Hibernia

Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland. The name Hibernia was taken from Greek geographical accounts. During his exploration of northwest Europe (c. 320 BC), Pytheas of Massilia called the island Iérnē (written Ἰέρνη). In his book Geographia (c. 150 AD), Claudius Ptolemaeus ("Ptolemy") called the island Iouerníā (written Ἰουερνία, where "ου"/ou stands for w). The Roman historian Tacitus, in his book Agricola (c. 98 AD), uses the name Hibernia.

Ἰουερνία Iouerníā was a Greek rendering of the Q-Celtic name *Īweriū, from which eventually arose the Irish names Ériu and Éire. The name was altered in Latin (influenced by the word hibernus) as though it meant "land of winter".[1]

Ireland from space edit
True-colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on 4 January 2003. Scotland, the Isle of Man, Wales and a part of southwest England are visible to the east.

Post-Roman usage

The High King Brian Boru (c. 941–1014) based his title on being Emperor of the Gael, which was in Latin Imperator Scottorum, as distinct from claiming to be Emperor of the island of Ireland. From 1172 Lordship of Ireland gave the King of England the additional title Dominus Hibernie (sic, for Hiberniae; also Dominus Hybernie), 'Lord of Ireland'. The Kingdom of Ireland created the title Rex Hiberniae, King of Ireland, for use in Latin texts. Gerard Mercator called Ireland "Hybernia" on his world map of 1541.[2] In 1642 the motto of the Irish Confederates, a Catholic-landlord administration that ruled much of Ireland until 1650 was Pro Deo, Rege et Patria, Hibernia Unanimis (English: 'For God, King and Fatherland, Ireland is United').

However, unlike many Roman geographical names, the Latin Hibernia did not become the basis for the name for Ireland in any modern languages, with even Italian using Irlanda. Apart from the Celtic languages all modern languages use a local variant of the English "Ireland". This is presumably because direct medieval contacts between Ireland and continental Europe were at too low a level to embed use of the Hibernian root, or the original Irish Éire, in local vernaculars.

By the classicising 18th century the use of Hibernia had revived in some contexts, just as had the use of Caledonia, one of the Latin terms for Scotland, and Britannia for Britain. "Hibernia" was used on Irish coins and companies such as the Hibernian Insurance Company were established (later renamed the Hibernian Group). The name took on popularity with the success of the Irish Patriot Party. At a time when Palladian classical architecture and design were being adopted in northern Europe, Hibernia was a useful word to describe Ireland with overtones of classical style and civility, including by the prosperous Anglo-Irish Ascendancy who were taught Latin at school. "Hibernian" was used as a term for people, and a general adjective. The Royal Exchange in Dublin was built in 1769–79 with the carved inscription "SPQH" for Senatus PopulusQue Hibernicus 'the senate and people of Ireland'.[3] The Royal Hibernian Academy dates from 1823.

The 18th Century Spanish Regiment composed of Irish exiles was known as the Regiment of Hibernia.

Hibernia is a word that is rarely used today with regard to Ireland, except in long-established names.[4] It is occasionally used for names of organisations and various other things; for instance: Hibernia National Bank, Hibernian Insurance Group, Ancient Order of Hibernians, The Hibernian magazine, Hibernia College, Hibernian Orchestra, Hibernian Football Club, HMS Hibernia, and modern derivatives, from Latin like Respublica Hibernica (Irish Republic) and Universitas Hiberniae Nationalis (National University of Ireland). In Canada, Hibernia lends its name to the Hibernia oil field off Newfoundland, and to a large sea oil platform there, the Hibernia.

Another occurrence is in familial Hibernian fever or TRAPS (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome), a periodic fever first described in 1982 in a family of Irish and Scottish descent, but found in all ethnic groups.[5]

The compound form 'Hiberno-' remains more common, as 'Hiberno-Norse', 'Hiberno-English', 'Hiberno-Scottish', 'Hibernophile', etc.

The Edinburgh football club Hibernian FC has adopted the name.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Hibernia - Origin and meaning of the name Hibernia by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
  2. ^ "Satellite Maps". www.resources.teachnet.ie.
  3. ^ McPartland E. The Royal Exchange Competition JRSAI vol.102, p.63. See the original SPQR.
  4. ^ Although it is found in the first line of the Aeolus section (part 2, episode 7) of James Joyce's novel Ulysses: IN THE HEART OF THE HIBERNIAN METROPOLIS (a fictional newspaper headline referring to Dublin).
  5. ^ Laxer, Ronald M.; David D. Sherry (June 2012). "Pediatric Rheumatology, An Issue of Pediatric Clinics". The Clinics: Internal Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. 59 (2). The TNF-receptor-associated periodic syndrome. ISBN 9781455744251. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
Ashmore and Cartier Islands

The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an uninhabited external territory of Australia consisting of four low-lying tropical islands in two separate reefs, and the 12 nautical mile territorial sea generated by the islands. The territory is located in the Indian Ocean situated on the edge of the continental shelf, about 320 km (199 mi) off the northwest coast of Australia and 144 km (89 mi) south of the Indonesian island of Rote.Ashmore Reef is called Pulau Pasir by Indonesians and Nusa Solokaek in the Rotenese language. Both names have the meaning "sand island".

Brandamore, Pennsylvania

Brandamore is an unincorporated community in West Brandywine Township in Chester County, Pennsylvania, United States. Brandamore is located at the intersection of Hibernia Road and Brandamore Road north of Coatesville.

Buvinda Vallis

Buvinda Vallis is a valley in the Cebrenia quadrangle of Mars, located at 33.4 N and 208.1 W. It is 119.6 km long. It was named after a classical river in Hibernia and the present Boyne River, Ireland.

Clinton, Dutchess County, New York

Clinton is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. The population was 4,312 at the 2010 census.

Condé Nast

Condé Nast Inc. is an American mass media company founded in 1909 by Condé Montrose Nast, based at One World Trade Center and owned by Advance Publications.The company attracts more than 164 million consumers across its 19 brands and media: Allure, Architectural Digest, Ars Technica, Backchannel, Bon Appétit, Brides, Condé Nast Traveler, Epicurious, Glamour, Golf Digest, GQ, Pitchfork, Self, Teen Vogue, The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, Vogue, W and Wired.

Robert A. Sauerberg Jr. is Condé Nast's current chief executive officer and president. US Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour serves as the current artistic director of Condé Nast. The company launched Condé Nast Entertainment in 2011 to develop film, television and digital video programming.

HMS Hibernia (1905)

HMS Hibernia was a King Edward VII-class pre-dreadnought battleship of Britain's Royal Navy. Like all ships of the class (apart from HMS King Edward VII) she was named after an important part of the British Empire, namely Ireland. The ship was built by Devonport Dockyard; she was laid down in January 1904, was launched in June 1905, and was completed in December 1906. Armed with a battery of four 12-inch (305 mm) and four 9.2 in (234 mm) guns, she and her sister ships marked a significant advance in offensive power compared to earlier British battleship designs that did not carry the 9.2 in guns.

Commissioned in early 1907, Hibernia served as the flagship of the Rear Admirals of firstly the Atlantic Fleet and then the Channel Fleet. When the latter fleet was reorganised to the Home Fleet, she was based at the Nore. In 1912, Hibernia hosted trials in naval aviation with the temporary addition of a runway to her foredeck, and the first launch of an aircraft from a vessel underway was achieved from her in early May. Later in 1912, after her experiment with aviation was completed, she and her sister ships formed the 3rd Battle Squadron. That year, the squadron went to the Mediterranean Sea during the First Balkan War as part of an international blockade of Montenegro. In 1913, the ship returned to British waters.

The squadron was assigned to the Grand Fleet at the beginning of the First World War, and served on the Northern Patrol. Through 1914 and 1915, the ships frequently went to sea to search for German vessels, but Hibernia saw no action during this period. By the end of the year, the Grand Fleet stopped operating with the older 3rd Battle Squadron ships, and in December 1915, Hibernia was transferred to the Gallipoli Campaign and provided cover for the evacuation from the Gallipoli Peninsula. On returning to the United Kingdom she was again attached to the Grand Fleet before being transferred to Nore Command in May 1916, finishing the war as an accommodation ship. She was decommissioned in 1919 and scrapped in 1922.

Hibernia, Clark County, Indiana

Hibernia is an unincorporated community in Owen Township, Clark County, Indiana.

Hibernia, New Jersey

Hibernia is an unincorporated community located within Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. The area is served as United States Postal Service ZIP code 07842. The community takes its name from Hibernia, the classical name for Ireland.As of the 2000 United States Census, the population for ZIP Code Tabulation Area 07842 was 93.

The Hibernia mines, a series of iron mines worked from pre-Revolutionary times until 1916, are located here.

Hibernia has a public Library on Green Pond Road.

Hibernia (personification)

Hibernia as a national personification representing Ireland appeared in numerous cartoon and drawings, especially in the nineteenth century.As depicted in frequent cartoons in Punch, a magazine outspokenly hostile to Irish nationalism, Hibernia was shown as "Britannia's younger sister". She is an attractive, vulnerable girl. She is threatened by manifestations of Irish nationalism such as the Fenians or the Irish National Land League, often depicted as brutish, ape-like monsters. Unable to defend herself, Hibernia is depicted turning to the strong, armoured Britannia for defence. John Tenniel, now mainly remembered as the illustrator of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, produced a number of such depictions of Hibernia.At times nationalist publications (such as the Land League and Parnell's United Ireland newspaper) did use the image of Hibernia. However, possibly because of the pro-union publications' adoption of the "helpless" image of Hibernia, nationalist publications would later use Erin and Kathleen Ni Houlihan as personifications of Irish nationhood. (Although Irish Nationalists did continue to use the terms "Hibernia" and "Hibernian" in other contexts, such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians). A statue, derived from an original by Edward Smyth and depicting a more confident Hibernia (with harp and spear), stands in the central position of three atop the General Post Office in Dublin.

Hibernia Hall

The Hibernia Hall, also known as the Hibernian Hall, is a Romanesque Revival building located in downtown Davenport, Iowa, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. The Hibernian Hall is located on the east side of Brady Street, near the middle of the block. The building's neighbor to the north is the Philip Worley House (1860). To the south are the Democrat Building (1923) and the Forrest Block (1875). All of the buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Hibernia Networks

Hibernia Networks, alternately known as Hibernia Atlantic, was a privately held, US-owned provider of telecommunication services. It operated global network routes on self-healing rings in North America, Europe and Asia including submarine communications cable systems in the North Atlantic Ocean which connected Canada, the United States, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and mainland Europe. Hibernia managed cable landing stations in Dublin, Republic of Ireland; Coleraine, Northern Ireland; Southport, England; Halifax, Canada; Lynn, Massachusetts, United States.

Hibernia's network provided service, from 2.5 Gbit/s to 100 Gbit/s wavelengths and Ethernet from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Gbit/s. It also provided traditional SONET/SDH services.In January 2017, the company was acquired and absorbed into GTT Communications, Inc. It was previously a subsidiary of Columbia Ventures Corporation (CVC) and was owned by both CVC and Constellation Ventures Partners.

Hibernia oil field

Hibernia is an oil field in the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately 315 kilometres (196 mi) east-southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, in 80 m of water.The production platform Hibernia is the world's largest oil platform (by weight) and consists of a 37,000 t (41,000 short tons) integrated topsides facility mounted on a 600,000 t (660,000 short tons) gravity base structure. The platform was towed to its final site, and 450,000 t (500,000 short tons) of solid ballast were added to secure it in place. Inside the gravity base structure are storage tanks for 1.3 million barrels (210,000 m3) of crude oil.

Hiberno-Roman relations

Hiberno-Roman relations refers to the relationships (mainly commercial and cultural) which existed between Ireland (Hibernia) and the ancient Roman Empire, which lasted from the 1st to the 5th century AD in Western Europe. Ireland was one of the few areas of western Europe not conquered by Rome.

PS Hibernia (1847)

PS Hibernia was a paddle steamer passenger vessel operated by the Chester and Holyhead Railway from 1847 to 1859 and the London and North Western Railway from 1859 to 1877.

Regiment of Hibernia

The Regimiento Hibernia ("Regiment of Hibernia") was one of the Spanish army's foreign regiments (Infantería de línea extranjera). Known by many in Spain as "O'Neill's Regiment", it was formed in 1709 from Irishmen who fled their own country in the wake of the Flight of the Earls and the penal laws and who became known as the Wild Geese - a name which has become synonymous in modern times for Irish mercenaries and soldiers throughout the world.

Although the Wild Geese are more associated with the French Army and are indeed seen as the precursors of the French Foreign Legion the regiment of Hibernia was one of many Irish regiments to serve in the Spanish army. The Wild Geese began fighting for Spain during the Eighty Years' War. The first Irish units in the service of Spain were formed in 1587 as the Tercio Irlanda ("Irish Brigade"), formed from defectors from the English army.

Due to the number of wars Spain was involved in during the early 18th century the country could not provide itself with enough soldiers for its own campaigns. This was also exacerbated by the severe loss of manpower as a result of a plague epidemic. Diplomatic approaches were made to a number of countries with requests for the recruitment of mercenaries to fight for Spain. Swiss, Germans, Italians and Walloons were recruited but the Spanish were particularly keen to engage Irishmen because of their reputation as soldiers. The Confederation of Kilkenny established licences for the recruitment of Irishmen to fight for the King of Spain.

The Irish regiments in Spanish service were disbanded in 1818 at the request of their British allies.

Shreveport Open

The Shreveport Open was a golf tournament on the Nationwide Tour from 1991 to 2002. It was played at the Southern Trace Country Club in Shreveport, Louisiana. In its last year, it was sponsored by Hibernia National Bank and called the Hibernia Southern Open.

The purse in 2002 was $425,000, with $76,500 going to the winner.

TSS Hibernia (1899)

TSS Hibernia was a twin screw steamer passenger vessel operated by the London and North Western Railway from 1900 to 1914. She was renamed HMS Tara on requisition by the Admiralty in 1914, and sunk in action in November 1915.

TSS Hibernia (1920)

TSS Hibernia was a twin screw steamer passenger vessel operated by the London and North Western Railway from 1920 to 1923, and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway from 1923 to 1948.

Wagontown, Pennsylvania

Wagontown is an unincorporated community in West Caln Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, United States. Wagontown is located along Pennsylvania Route 340 2.15 miles (3.46 km) north-northwest of Coatesville. Wagontown has a post office with ZIP code 19376. The Hibernia House, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is located near Wagontown.

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