  12. ^ "Hibiscus abelmoschus var. genuinus Hochr. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  13. ^ "Hibiscus abutiloides Willd. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  14. ^ "Hibiscus abyssinicus Steud. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  15. ^ "Hibiscus acapulcensis Fryxell — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  16. ^ "Hibiscus acerifolius Salisb. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  17. ^ "Hibiscus acerifolius DC. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  18. ^ "Hibiscus acetosaefolius DC. — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  19. ^ "Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern — The Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  20. ^ Bussmann, R. W.; Gilbreath, G. G.; Solio, J.; Lutura, M.; Lutuluo, R.; Kunguru, K.; Wood, N.; Mathenge, S. G. (2006). "Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2: 22. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-22. PMC 1475560. PMID 16674830.
  21. ^ Hibiscus taiwanensis
  22. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Hibiscus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2014-09-16. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
  23. ^ "National Symbols". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  24. ^ a b Minahan, James (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-31334-497-8.
  25. ^ Service (KOCIS), Korean Culture and Information. "What you didn't know about Korea's national flower : Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea". www.korea.net.
  26. ^ "Hawaii State Flower - Yellow Hibiscus". statesymbolsusa.org.
  27. ^ "Floridata Master Plant List". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  28. ^ "Missionary Ships". Shipping Wonders of the World (Part 51). 26 January 1937. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  29. ^ "Page not found". Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  30. ^ Plants for a Future: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. (accessed 07/05/2009)
  31. ^ Haji Faraji, M.; Haji Tarkhani, A.H (1999). "The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 65 (3): 231–236. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00157-3.
  32. ^ Da-Costa-Rocha, Inês; Bonnlaender, Bernd; Sievers, Hartwig; Pischel, Ivo; Heinrich, Michael (2014). "Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – A phytochemical and pharmacological review". Food Chemistry. 165: 424–443. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.002. PMID 25038696.
  33. ^ a b N.Vasudeva & S.K.Sharma. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.roots. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 5(1): 91-94. (2008)
  34. ^ H.J.de Boer & C.Cotingting. Medicinal plants for women’s healthcare in Southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 151(2): 747-767. (2014)
  35. ^ Ali BH, Al Wabel N & Blunden G. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother Res.19(5): 369-375.(2005)
  36. ^ a b E.Ernst. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 109: 227-235. (2002)
  37. ^ T.O. Fakeye et al. Effects of Water Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) ‘Roselle’ on Excretion of a Diclofenac Formulation. Phytotherapy Research. 21: 96-98 (2007)
  38. ^ B.M. Mahmoud et al. Significant reduction in chloroquine bioavailability following coadministration with the Sudanese beverages Aradaib, Karkadi and Lemon. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 33: 1005–1009 (1994)
  39. ^ J.A.Kolawole & A.Maduenyi. Effect of Zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 29(1): 25-29. (2004)

External links

Abelmoschus moschatus

Abelmoschus moschatus (Abelmosk, ambrette, annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, muskdana, musk mallow, musk okra, ornamental okra, rose mallow, tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okra) is an aromatic and medicinal plant in the family Malvaceae native to Asia and Australia.

Ambadi seed oil

Ambadi seed oil is extracted from seeds of the ambadi plant (Hibiscus cannabinus), also called kenaf. It is an annual or perennial plant in the Malvaceae family and related to the roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa). It is believed to be native to Asia (India to Malaysia) or Tropical Asia.

Apple Miyuki

Hibiscus Mii (ハイビスカスみぃ, Haibisukasu Mii) (born June 14, 1985) is a female professional wrestler, who currently works for Ryukyu Dragon Pro Wrestling. She is better known under her previous ring name Apple Miyuki (アップルみゆき, Appuru Miyuki), under which she worked mainly for the Kaientai Dojo and Osaka Pro Wrestling promotions.

HMS Sparham (M2731)

HMS Sparham was a Ham-class minesweeper of the Royal Navy.

Their names were all chosen from villages ending in -ham. The minesweeper was named after Sparham in Norfolk.

Hawaiian hibiscus

Hawaiian hibiscus are seven species of hibiscus native to Hawaii. The yellow hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower. Most commonly grown as ornamental plants in the Hawaiian Islands are the Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and its numerous hybrids, though the native Hibiscus arnottianus is occasionally planted.

The native plants in the genus Hibiscus in Hawaii are thought to have derived from four independent colonization events for the five endemic species (four closely related species plus the yellow-flowered species) and one each for the two indigenous species.

Hibiscus Coast Raiders

The Hibiscus Coast Raiders are a rugby league club based on the Hibiscus Coast, New Zealand. They compete in Auckland Rugby League's Fox Memorial competition and between 2000 and 2005 were also involved in the Bartercard Cup competition.

Hibiscus Town

Hibiscus Town (simplified Chinese: 芙蓉镇; traditional Chinese: 芙蓉鎮; pinyin: Fúróng zhèn) is a 1986 Chinese film directed by Xie Jin, based on a novel by the same name written by Gu Hua. The film, a melodrama, follows the life and travails of a young woman who lives through the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution and as such is an example of the "scar drama" genre that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s that detailed life during that period. The film was produced by the Shanghai Film Studio.

The film won Best Film for 1987 Golden Rooster Awards and Hundred Flowers Awards, as well as Best Actress awards for Liu Xiaoqing at both ceremonies. It was also selected as the Chinese entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 60th Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee.The village in Hunan province where the film was made, was initially known as Wang Village (王村; pinyin: Wáng cūn). In 2007, the village was renamed Furong zhen (芙蓉镇) owing to this film.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known colloquially as Chinese hibiscus, China rose, Hawaiian hibiscus, rose mallow and shoeblackplant, is a species of tropical hibiscus, a flowering plant in the Hibisceae tribe of the family Malvaceae. It is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, but is not known in the wild, so that its native distribution is uncertain. An origin in some part of tropical Asia is likely.

A shrub from the Malvaceae family that is native to East Asia, it is widely grown as an ornamental plant in the tropics and subtropics.

Hibiscus syriacus

Hibiscus syriacus is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is native to south-central and southeast China, but widely introduced elsewhere, including much of Asia. It was given the epithet syriacus because it had been collected from gardens in Syria. Common names include the Korean rose (in South Korea), rose of Sharon (especially in North America), Syrian ketmia or rose mallow (in the United Kingdom) and rosa de Sharon (in Brazil). It is the national flower of South Korea and is mentioned in the South Korean national anthem.

Hibiscus tea

Hibiscus tea is a herbal tea made as an infusion from crimson or deep magenta-colored calyces (sepals) of the roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) flower. It is consumed both hot and cold. It has a tart, cranberry-like flavor.

The drink is sometimes called roselle (a name for the flower) or rosella (Australia); sorrel in Jamaica, Belize, Barbados, Guyana, Dominica, and Trinidad and Tobago; red sorrel in the wider Caribbean; and agua/rosa de Jamaica or simply Jamaica in the United States, Mexico, and Central America. It is also known as zobo or bissap in west African countries like Nigeria.

Hibiscus tiliaceus

Hibiscus tiliaceus is a species of flowering tree in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is native to the Old World tropics. Common names include sea hibiscus, beach hibiscus, coastal (or coast) hibiscus, coastal (or coast) cottonwood, green cottonwood, native hibiscus, native rosella, cottonwood hibiscus, kurrajong, sea rosemallow, balibago (Tagalog), malabago or malbago (Cebuano – Southern), maribago (Cebuano – Northern), waru (Javanese), baru or bebaru (Malay), hau (Hawaiian), fau (Samoan), purau (Tahitian), and vau tree. The specific epithet, "tiliaceus", refers to its resemblance of the leaves to those of the related Tilia species.


Higrevirus is a genus of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Hibiscus green spot virus 2.


Kenaf [etymology: Persian], Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family also called Deccan hemp and Java jute. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus and is native to southern Asia, though its exact origin is unknown. The name also applies to the fibre obtained from this plant. Kenaf is one of the allied fibres of jute and shows similar characteristics.

Kendrick Lamar

Kendrick Lamar Duckworth (born June 17, 1987) is an American rapper, songwriter, and record producer. He is regarded as one of the most skillful and successful hip hop artists of his generation.Raised in Compton, California, Lamar embarked on his musical career as a teenager under the stage name K-Dot, releasing a mixtape that garnered local attention and led to his signing with indie record label Top Dawg Entertainment (TDE). He began to gain recognition in 2010, after his first retail release, Overly Dedicated. The following year, he independently released his first studio album, Section.80, which included his debut single, "HiiiPoWeR". By that time, he had amassed a large online following and collaborated with several prominent hip hop artists, including The Game, Busta Rhymes, and Snoop Dogg.

Lamar's major label debut album, Good Kid, M.A.A.D City, was released in 2012 by TDE, Aftermath, and Interscope Records to critical acclaim. It debuted at #2 on the US Billboard 200 and was later certified platinum by the RIAA. The record contained the top 40 singles "Swimming Pools (Drank)", "Bitch, Don't Kill My Vibe", and "Poetic Justice". His critically acclaimed third album To Pimp a Butterfly (2015) incorporated elements of funk, soul, jazz, and spoken word. It debuted atop the charts in the US and the UK, and won the Grammy Award for Best Rap Album at the 58th ceremony. In 2016, Lamar released Untitled Unmastered, a collection of unreleased demos that originated during the recording sessions for Butterfly. He released his fourth album Damn in 2017 to further acclaim; its lead single "Humble" topped the US Billboard Hot 100 chart.

Aside from his solo career, Lamar is also known as a member of the West Coast hip hop supergroup Black Hippy, alongside his TDE label-mates and fellow South Los Angeles–based rappers Ab-Soul, Jay Rock, and Schoolboy Q. Lamar has received many accolades over the course of his career, including thirteen Grammy Awards. In early 2013, MTV named him the "Hottest MC in the Game", on their annual list. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2016. In 2018, Damn became the first non-classical and non-jazz album to be awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Music.

Lyndley Craven

Lyndley Alan Craven (1945 – 11 July 2014) was a botanist who became the Principal Research Scientist of the Australian National Herbarium.Lyndley ("Lyn") Craven worked for the CSIRO plant taxonomy unit of the New Guinea Survey Group, Division of Land Research and Regional Survey from 1964 to 1967. This was part of a unit that became the Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Craven's duties included botanical support for land resources surveys.

Craven then left to study horticulture at Burnley Horticultural College, Victoria, earning the degree of Diploma of Horticultural Science in 1970 before being briefly employed by the Parks and Gardens Branch of Department of the Interior, Canberra. Part of this department later became the Canberra Botanic Garden and eventually the Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research at the Australian National Botanic Gardens. In 1984, he earned the degree of Master of Science from Macquarie University. Craven was employed by the CSIRO at the National Herbarium from 1971, until his retirement in 2009 from the position of Principal Research Scientist.

Craven continued his association with CSIRO as a post-retirement fellow, working actively on a range of taxonomic projects.Craven worked on the genera Melaleuca and Syzygium (family Myrtaceae) and related groups, as well as Australian representatives of the genera Hibiscus and Gossypium. He had many other interests including the herbarium library, botanical Latin, and agrihorticultural botany. Plant collecting was also a high priority.Hibbertia cravenii, Rhododendron cravenii, Goodenia cravenii, Hibiscus cravenii, Hygrochloa cravenii, Grevillea cravenii, Xanthoparmelia cravenii, Eugenia craveniana, Syzygium cravenii, Pittosporum cravenianum, Melicope cravenii and Rhaphidophora cravenschoddeana were named in honour of Craven, the last also honouring Richard Schodde.

Mimosa (cocktail)

A mimosa cocktail is composed of champagne (or other sparkling wine) and chilled citrus juice, usually orange juice unless otherwise specified. It is traditionally served in a tall flute at brunch, at weddings, or as part of business or first class service on some passenger railways and airlines. The mixing ratio of the "classic mimosa" differs based on the source.


Okra (US: , UK: ), Abelmoschus esculentus, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. The geographical origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of West African, Ethiopian, and South Asian origins. The plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world.

Reed Publishing

Reed Publishing (NZ) Ltd, (formerly A. H. Reed Ltd, publishing under the A. H. and A. W. Reed imprints), is one of the oldest publishers in New Zealand. It was founded in 1907 by A.H. Reed and is based in Auckland, New Zealand. It is a New Zealand literature specialist and general titles publisher, releasing over 100 titles a year including a number of significant New Zealand authors such as Barry Crump, Janet Frame and Witi Ihimaera.

Roselle (plant)

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a species of Hibiscus probably native to West Africa, used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion, in which it may be known as carcade. It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrub, growing to 2–2.5 m (7–8 ft) tall. The leaves are deeply three- to five-lobed, 8–15 cm (3–6 in) long, arranged alternately on the stems.

The flowers are 8–10 cm (3–4 in) in diameter, white to pale yellow with a dark red spot at the base of each petal, and have a stout fleshy calyx at the base, 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) wide, enlarging to 3–3.5 cm (1.2–1.4 in), fleshy and bright red as the fruit matures. They take about six months to mature.


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