In Greek mythology, Hesperus /ˈhɛspərəs/ (Ancient Greek: Ἓσπερος Hesperos) is the Evening Star, the planet Venus in the evening. He is the son of the dawn goddess Eos (Roman Aurora) and is the half-brother of her other son, Phosphorus (also called Eosphorus; the "Morning Star"). Hesperus' Roman equivalent is Vesper (cf. "evening", "supper", "evening star", "west"[1]). By one account Hesperus' father was Cephalus, a mortal, while Phosphorus' was the star god Astraios. Other sources, however, state that Hesperus was the brother of Atlas, and thus the son of Iapetus.[2]

Mengs, Hesperus als Personifikation des Abends
Hesperus as Personification of the Evening Star by Anton Raphael Mengs (1765).

Variant names

Hesperus is the personification of the "evening star", the planet Venus in the evening. His name is sometimes conflated with the names for his brother, the personification of the planet as the "morning star" Eosphorus (Greek Ἐωσφόρος, "bearer of dawn") or Phosphorus (Ancient Greek: Φωσφόρος, "bearer of light", often translated as "Lucifer" in Latin), since they are all personifications of the same planet Venus. "Heosphoros" in the Greek Septuagint and "Lucifer" in Jerome's Latin Vulgate were used to translate the Hebrew "Helel" (Venus as the brilliant, bright or shining one), "son of Shahar (god) (Dawn)" in the Hebrew version of Isaiah 14:12.

There is a tendency to conclude that the ancient Greeks thought that Eosphorus (Venus in the morning) and Hesperos (Venus in the evening), because of the distinction in the names, were two different celestial objects. And that the Greeks only later accepted the Babylonian view that the two were the same; and consequently that it was by a not original Babylonian influence that the identification of the planets with the great gods came to be. Thereby the Greeks dedicated the "wandering star" (planet) to Aphrodite (Roman Venus), as the equivalent of Ishtar. This order of influence is not backed by scholars, nor any historical documents. Rather the two mythological explanations seem to have existed simultaneously and interchangeably.

Eosphorus/Hesperus was said to be the father of Ceyx[3] and Daedalion.[4] In some sources, he is also said to be the father of the Hesperides.[5]

"Hesperus is Phosphorus"

In the philosophy of language, "Hesperus is Phosphorus" is a famous sentence in relation to the semantics of proper names. Gottlob Frege used the terms "the evening star" (der Abendstern) and "the morning star" (der Morgenstern) to illustrate his distinction between sense and reference, and subsequent philosophers changed the example to "Hesperus is Phosphorus" so that it utilized proper names. Saul Kripke used the sentence to posit that the knowledge of something necessary (in this case the identity of Hesperus and Phosphorus) could be empirical rather than knowable a priori.

See also


  1. ^ Collins Latin Dictionary plus Grammar, p. 231. ISBN 0-06-053690-X.
  2. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica 4.27.1.
  3. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 65
  4. ^ Ovid. Metamorphoses. Book XI, 295.
  5. ^ Servius. ad Aen. 4,484.


External links

Canyon bat

The western pipistrelle (Parastrellus hesperus), also known as the canyon bat, is a species of vesper bat. It is found in Mexico and in the western United States. The species has historically been placed in the genus Pipistrellus, but molecular evidence does not show any close relationship with that genus, and accordingly it was classified into its own genus, Parastrellus, in 2006.

Cloud Nine (George Harrison album)

Cloud Nine is the 11th studio album by English musician George Harrison. The album was recorded and released in 1987 after Harrison had taken a five-year hiatus from his career as a solo artist. The hit single "Got My Mind Set on You" from this album re-established Harrison as a critically acclaimed and commercially significant recording artist. Cloud Nine was the last studio solo album of Harrison's released during his lifetime.

Frege's puzzles

Frege's puzzles are puzzles about the semantics of proper names, although related puzzles also arise in the case of indexicals. Gottlob Frege (1848–1925) introduced the puzzle at the beginning of his article "Über Sinn und Bedeutung" ("On Sense and Reference") in 1892 in one of the most influential articles in analytic philosophy and philosophy of language.

HMS Hesperus (H57)

HMS Hesperus was an H-class destroyer that had originally been ordered by the Brazilian Navy with the name Juruena in the late 1930s, but was bought by the Royal Navy after the beginning of World War II in September 1939, commissioned in 1940 as HMS Hearty though quickly renamed. She was damaged by German aircraft during the Norwegian Campaign in May 1940 and was assigned to convoy escort and anti-submarine patrols after her repairs were completed. The ship was assigned to the Western Approaches Command for convoy escort duties in late 1940. She was briefly assigned to Force H in 1941, but her anti-aircraft armament was deemed too weak and she was transferred to the Newfoundland Escort Force the next month for escort duties in the North Atlantic. Hesperus was transferred to the Mid-Ocean Escort Force in late 1941 and continued to escort convoys in the North Atlantic for the next three years. She was converted to an escort destroyer in early 1943 after suffering damage from one of her two ramming attacks that sank German submarines. The ship sank two other submarines during the war by more conventional means. After the end of the war, Hesperus escorted the ships carrying the Norwegian government in exile back to Norway and served as a target ship through mid-1946. She was scrapped beginning in mid-1947.

Hesperus, Colorado

Hesperus is an unincorporated community and a U.S. Post Office located in La Plata County, Colorado, United States. The Hesperus Post Office has the ZIP Code 81326.A post office called Hesperus has been in operation since 1891. The community takes its name from nearby Hesperus Mountain.

Hesperus Mountain (Colorado)

Hesperus Mountain is the highest summit of the La Plata Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The prominent 13,237-foot (4,035 m) thirteener is located in San Juan National Forest, 13.2 miles (21.2 km) northeast by east (bearing 59°) of the Town of Mancos in Montezuma County, Colorado, United States. The summit of Hesperus Mountain is the highest point in Montezuma County.

Hesperus Press

Hesperus Press is an independent publishing house based in London, United Kingdom. It was founded in 2001. The publisher's motto, "Et Remotissima Prope," is a Latin phrase which means "Bringing near what is far". Hesperus Press has published some 300 works by both classic and contemporary authors, including: Dante, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Dickens, Dostoyevsky, Flaubert, Kafka, Tolstoy, Woolf, Annie Dillard, and Aldous Huxley. Their series include: Hesperus Classics, Brief Lives, Poetic Lives, ON, Modern Voices, and Hesperus Worldwide. Hesperus is also responsible for the best-seller The Hundred-Year-Old Man Who Climbed Out the Window and Disappeared by Swedish author Jonas Jonasson, released in July 2012.


Künstlerleben ("Artist's Life"), Op. 316 is a waltz written by Johann Strauss II in 1867, following closely on the success of the popular "The Blue Danube". Austria was severely shaken the previous year 1866 by the crushing defeat that the Austrian army suffered in the Battle of Königgrätz and many of the year's festivities and balls were cancelled as the prevalent depressing mood affected most of Vienna's populace.

Strauss's near impossible task of injecting the same joie de vivre into the Vienna Carnival of 1867 was met with great aplomb by all three Strauss brothers as their works displayed no signs of dying inspiration, and in turn introducing to the Viennese how their creative spirit defied the troubled spirit of the times.

Johann Strauss II and Josef Strauss both presented sparkling new works at the 'Hesperus' Ball which was held at the Dianabad-Saal on 18 February 1867, with the "Artist's Life" waltz presented just three nights after the successful performance of "The Blue Danube" at the same venue. The 'Hesperus' Association known as the Vienna Artists' Association was a well-known and influential society of which all three Strauss brothers were members.

The new waltz was quickly heralded as a new 'twin' of "The Blue Danube" and its popularity has since been retained in the classical music repertoire. The composer's best inspiration can be seen in the Introduction of the waltz, which begins with a plaintive horn solo and a quietly dramatic string passage in A minor. A pensive waltz melody in A major is introduced, before being cut short by two loud and fierce chords. The first waltz section is then played, with a high-spirited tune and a robust accompanying waltz passage. The second waltz section is a melancholic tune in two parts, with the same dramatic chords as heard in the Introduction before a more upbeat tune heralds the entry of the happier third section. The plaintive mood of the waltz continues in the fifth section before the minor-sounding Coda. The first waltz melody makes another quiet entrance before the waltz is brought to its triumphant close, with a strong chord and flourish, underlined by a snare-drumroll.

La Plata Mountains

The La Plata Mountains are a small subrange of the San Juan Mountains in the southwestern part of Colorado, United States. They are located on the border between Montezuma and La Plata counties, about 12 miles (19 km) northwest of Durango. Their name is Spanish for silver.

The peaks of the range are easily visible from U.S. Route 160, which skirts the range on the south. The La Plata River and the Mancos River have their headwaters in the range. The Colorado Trail accesses even towards the northern peaks.

The best-known and highest peak in the La Plata Mountains is Hesperus Mountain, which is the Navajo sacred mountain of the north. The six of the highest summits are listed below.


Latrodectus is a broadly distributed genus of spiders, which is composed of both black widow spiders and brown widow spiders. A member of the Theridiidae family, this genus contains 31 species, including the North American black widows (L. mactans, L. hesperus, and L. variolus), the European black widow (L. tredecimguttatus), the Australian redback black widow (L. hasseltii) and the button spiders of Southern Africa. Species vary widely in size. In most cases, the females are dark-coloured and readily identifiable by reddish markings on the abdomen, which are often hourglass-shaped.

These small spiders have an unusually potent venom containing the neurotoxin latrotoxin, which causes the condition latrodectism, both named after the genus. Female widow spiders have unusually large venom glands and their bite can be particularly harmful to large vertebrates, including humans. Only the bites of the females are dangerous to humans. Despite their notoriety, Latrodectus bites are rarely fatal or even produce serious complications.

Latrodectus hesperus

Latrodectus hesperus, the western black widow spider or western widow, is a venomous spider species found in western regions of North America. The female's body is 14–16 mm (1/2 in) in length and is black, often with an hourglass-shaped red mark on the lower abdomen. This "hourglass" mark can be yellow, and on rare occasions, white. The male of the species is around half this length and generally a tan color with lighter striping on the abdomen. The population was previously described as a subspecies of Latrodectus mactans and it is closely related to the northern species Latrodectus variolus. The species, as with others of the genus, build irregular or "messy" webs: Unlike the spiral webs or the tunnel-shaped webs of other spiders, the strands of a Latrodectus web have no apparent organization.

Female black widows have potent venom containing a neurotoxin active against a range of mammals. (See latrodectism.) Symptoms are pain, nausea, goosebumps, and localized sweating. Fatalities have been reported at between 0.5% and 12%. The female's consumption of the male after courtship, a cannibalistic and suicidal behavior observed in Latrodectus hasseltii (Australia's redback),

is rare in this species. Male western widows may breed several times during their relatively short lifespans. Males are known to show preference for mating with well-fed females over starved ones, taking cues from the females' webs.

Lavender Peak (Colorado)

Lavender Peak is a high mountain summit in the La Plata Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,233-foot (4,033 m) thirteener is located in San Juan National Forest, 13.5 miles (21.7 km) northeast by east (bearing 61°) of the Town of Mancos in Montezuma County, Colorado, United States. The peak lies 0.53 miles (0.85 km) east-southeast of the higher and more well-known Hesperus Mountain. Lavender Peak was named in honor of Dwight Garrigues Lavender (1911-1934), the author of a 1932 climbing guide to the San Juan Mountains.

Logical possibility

Logically possible refers to a proposition which can be the logical consequence of another, based on the axioms of a given system of logic. The logical possibility of a proposition will depend on the system of logic being considered, rather than on the violation of any single rule. Some systems of logic restrict inferences from inconsistent propositions or even allow for true contradictions. Other logical systems have more than two truth-values instead of a binary of such values. However, when talking about logical possibility it is often assumed that the system in question is classical propositional logic. Similarly, the criterion for logical possibility is often based on whether or not a proposition is contradictory and as such is often thought of as the broadest type of possibility.

Logical possibility should be distinguished from other sorts of subjunctive possibilities. But the relationship between modalities (if there is any) is the subject of debate and may depend on how one views logic, as well as the relationship between logic and metaphysics. For example, many philosophers following Saul Kripke have held that discovered identities such as "Hesperus = Phosphorus" are metaphysically necessary because they pick out the same object in all possible worlds where the terms have a referent. However, it is nonetheless logically possible for “Hesperus = Phosphorus” to be false, since denying it doesn't violate a logical rule such as consistency. Other philosophers are of the view that logical possibility is broader than metaphysical possibility, so that anything which is metaphysically possible is also logically possible.

Mount Hesperus (Alaska)

Mount Hesperus is the highest peak of the Revelation Mountains, the westernmost subrange of the Alaska Range. The Revelations are a small, rarely visited range, but they contain dramatic rock peaks, rising from low bases. Mount Hesperus is particularly impressive in terms of local relief: for example, it drops over 7,500 feet (2,286m) in less than 2 miles (3,219m) on two sides. Such steepness for this amount of relief makes Hesperus comparable to the best peaks in North America.

Mount Hesperus lies to the north of most of the other peaks of the Revelation Mountains, between two forks of the Big River. To the southwest of the peak lies the Revelation Glacier.

The peak is over 100 miles from the closest significant airport.

The first ascent of Mount Hesperus was on May 2, 1985, by Justin Lesueur (New Zealand) and Karl Swanson, Stephen Spalding (Alaska). They first attempted routes on the northeast side of the peak, and then successfully ascended a route on the southwest face, which involved snow climbing, some rock bands, a frozen waterfall, and an icy, corniced ridge.

Papilio hesperus

Papilio hesperus, the black and yellow swallowtail or Hesperus swallowtail, is a butterfly of the family Papilionidae. It is found in Africa.

The larvae feed on Beilschmiedia species, including Beilschmiedia ugandensis.

Phosphorus (morning star)

Phosphorus (Greek Φωσφόρος Phōsphoros) is the Morning Star, the planet Venus in its morning appearance. Φαοσφόρος (Phaosphoros) and Φαεσφόρος (Phaesphoros) are forms of the same name in some Greek dialects. This celestial object was named when stars and planets were not always distinguished with modern precision.

Another Greek name for the Morning Star is Heosphoros (Greek Ἑωσφόρος Heōsphoros), meaning "Dawn-Bringer". The form Eosphorus is sometimes met in English, as if from Ἠωσφόρος (Ēōsphoros), which is not actually found in Greek literature, but would be the form that Ἑωσφόρος would have in some dialects. As an adjective, the Greek word φωσφόρος is applied in the sense of "light-bringing" to, for instance, the dawn, the god Dionysos, pine torches, the day; and in the sense of "torch-bearing" as an epithet of several god and goddesses, especially Hecate but also of Artemis/Diana and Hephaestus.The Latin word lucifer, corresponding to Greek φωσφόρος, was used as a name for the morning star and thus appeared in the Vulgate translation of the Hebrew word הֵילֵל (helel), meaning Venus as the brilliant, bright or shining one, in Isaiah 14(Isaiah 14:12), where the Septuagint Greek version uses, not φωσφόρος, but ἑωσφόρος. As a translation of the same Hebrew word the King James Version gave "Lucifer", a name often misunderstood as a reference to Satan. Modern translations of the same passage render the Hebrew word instead as "morning star", "daystar", "shining one" or "shining star". In Revelation 22 (Revelation 22:16), Jesus is referred to as the morning star, but not as lucifer in Latin, nor as φωσφόρος in the original Greek text, which instead has ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ λαμπρὸς ὁ πρωϊνός (ho astēr ho lampros ho prōinos), literally: the star, the shining one, the dawn. In the Vulgate Latin text of 2 Peter 1 ( 2 Peter 1:19) the word "lucifer" is used of the morning star in the phrase "until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts", the corresponding Greek word being φωσφόρος.

Pierre van Ryneveld

General Sir Hesperus Andrias van Ryneveld, (2 May 1891 – 2 December 1972), known as Pierre van Ryneveld, was a South African military commander. He was the founding commander of the South African Air Force.

Secret Empire (organization)

The Secret Empire is a fictional organization appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

The Wreck of the Hesperus

"The Wreck of the Hesperus" is a narrative poem by American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, first published in Ballads and Other Poems in 1842. It is a story that presents the tragic consequences of a skipper's pride. On an ill-fated voyage in winter, he brings his daughter aboard ship for company. The skipper ignores the advice of one of his experienced men, who fears that a hurricane is approaching. When the storm

arrives, the skipper ties his daughter to the mast to prevent her from being swept overboard. She calls out to her dying father as she hears the surf beating on the shore, then prays to Christ to calm the seas. The ship crashes onto the reef of Norman's Woe and sinks; the next morning a horrified fisherman finds the daughter's body, still tied to the mast and drifting in the surf. The poem ends with a prayer that all be spared such a fate "on the reef of Norman's Woe."

The poem was published in the New World, edited by Park Benjamin, which appeared on January 10, 1840. Longfellow was paid $25 for it, equivalent to $654 in 2015.


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