Herschel 400 Catalogue

The Herschel 400 catalogue is a subset of William Herschel's original Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, selected by Brenda F. Guzman (Branchett), Lydel Guzman, Paul Jones, James Morrison, Peggy Taylor and Sara Saey of the Ancient City Astronomy Club in St. Augustine, Florida, United States c. 1980. They decided to generate the list after reading a letter[1] published in Sky & Telescope by James Mullaney of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.[2]

In this letter Mr. Mullaney suggested that William Herschel's original catalogue of 2,500 objects would be an excellent basis for deep sky object selection for amateur astronomers looking for a challenge after completing the Messier Catalogue.

The Herschel 400 is a subset of John Herschel's General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters published in 1864 of 5,000 objects, and hence also of the New General Catalogue.

The catalogue forms the basis of the Astronomical League's Herschel 400 club. In 1997, another subset of 400 Herschel objects was selected by the Rose City Astronomers of Portland, Oregon as the Herschel II list, which forms the basis of the Astronomical League's Herschel II Program.

Vital statistics

  • The catalogue contains 400 objects
  • All objects are from the NGC
  • All visible in mid northern latitudes (they were all observed by Herschel from the UK)
  • All visible in 150 mm (6") or larger telescopes

Distribution of Herschel 400 objects

Herschel400StarChart
Distribution of Herschel 400 objects
Red = Galaxies, Green = Nebulae, Yellow = Star Clusters

Herschel 400 objects which are also Messier objects

The Herschel 400 contains 17 objects which are part of the Messier catalogue:

Herschel 400 objects which are also Caldwell objects

The Herschel 400 catalogue pre-dates the Caldwell catalogue. The Caldwell catalogue contains 44 objects which are members of the Herschel 400:[3]

Number of objects by type in the Herschel 400

Galaxies 231
Globular clusters 34
Nebulae 6
Star Clusters 100
Star Clusters and Nebulae 5
Planetary Nebulae 24
Total 400

Number of Herschel 400 objects in each constellation

Constellation No. of objects
Andromeda 6
Aquarius 4
Aquila 3
Aries 1
Auriga 6
Constellation No. of objects
Boötes 5
Camelopardalis 5
Cancer 1
Canes Venatici 17
Canis Major 4
Constellation No. of objects
Cassiopeia 16
Cepheus 7
Cetus 13
Coma Berenices 24
Corvus 3
Constellation No. of objects
Crater 1
Cygnus 10
Delphinus 3
Draco 5
Eridanus 3
Constellation No. of objects
Gemini 10
Hercules 2
Hydra 5
Lacerta 3
Leo 23
Constellation No. of objects
Leo Minor 10
Lepus 1
Libra 1
Lynx 3
Monoceros 14
Constellation No. of objects
Ophiuchus 15
Orion 8
Pegasus 5
Perseus 10
Pisces 2
Constellation No. of objects
Puppis 13
Pyxis 2
Sagittarius 18
Scorpius 2
Sculptor 3
Constellation No. of objects
Scutum 2
Serpens 1
Sextans 4
Taurus 2
Triangulum 1
Constellation No. of objects
Ursa Major 46
Ursa Minor 1
Virgo 50
Vulpecula 6

Herschel 400 objects

Key

Star cluster
Nebula
Galaxy

1–100

Messier or Caldwell ID NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C2 NGC 40 Bow-Tie Nebula Ngc40 Planetary Nebula 3.5 Cepheus 11
NGC 129     Open Cluster 6.0 Cassiopeia 6.5
NGC 136   Ngc 136 Open Cluster Cassiopeia
NGC 157   NGC 157 Galaxy 75,000 Cetus 10.4
C18 NGC 185   Ngc185 Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.2
M110 NGC 205   Messier object 110 Galaxy 2,200 Andromeda 8
NGC 225   NGC225HunterWilson Open Cluster 2,1 Cassiopeia 7
C56 NGC 246   NGC 246 Planetary Nebula 1.6 Cetus 8
C62 NGC 247   GALEX-NGC247 Galaxy 6,800 Cetus 8.9
C65 NGC 253 Sculptor Galaxy/Silver Coin Galaxy Ngc253 2mass barred spiral Galaxy 9,800 Sculptor 7.1
NGC 278   NGC278-hst-R814G606B450 Galaxy 38,500 Cassiopeia 10.9
NGC 288   NGC 288 Hubble WikiSky Globular Cluster 28.7 Sculptor 8.1
NGC 381     Open Cluster Cassiopeia 9
NGC 404   NGC 404 Hubble Galaxy 10,000 Andromeda 10.1
NGC 436     Open Cluster Cassiopeia 8.8
C13 NGC 457 Owl Cluster NGC457 Open Cluster 9 Cassiopeia 6.4
NGC 488   N488s Galaxy 90,000 Pisces 10.3
NGC 524   NGC524 Galaxy 90,000 Pisces 10.6
C8 NGC 559     Open Cluster 3.7 Cassiopeia 9.5
NGC 584   NGC 0584SST Galaxy 60,000 Cetus 10.4
NGC 596     Galaxy 65,000 Cetus 10.9
M33 NGC 598 Triangulum Galaxy M33 Galaxy 2,590 Triangulum 5.7
NGC 613   ESO-NGS613-phot-33a-03-fullres Galaxy 67,000 Sculptor 10
NGC 615     Galaxy 70,000 Cetus 11.5
NGC 637     Open Cluster 7 Cassiopeia 8.2
M76 NGC 650/651 Little Dumbbell Nebula/Barbell Nebula/Cork Nebula M76-RL5-DDmin-Gamma-LRGB 883x628 Planetary Nebula 3.4 Perseus 12
NGC 654   NGC 654,VdB6,LDN 1332,1334,1337 (Cassiopeia) Open Cluster 7.8 Cassiopeia 6.5
NGC 659     Open Cluster 8.2 Cassiopeia 7.9
C10 NGC 663   NGC663HunterWilson Open Cluster 7.2 Cassiopeia 7.1
NGC 720     Galaxy 80,000 Cetus 10.2
C28 NGC 752   Ngc 752 Open Cluster 1 Andromeda 5.7
NGC 772   Ngc772 Galaxy 130,000 Aries 10.3
NGC 779     Galaxy Cetus 11
C14 NGC 869 Double Cluster, Η Persei NGC869NGC884 Open Cluster 7.3 Perseus 4
C14 NGC 884 Double Cluster, χ Persei NGC869NGC884 Open Cluster 7.4 Perseus 4
C23 NGC 891   Ngc 891 Galaxy 31,000 Andromeda 10
NGC 908   NGC908 Galaxy 56,000 Cetus 10.2
NGC 936   Potw1009a Galaxy 60,000 Cetus 10.1
NGC 1022   NGC 1022 -HST09042 h3-R814G606B450 Galaxy 65,000 Cetus 11.4
NGC 1023   NGC1023 JeffJohnson Galaxy 30,000 Perseus 9.5
NGC 1027     Open Cluster 3.1 Cassiopeia 6.7
NGC 1052   N1042s Galaxy 63,000 Cetus 10.6
NGC 1055   NGC 1055 I FUV g2006 Galaxy 52,000 Cetus 10.6
NGC 1084   A spiral home to exploding stars Galaxy 65,000 Eridanus 10.6
NGC 1245   NGC 1245 (8158753203) Open Cluster 9.8 Perseus 8.4
NGC 1342   NGC 1342 AOFPK Open Cluster 2.2 Perseus 6.7
NGC 1407   Color cutout hst 9427 02 acs wfc f814w f435w sci NGC 1407 Galaxy 75,000 Eridanus 9.8
NGC 1444     Open Cluster Perseus 6.6
NGC 1501   NGC1501-HST-R656nGB502n Planetary Nebula Camelopardalis 13
NGC 1502   NGC 1502 AOFPK Open Cluster 2.7 Camelopardalis 5.7
NGC 1513     Open Cluster Perseus 8.4
NGC 1528   NGC 1528 Persée Open Cluster 2.5 Perseus 6.4
NGC 1535   N1535s Planetary Nebula 6.5 Eridanus 10
NGC 1545     Open Cluster 2.3 Perseus 6.2
NGC 1647   NGC 1647 AOFPK Open Cluster 1.8 Taurus 6.4
NGC 1664   NGC1664 Open Cluster 3.9 Auriga 7.6
NGC 1788   ESO-NGC1788 Nebula 1.3 Orion
NGC 1817     Open Cluster 6.4 Taurus 7.7
NGC 1857     Open Cluster 4.5 Auriga 7
NGC 1907     Open Cluster 4.5 Auriga 8.2
NGC 1931   NGC1931HunterWilson Open Cluster and Nebula 7 Auriga 11.3
NGC 1961   N1961s Galaxy 175,000 Camelopardalis 11.1
NGC 1964   NGC 1964 - Potw1739a Galaxy 65,000 Lepus 10.8
NGC 1980     Nebula Orion 1.8
NGC 1999   Ngc1999 Nebula 1.5 Orion
NGC 2022   NGC2022 Planetary Nebula Orion 12
NGC 2024 Flame Nebula NASA-FlameNebula-NGC2024-20140507 Nebula 0.9 – 1.5 Orion
NGC 2126     Open Cluster Auriga 10
NGC 2129     Open Cluster 7.2 Gemini 6.7
NGC 2158   N2158s Open Cluster 11 Gemini 8.6
NGC 2169   NGC 2169 AOFPK Open Cluster 3.6 Orion 5.9
NGC 2185   N2183s Nebula Monoceros
NGC 2186     Open Cluster Orion 8.7
NGC 2194   NGC 2194 AOFPK Open Cluster 10 Orion 8.5
NGC 2204     Open Cluster 8.6 Canis Major 8.6
NGC 2215     Open Cluster Monoceros 8.4
NGC 2232     Open Cluster 1.3 Monoceros 3.9
C50 NGC 2244   Ngc2244c Open Cluster 4.9 Monoceros 4.8
NGC 2251     Open Cluster Monoceros 7.3
NGC 2264 Cone Nebula/Christmas Tree Cluster NGC 2264 Open Cluster and Nebula 2.6 Monoceros 3.9
NGC 2266     Open Cluster 11 Gemini 10
NGC 2281     Open Cluster 1.8 Auriga 5.4
NGC 2286     Open Cluster Monoceros 7.5
NGC 2301   NGC 2301 AOFPK Open Cluster 2.8 Monoceros 6
NGC 2304     Open Cluster Gemini 10
NGC 2311     Open Cluster Monoceros 10
NGC 2324     Open Cluster Monoceros 8.4
NGC 2335     Open Cluster Monoceros 7.2
NGC 2343     Open Cluster Monoceros 6.7
NGC 2353     Open Cluster Monoceros 7.1
NGC 2354     Open Cluster Canis Major 6.5
NGC 2355     Open Cluster 5.4 Gemini 10
C58 NGC 2360   NGC 2360 in CMa Open Cluster 4 Canis Major 7.2
C64 NGC 2362 Tau Canis Majoris Cluster Taucanismajoris Open Cluster and Nebula 5.1 Canis Major 4.1
NGC 2371   NGC 2371 Planetary Nebula 4.4 Gemini 13
NGC 2372     Planetary Nebula Gemini
C39 NGC 2392 Eskimo Nebula/Clown Face Nebula Ngc2392 Planetary Nebula 4 Gemini 10
NGC 2395     Open Cluster Gemini 8
C7 NGC 2403   NGC 2403HST Galaxy 14,000 Camelopardalis 8.4
C25 NGC 2419   NGC 2419 Hubble WikiSky Globular Cluster 275 Lynx 10.4

101–200

Messier or Caldwell ID NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
NGC 2420     Open Cluster Gemini 8.3
NGC 2421     Open Cluster Puppis 8.3
M47 NGC 2422   Eso1441a Open Cluster 1.6 Puppis 4.4
NGC 2423     Open Cluster Puppis 6.7
NGC 2438   N2438s-crop Planetary Nebula 2.9 Puppis 10
NGC 2440   Ngc 2440 Planetary Nebula 4 Puppis 11
NGC 2479     Open Cluster Puppis 10
NGC 2482     Open Cluster Puppis 7.3
NGC 2489     Open Cluster Puppis 7.9
C54 NGC 2506   NGC 2506 AOFPK Open Cluster 10 Monoceros 7.6
NGC 2509     Open Cluster 9.5 Puppis 9
NGC 2527     Open Cluster Puppis 6.5
NGC 2539     Open Cluster 4.4 Puppis 6.5
M48 NGC 2548   M48a Open Cluster 1.5 Hydra 5.8
NGC 2567     Open Cluster Puppis 7.4
NGC 2571     Open Cluster Puppis 7
NGC 2613   NGC 2613 (captured by ESO's 1.5-metre Danish telescope) Galaxy 50,000 Pyxis 10.4
NGC 2627     Open Cluster Pyxis 8
NGC 2655   NGC2655 - HST - Potw1817a Galaxy 63,000 Camelopardalis 10.1
NGC 2681   NGC 2681 HST 9788 10 R814GB658 Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 10.3
NGC 2683   Ngc 2683 Galaxy 16,000 Lynx 9.7
NGC 2742     Galaxy Ursa Major 11.7
NGC 2768   Dusty detail in elliptical galaxy NGC 2768 Galaxy 65,000 Ursa Major 10
C48 NGC 2775   NGC2775-hst-R814GB450 Galaxy 55,000 Cancer 10.3
NGC 2782   NGC 2782 hst 06673 11134 R814GB555B606 Galaxy 70,000-110,000 Lynx 11.5
NGC 2787   NGC 2787 Galaxy 25,000 Ursa Major 10.8
NGC 2811     Galaxy Hydra 11.3
NGC 2841   NGC 2841 Galaxy 31,000 Ursa Major 9.3
NGC 2859   NGC 2859 HST 9788 14 R814asinhG814logB658n Galaxy 23000 Leo Minor 10.7
NGC 2903   NGC 2903 GALEX Galaxy 20500 Leo 8.9
NGC 2950     Galaxy Ursa Major 11
NGC 2964   NGC2964-hst-R814GB40 Galaxy Leo 11.3
NGC 2974   NGC 2974 R814GB547m Galaxy Sextans 10.8
NGC 2976   NGC 2976 Hubble WikiSky Galaxy 12,000 Ursa Major 10.2
NGC 2985   NGC2985 Galaxy Ursa Major 10.5
M82 NGC 3034 Cigar Galaxy Messier82 Galaxy 11000 Ursa Major 8.4
NGC 3077   NGC 3077 Hubble Galaxy 12,000 Ursa Major 9.9
NGC 3079   NGC 3079 Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 10.6
C53 NGC 3115 Spindle Galaxy NGC 3115 Galaxy 22,000 Sextans 9.2
NGC 3147   NGC 3147 - HST Galaxy 130,000 Draco 10.7
NGC 3166   NGC 3169 NGC 3166 Galaxy 57,000-75,000 Sextans 10.6
NGC 3169   NGC 3169 NGC 3166 Galaxy 57,000-75,000 Sextans 10.5
NGC 3184   NGC3184 3.6 5.8 8.0 microns spitzer Galaxy 25000 Ursa Major 9.8
NGC 3190   NGC 3190 Galaxy 80,000 Leo 11
NGC 3193   NGC 3193 cutout hst 06357 18 wfpc2 total pc sci Galaxy 80,000 Leo 10.9
NGC 3198   NGC 3198 GALEX WikiSky Galaxy 45,000 Ursa Major 10.4
NGC 3226   NGC 3227 & 3226 (Arp 94) Galaxy 58700 Leo 11.4
NGC 3227   NGC 3227 & 3226 (Arp 94) Galaxy 58,700 Leo 10.8
C59 NGC 3242 Ghost of Jupiter NGC 3242 "Ghost of Jupiter" Planetary Nebula 1 Hydra 9
NGC 3245     Galaxy Leo Minor 10.8
NGC 3277     Galaxy Leo Minor 11.7
NGC 3294   N3294s Galaxy Leo Minor 11.7
NGC 3310   NGC 3310 Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 10.9
NGC 3344   Multi-filter image of NGC 3344 Galaxy 22,500 Leo Minor 10
NGC 3377     Galaxy 35,000 Leo 10.2
M105 NGC 3379   Messier 105 Galaxy 38,000 Leo 9.3
NGC 3384   M105, NGC 3384 & NGC 3389 Galaxy 35,000 Leo 10
NGC 3395     Galaxy Leo Minor 12.1
NGC 3412     Galaxy Leo 10.6
NGC 3414     Galaxy Leo Minor 10.8
NGC 3432   Ngc3432-hst-625-R814GB450 Galaxy Leo Minor 11.3
NGC 3486   NGC3486-hst-R814GB450 (crop) Galaxy 27,000 Leo Minor 10.3
NGC 3489     Galaxy Leo 10.3
NGC 3504   N3504s Galaxy Leo Minor 11.1
NGC 3521   NGC3521-eso1129a Galaxy 30,000 Leo 8.9
M108 NGC 3556   M108HunterWilson Galaxy 45000 Ursa Major 10.1
NGC 3593   Ngc3593 Galaxy 20,000 Leo 11
NGC 3607   NGC 3607 Galaxy Leo 10
NGC 3608     Galaxy Leo 11
NGC 3610   A young elliptical Galaxy 70,000 Ursa Major 10.8
NGC 3613     Galaxy Ursa Major 12
NGC 3619     Galaxy Ursa Major 13
NGC 3621   NGC 3621 Galaxy 22,000 Hydra 10
C40 NGC 3626     Galaxy 86,000 Leo 10.9
NGC 3628   NGC 3628 The Oddest Member of the Leo Triplet Galaxy 35,000 Leo 9.5
NGC 3631   NGC3631-hst-R814G606B450 Galaxy 35,000 Ursa Major 10.4
NGC 3640     Galaxy Leo 10.3
NGC 3655     Galaxy Leo 11.6
NGC 3665     Galaxy Ursa Major 10.8
NGC 3675   NGC3675 spiral galaxy in Schulman telescope Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 11
NGC 3686     Galaxy Leo 11.4
NGC 3726     Galaxy 45,000 Ursa Major 10.4
NGC 3729     Galaxy Ursa Major 11.4
NGC 3810   NGC 3810 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope) Galaxy Leo 10.8
NGC 3813     Galaxy Ursa Major 11.7
NGC 3877   NGC 3877 hst 08602 555 Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 12
NGC 3893     Galaxy Ursa Major 11
NGC 3898   NGC 3898 hst 09042 R814B450 06359 606 Galaxy Ursa Major 10.8
NGC 3900   NGC 3900 hst 06359 606 Galaxy Leo 11.4
NGC 3912     Galaxy Leo 13
NGC 3938   NGC3938 UArizona Galaxy 43,000 Ursa Major 10.4
NGC 3941     Galaxy 40,000 Ursa Major 11
NGC 3945   NGC 3945 lenticular Galaxy 13024680373 e2ca77db8d o Galaxy Ursa Major 10.6
NGC 3949   NGC 3949 Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 11
NGC 3953   NGC3953 Galaxy 56,000 Ursa Major 10.1
NGC 3962     Galaxy Crater 10.6
NGC 3982   NGC 3982 - Hubble space telescope, 2003 Galaxy 67000 Ursa Major 12
M109 NGC 3992   M109HunterWilson09 Galaxy 55,000 Ursa Major 9.8
NGC 3998     Galaxy Ursa Major 10.6
NGC 4026     Galaxy Ursa Major 12

201–300

Messier or Caldwell ID NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
NGC 4027   NGC 4027 Galaxy 68,000 Corvus 11.1
NGC 4030   HAWK-I NGC 4030 Galaxy 75,000 Virgo 12
NGC 4036   Hazy dust in Ursa Major NGC 4036 Galaxy 62,000 Ursa Major 10.6
C60/C61 NGC 4038/NGC 4039 Antennae Galaxies Antennae.jpeg Galaxy 83,000 Corvus 10.7
NGC 4041   NGC 4041 hst 09042 R814G606B450 Galaxy 70,000 Ursa Major 11.1
NGC 4051   NGC4051 Goran Nilsson & The Liverpool Telescope Galaxy 45,000 Ursa Major 10.3
NGC 4085     Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 12.3
NGC 4088   NGC4088 4085 JeffJohnson Galaxy 50,000 Ursa Major 10.5
NGC 4102   This is no supermodel spiral Galaxy 69,000 Ursa Major 12
NGC 4111   Elegance conceals an eventful past Galaxy 45,000 Canes Venatici 10.8
NGC 4143     Galaxy Canes Venatici 12
NGC 4147   NGC 4147 HST 10775 R814GB606 Globular Cluster 60 Coma Berenices 10.3
NGC 4150   Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4150 Galaxy Coma Berenices 11.7
NGC 4151   NGC 4151 - HST Galaxy 62,000 Canes Venatici 10.4
NGC 4179     Galaxy Virgo 10.9
NGC 4203     Galaxy 50,000 Coma Berenices 10.7
NGC 4214   NGC 4214 Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 9.7
NGC 4216   Ngc 4216 Galaxy 40,000 Virgo 10
NGC 4245   NGC 4245 hst 05446 606 Galaxy Coma Berenices 11.4
NGC 4251     Galaxy Coma Berenices 12
M106 NGC 4258   Messier 106 visible and infrared composite Galaxy 25,000 Canes Venatici 8.3
NGC 4261   NGC 4261 Black hole Galaxy 95,000 Virgo 10.3
NGC 4273     Galaxy Virgo 11.9
NGC 4274   Ngc4274-hst-555 Galaxy 45,000 Coma Berenices 10.4
NGC 4278   NGC4278 - HST - Judy Schmidt, cropped Galaxy Coma Berenices 10.2
NGC 4281   NGC 4281 hst 05446 606 Galaxy Virgo 11.3
NGC 4293   Ngc4293-hst-606 Galaxy 54,000 Coma Berenices 11
M61 NGC 4303   Messier 61 looks straight into the camera Galaxy 60,000 Virgo 9.7
NGC 4314   NGC 4314HST1998-21-b-full Galaxy 40,000 Coma Berenices 10.5
NGC 4346     Galaxy Canes Venatici 12
NGC 4350   NGC 4350 color cutout hst 9401 21 acs wfc f850lp f475w sci Galaxy Coma Berenices 11.1
NGC 4361   N4361s Planetary Nebula Corvus 10
NGC 4365     Galaxy Virgo 11
NGC 4371     Galaxy Virgo 10.8
NGC 4394   Hubble spies NGC 4394 Galaxy 40,000 Coma Berenices 10.9
NGC 4414   NGC 4414 (NASA-med) Galaxy 62,000 Coma Berenices 10.3
NGC 4419     Galaxy Coma Berenices 11.1
NGC 4429     Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.2
NGC 4435 The Eyes NGC4438-NGC4435-eso1131a Galaxy 52,000 Virgo 10.9
NGC 4438 The Eyes NGC4438-NGC4435-eso1131a Galaxy 52,000 Virgo 10.1
NGC 4442     Galaxy Virgo 10.5
NGC 4448   NGC 4448 HST 09042 R814B606 Galaxy 45,000 Coma Berenices 11.1
C21 NGC 4449   Starburst in NGC 4449 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope) Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 9.4
NGC 4450   N4450s Galaxy 50,000 Coma Berenices 10.1
NGC 4459   NGC 4459 wikisky Galaxy 50,000 Coma Berenices 10.4
NGC 4473     Galaxy 50,000 Coma Berenices 10.2
NGC 4477     Galaxy 55,000 Coma Berenices 10.4
NGC 4478     Galaxy 50,000 Virgo 11.2
NGC 4485   Starbursts in the wake of a fleeting romance Galaxy 25,000 Canes Venatici 12
NGC 4490   N4490s Galaxy 25,000 Canes Venatici 9.8
NGC 4494     Galaxy 45,000 Coma Berenices 9.9
NGC 4526   SN1994D Galaxy 108,000 Virgo 9.6
NGC 4527     Galaxy 50,000 Virgo 10.4
NGC 4535   NGC 4535 Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 9.8
NGC 4536   N4536s-crop Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.4
NGC 4546     Galaxy Virgo 10.3
M91 NGC 4548   M91s Galaxy 60,000 Coma Berenices 10.2
NGC 4550   NGC 4550 hst 05375 R814 G555 Galaxy 50,000 Virgo 11.6
C36 NGC 4559   NGC 4559 hst 09042 R814B450 Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.9
C38 NGC 4565 Needle Galaxy NGC4565 Galaxy from the Mount Lemmon SkyCenter Schulman Telescope courtesy Adam Block Galaxy 42,000 Coma Berenices 9.6
NGC 4570     Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.9
M104 NGC 4594 Sombrero Galaxy M104 ngc4594 sombrero galaxy hi-res Galaxy 50,000 Virgo 8.3
NGC 4596     Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.5
NGC 4618   NGC 4618 hst 09042 05446 R814B450 606 Galaxy 30,000 Canes Venatici 10.8
C32 NGC 4631 Whale Galaxy Ngc 4631 Galaxy 22,000 Canes Venatici 9.3
NGC 4636     Galaxy Virgo 9.6
NGC 4643     Galaxy Virgo 10.6
NGC 4654   Ngc4654-hst-R814GB450 Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.5
NGC 4656 Hockey Stick Galaxy The Hockey Stick Galaxy Galaxy 30,000 Canes Venatici 10.4
NGC 4660   NGC 4660HST Galaxy 63,000 Virgo 11
NGC 4665     Galaxy Virgo 12
NGC 4666   NGC 4666 - Eso1036a Galaxy 80,000 Virgo 10.8
NGC 4689     Galaxy 55,000 Coma Berenices 10.9
C52 NGC 4697   NGC 4697 HST 10003 R850 B475 Galaxy 76,000 Virgo 9.3
NGC 4698   NGC 4698 Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.7
NGC 4699     Galaxy 65,000 Virgo 9.6
NGC 4725   NGC 4725 Galaxy 41,000 Coma Berenices 9.2
NGC 4753     Galaxy 60,000 Virgo 9.9
NGC 4754     Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.6
NGC 4762   Potw1443a Galaxy 60,000 Virgo 10.2
NGC 4781   NGC 4781 hst 05446 606 Galaxy Virgo 12
NGC 4800   NGC 4800 hst 09042 R814B606 Galaxy Canes Venatici 12
NGC 4845   Ngc4845-hst-606R814GB450 Galaxy 47,000 Virgo 12
NGC 4856     Galaxy Virgo 10.4
NGC 4866   NGC 4866 as imaged by Hubble Galaxy 80,000 Virgo 11
NGC 4900   Ngc4900-hst-R814GB450 Galaxy Virgo 11.5
NGC 4958     Galaxy Virgo 10.5
NGC 4995     Galaxy Virgo 11
C29 NGC 5005   NGC 5005 Galaxy 69,000 Canes Venatici 9.8
NGC 5033   N5033s Galaxy 38,000-60,000 Canes Venatici 10.1
NGC 5054   NGC 5054 cutout HST 7330 99 NIC NIC2 F160W sci Galaxy Virgo 11
NGC 5195 Messier 51b Messier51 sRGB Galaxy 25,000 Canes Venatici 9.6
C45 NGC 5248   N5248s Galaxy 74,000 Boötes 10.2
NGC 5273     Galaxy Canes Venatici 11.6
NGC 5322   Massive Galaxy NGC 5322 Galaxy 80,000 Ursa Major 10
NGC 5363     Galaxy Virgo 10.2
NGC 5364   N5364s Galaxy 55,000 Virgo 10.4
NGC 5466   NGC 5466 Hubble WikiSky Globular Cluster 52 Boötes 9.1
NGC 5473     Galaxy Ursa Major 11.4
NGC 5474   A dwarf galaxy ravaged by grand design Galaxy 21,000 Ursa Major 10.9

301–400

Messier or Caldwell ID NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
NGC 5557     Galaxy Boötes 11.1
NGC 5566   NGC 5566 and NGC 5569 Galaxy 65,000 Virgo 10.5
NGC 5576     Galaxy Virgo 10.9
NGC 5631     Galaxy Ursa Major 13
NGC 5634   NGC 5634 Hubble WikiSky Globular Cluster 88 Virgo 9.6
NGC 5676     Galaxy 100,000 Boötes 10.9
NGC 5689   NGC 5689 hst 07450 R814B450 Galaxy Boötes 11.9
C66 NGC 5694   NGC 5694 Globular Cluster 113 Hydra 10.2
NGC 5746   NGC5746 by Goran Nilsson & The Liverpool Telescope Galaxy 95,000 Virgo 10.6
NGC 5846   NGC5850 Galaxy from the Mount Lemmon SkyCenter Schulman Telescope courtesy Adam Block Galaxy Virgo 10.2
M102? NGC 5866 Spindle Galaxy Ngc5866 hst big Galaxy 50,000 Draco 10
NGC 5897   NGC5897-NRGBhi Globular Cluster 24 Libra 8.6
NGC 5907   N5907s Galaxy 55,000 Draco 10.4
NGC 5982   NGC 5982 Galaxy Draco 11.1
NGC 6118   NGC 6118 (captured by ESO’s Very Large Telescope) Galaxy 83,000 Serpens 12
NGC 6144   NGC 6144 hlsp acsggc HST 10775 R814 B 606 Globular Cluster Scorpius 9.1
M107 NGC 6171   Messier object 107 Globular Cluster 20 Ophiuchus 8.1
NGC 6207   Ngc6207-hst-R814GB606 Galaxy 30,000 Hercules 11.6
NGC 6217   NGC 6217 hs-2009-25-bc-full jpg Galaxy 67,000 Ursa Minor 11.2
NGC 6229   NGC 6229 hst 08118 R555B439 Globular Cluster 100 Hercules 9.4
NGC 6235     Globular Cluster Ophiuchus 10.2
NGC 6284   NGC 6284 hst 05899 R555G439B336 Globular Cluster 50 Ophiuchus 9
NGC 6287   NGC 6287 hst 06561 R814G555B439 Globular Cluster 30 Ophiuchus 9.2
NGC 6293   NGC 6293 hst 12516 R814G555B390 Globular Cluster 31-52 Ophiuchus 8.2
NGC 6304   NGC 6304 HST 10775 R814B606 Globular Cluster 19 Ophiuchus 8.4
NGC 6316   NGC 6316 hst 07470 R555B439 Globular Cluster 35 Ophiuchus 9
NGC 6342   NGC 6342 hst 11628 R555B438 Globular Cluster 28 Ophiuchus 9.9
NGC 6355   NGC 6355 hst 11628 R555B438 Globular Cluster 31 Ophiuchus 9.6
NGC 6356   NGC 6356 hst 07470 R555B439 Globular Cluster 50 Ophiuchus 8.4
NGC 6369 Little Ghost Nebula Littleghostnebula Planetary Nebula 2 Ophiuchus 13
NGC 6401   NGC 6401 Globular Cluster 24 Ophiuchus 9.5
NGC 6426   NGC 6426 HST 11586 R814B606 Globular Cluster 67 Ophiuchus 11.2
NGC 6440   NGC 6440 hst 12517 R814B606 Globular Cluster 28 Sagittarius 9.7
NGC 6445 Box Nebula   Planetary Nebula Sagittarius 13
NGC 6451     Open Cluster Scorpius 8
M20 NGC 6514 Trifid Nebula Trifid.nebula.arp.750pix Open Cluster and Nebula 2 Sagittarius 6.3
NGC 6517   NGC 6517 hst 11628 R814B555 Globular Cluster Ophiuchus 10.3
NGC 6520   Cluster NGC 6520 and the strangely shaped dark cloud Barnard 86 Open Cluster Sagittarius 8
NGC 6522   NGC 6522 HST 9690 R625B435 Globular Cluster 25 Sagittarius 8.6
NGC 6528   NGC 6528 hst 11664 51 R814G555B390 9453 62 R814G606B Globular Cluster 26 Sagittarius 9.5
NGC 6540     Open Cluster 17 Sagittarius 9.3
C6 NGC 6543 Cat's Eye Nebula Cat's Eye Nebula Planetary Nebula 3 Draco 9
NGC 6544   NGC 6544 Hubble WikiSky Globular Cluster 10 Sagittarius 8.3
NGC 6553   NGC 6553 Hubble WikiSky Globular Cluster 20 Sagittarius 8.3
NGC 6568     Open Cluster Sagittarius 9
NGC 6569   NGC 6569 hst 08118 R555B439 Globular Cluster 35 Sagittarius 8.7
NGC 6583     Open Cluster Sagittarius 10
NGC 6624   NGC 6624 HST 10573 R814G606B435 Globular Cluster 26 Sagittarius 8.3
NGC 6629   NGC 6629 Planetary Nebula Sagittarius 12
NGC 6633     Open Cluster 1 Ophiuchus 4.6
NGC 6638   NGC 6638 hst 08118 R555B439 Globular Cluster Sagittarius 9.2
NGC 6642   Standing out from the Crowd Globular Cluster 26 Sagittarius 8.8
NGC 6645     Open Cluster Sagittarius 9
NGC 6664     Open Cluster Scutum 7.8
NGC 6712   NGC 6712 439 555 675 814 Wiki Globular Cluster 22.5 Scutum 8.2
NGC 6755     Open Cluster 4.6 Aquila 7.5
NGC 6756     Open Cluster 6.3 Aquila 11
NGC 6781   NGC-6781 Planetary Nebula Aquila 12
NGC 6802   Ngc 6802 ver Open Cluster Vulpecula 8.8
NGC 6818 Little Gem Nebula Ngc6818 Planetary Nebula Sagittarius 10
NGC 6823   Sh 2-86RGBHaRGBHunter Open Cluster 6 Vulpecula 7.1
C15 NGC 6826 Blinking Planetary NGC 6826HSTFull Planetary Nebula 2.2 Cygnus 10
NGC 6830     Open Cluster Vulpecula 7.9
NGC 6834   Ngc 6834 Open Cluster 7 Cygnus 7.8
NGC 6866   Open Cluster 3.9 Cygnus 7.6
NGC 6882     Open Cluster Vulpecula 8.1
C37 NGC 6885     Open Cluster 2 Vulpecula 6
NGC 6905 Blue Flash Nebula NGC 6905 - VLT(FORS2) - RHaBOIII Planetary Nebula 7.5 Delphinus 12
NGC 6910     Open Cluster Cygnus 7.4
C47 NGC 6934   NGC 6934 Globular Cluster 57 Delphinus 8.9
NGC 6939     Open Cluster 3.9 Cepheus 7.8
NGC 6940   NGC 6940 AOFPK Open Cluster 2.5 Vulpecula 6.3
C12 NGC 6946 Fireworks Galaxy SpiralGalaxy NGC6946 Galaxy 18,000 Cepheus 8.9
C20 NGC 7000 North America Nebula Nord america Nebula 2 Cygnus
C42 NGC 7006   NGC 7006 HST Globular Cluster 135 Delphinus 10.6
NGC 7008 Fetus Nebula N7008s Planetary Nebula 3 Cygnus 13
C55 NGC 7009 Saturn Nebula MUSE image of the Saturn Nebula Planetary Nebula 1.4 Aquarius 8
NGC 7044     Open Cluster Cygnus 11
NGC 7062     Open Cluster Cygnus 8.3
NGC 7086     Open Cluster Cygnus 8.4
NGC 7128     Open Cluster Cygnus 9.7
NGC 7142     Open Cluster 6.2 Cepheus 9.3
NGC 7160     Open Cluster Cepheus 6.1
NGC 7209     Open Cluster 3.8 Lacerta 6.7
NGC 7217   NGC7217 Galaxy 50,000 Pegasus 10.2
C16 NGC 7243   NGC 7243 Open Cluster 3 Lacerta 6.4
NGC 7296     Open Cluster Lacerta 10
C30 NGC 7331   NGC 7331 zoomed Galaxy 47,000 Pegasus 9.5
NGC 7380 Wizard Nebula NGC7380 Wizard nebula Open Cluster and Nebula 7.2 Cepheus 7.2
NGC 7448     Galaxy Pegasus 11.7
C44 NGC 7479   Ngc7479 Galaxy 106,000 Pegasus 11
NGC 7510     Open Cluster 11 Cepheus 7.9
NGC 7606   N7606s Galaxy Aquarius 10.8
C22 NGC 7662 Blue Snowball Ngc7662 Planetary Nebula 3.2 Andromeda 9
NGC 7686     Open Cluster Andromeda 5.6
NGC 7723   N7723s Galaxy Aquarius 11.1
NGC 7727   NGC 7727 hst 07468 R814B555 Galaxy 76,000 Aquarius 10.7
NGC 7789 Caroline's Rose NGC7789HunterWilson Open Cluster 7.6 Cassiopeia 6.7
NGC 7790     Open Cluster 11 Cassiopeia 8.5
C43 NGC 7814   N7814s Galaxy 49,000 Pegasus 10.5

See also

References

  1. ^ Mullaney, James (April 1976). "Letter to Sky & Telescope". Sky & Telescope: 235. Archived from the original (subscription required) on 2007-10-01. Retrieved 2006-08-24.
  2. ^ Branchett, Brenda. "Herschel 400 Club". Retrieved 2006-08-24.
  3. ^ O'Meara, Stephen James (2002). The Caldwell Objects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82796-5.

External links

Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars

The Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (CN) is an astronomical catalogue of nebulae first published in 1786 by William Herschel, with the assistance of his sister Caroline Herschel. It was later expanded into the General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (GC) by his son, John Herschel. The CN and GC are the precursors to John Louis Emil Dreyer's New General Catalogue (NGC) used by current astronomers.

Herschel Catalogue

Herschel Catalogue may refer to:

Herschel Space Observatory catalogue of observations, which use the "FIRST" designator

Catalogues published by William Herschel and Caroline Herschel

Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (CN), catalogued by William and Caroline Herschel, using "H" entry designator

Catalogues published by John Herschel

General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (GC), catalogued by John Herschel, using "h" entry designator

J.L.E. Dreyer's New General Catalogue and Index Catalogues, which expanded on the William,Caroline,John Herschel catalogues, which use the "NGC" and "IC" designators

Herschel 400 Catalogue, a subset of the Herschels' catalogues for amateur astronomers

NGC 2974

NGC 2974 (also catalogued as NGC 2652) is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Sextans. It is located at a distance of circa 90 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 2974 is about 90,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on January 6, 1785. NGC 2974 is located in the sky about 2 and a half degrees south-south east of Iota Hydrae and more than 6 degrees northeast of Alphard. A 10th magnitude star lies next to the galaxy, thus making it a challenging object at low magnifications. NGC 2974 is part of the Herschel 400 Catalogue.

NGC 3384

NGC 3384 is an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Leo. The galaxy was discovered by William Herschel in 1784 as part of the Herschel 400 Catalogue. The high age of the stars in the central region of NGC 3384 was confirmed after analysis of their color. More than 80% were found to be Population II stars which are over a billion years old. The supermassive black hole at the core has a mass of 1.6+0.1−0.2×107 M☉.

NGC 3640

NGC 3640 is an elliptical galaxy located in the constellation Leo. It is located at a distance of circa 75 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 3640 is about 90,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on February 23, 1784. It lies 2 degrees south of Sigma Leonis and is a member of the Herschel 400 Catalogue. It is condensed and can be spotted with a small telescope from suburban skies.

NGC 4278

NGC 4278 is an elliptical galaxy located in the constellation Coma Berenices. It is located at a distance of circa 55 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 4278 is about 65,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on March 13, 1785. NGC 4278 is part of the Herschel 400 Catalogue and can be found about one and 3/4 of a degree northwest of Gamma Comae Berenices even with a small telescope.

NGC 4490

NGC 4490, also known as the Cocoon Galaxy, is a barred spiral galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici. It lies at a distance of 25 million light years from Earth. It interacts with its smaller companion NGC 4485 and as a result is a starburst galaxy. NGC 4490 and NGC 4485 are collectively known in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies as Arp 269. NGC 4490 is located 3/4° northwest of beta Canum Venaticorum and with apparent visual magnitude 9.8, can be observed with 15x100 binoculars. It is a member of Herschel 400 Catalogue. It belongs in Canes Venatici galaxy cloud II.

It was discovered by William Herschel in 1788. Two supernovae have been observed in NGC 4490, SN 1982F, and type II-P SN 2008ax, with peak magnitude 16.1.

NGC 4636

NGC 4636 is an elliptical galaxy located in the constellation Virgo. It is located at a distance of circa 55 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 4636 is about 105,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on February 23, 1784. NGC 4636 lies one and a half degrees southwest of Delta Virginis. It can be viewed through a telescope at a ×23 magnification as a bright oval glow. It is part of the Herschel 400 Catalogue.

NGC 4665

NGC 4665, also catalogued as NGC 4624 and NGC 4664, is a barred lenticular or spiral galaxy located in the constellation Virgo. It is located at a distance of circa 60 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 4665 is about 75,000 light years across. NGC 4665 lies 2 and 3/4 degrees east-south east of Delta Virginis and 50 arcminutes southwest of 35 Virginis. It can be viewed through a telescope at a 23 magnification, forming a pair with an 11th magnitude star 1.5 arcminutes southwest. It is part of the Herschel 400 Catalogue.It was discovered by William Herschel on February 23, 1784, however, he noted a location 10 arcminutes off the galaxy, where there is no object. It was observed by William Herschel again on April 30, 1786, noting the correct coordinates, and he misidentified it as another nebula. The fact that they are the same object was noted by John Louis Emil Dreyer in 1912 in the corrections of the New General Catalogue. It was also recorded independently on April 9, 1828 by John Herschel.NGC 4665 has a luminous, slightly elliptical bulge and a prominent bar with high surface brightness. The isophotes appear boxy at the end of the bar. The total bar length is estimated to be near 3 kpc. The bar is slightly twisted, turning near 12 degrees along its axis. Two diffuse, faint arms emerge from each side of the bar and form a pseudoring. The surface brightness of the arms is higher near the bar. The southern arm appears a bit stronger. An arch feature is observed at the east side of the galaxy that could be a partial outer dusty ring. The outer isophotes are elliptical. The total mass of molecular gas is less than 107.3 M☉.NGC 4665 belongs to the NGC 4636 group. Other members of the group include NGC 4457, NGC 4586, NGC 4587, NGC 4600, NGC 4636, and NGC 4688. These galaxies, along with NGC 4753, Messier 61 and their groups form the southern boundary of the Virgo cluster. It can be difficult to determine which galaxies belong to which group, especially around the southern edge of the Virgo cluster where there is a confusion of galaxies at different distances.

NGC 5846

NGC 5846 is an elliptical galaxy located in the constellation Virgo. It is located at a distance of circa 90 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 5846 is about 110,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on February 24, 1786. It lies near 110 Virginis and is part of the Herschel 400 Catalogue.

NGC 596

NGC 596 is an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Cetus. The galaxy lies 65 million light years away from Earth, which means, given its apparent dimensions, that NGC 596 is approximately 60,000 light years across. The galaxy shows an outer envelope and is a merger remnant. The surface brightness profil is smooth and featureless. The galaxy hosts a supermassive black hole, whose mass is estimated to be 170 millions (108.24) M ⊙ {\displaystyle {\begin{smallmatrix}M_{\odot }\end{smallmatrix}}} .

NGC 596 belongs at the NGC 584 galaxy group, which also includes the galaxies NGC 584, which lies 25 minutes to the northwest, NGC 600, NGC 615 and NGC 636.

The galaxy is included in the Herschel 400 Catalogue. It lies about 2 and half degrees northeast from theta Ceti.

NGC 615

NGC 615 is a spiral galaxy seen edge-on located in the constellation Cetus. It is located at a distance of circa 70 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 615 is about 75,000 light years across. It was discovered William Herschel on January 10, 1785. NGC 615 belongs at the NGC 584 galaxy group, which also includes the galaxies NGC 584, NGC 596, NGC 600, and NGC 636.The galaxy is included in the Herschel 400 Catalogue. It lies about three degrees northeast from theta Ceti.

NGC 6939

NGC 6939 is an open cluster in the constellation Cepheus. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1798. The cluster lies 2/3° northwest from the spiral galaxy NGC 6946. The cluster lies approximately 4.000 light years away and it is over a billion years old.

NGC 6940

NGC 6940 is an open cluster in the constellation Vulpecula. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1784. The cluster is nearly a billion years old and it is located 2,500 light years away. It is considered the finest open cluster in the constellation.

NGC 720

NGC 720 is an elliptical galaxy located in the constellation Cetus. It is located at a distance of circa 80 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 720 is about 110,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on October 3, 1785. The galaxy is included in the Herschel 400 Catalogue. It lies about three and a half degrees south and slightly east from zeta Ceti.

NGC 7606

NGC 7606 is a spiral galaxy located in the constellation Aquarius. It is located at a distance of circa 100 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 7606 is about 165,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel οn September 28, 1785. The galaxy is included in the Herschel 400 Catalogue. It lies 45 arcminutes northeast from psi2 Aquarii. It can be seen with a 4 inches telescope but its visibility is greatly affected by light pollution.

NGC 7723

NGC 7723 is a barred spiral galaxy located in the constellation Aquarius. It is located at a distance of circa 90 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 7723 is about 95,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel οn November 27, 1785. The galaxy is included in the Herschel 400 Catalogue. It lies one and a half degrees north-northwest from Omega1 Aquarii. It can be seen with a 4-inch telescope under dark skies.

NGC 779

NGC 779 is a spiral galaxy seen edge-on, located in the constellation Cetus. It is located at a distance of circa 60 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 779 is about 70,000 light years across. It was discovered by William Herschel on September 10, 1785.NGC 779 features a bright nucleus and an elliptical or boxy bulge. It is seen with high inclination. The inner arms are tightly wound and form an inner pseudoring with high surface brightness. A break is seen at the northwest side of the pseudoring and may be due to dust extinction. The disk has lower surface brightness and is smooth, with no pronounced star-forming knots. The spiral pattern of the galaxy gas been described either as multiple-armed or grand-design two-armed spiral.NGC 779 forms a small galaxy group with UGCA 024, known as the NGC 779 group. NGC 779 is considered to be part of the Cetus II cloud, which also includes NGC 584, NGC 681, NGC 720, and their groups, although it could also lie in the foreground.The galaxy is included in the Herschel 400 Catalogue. It lies about five degrees northeast from Zeta Ceti. It can be seen with a small telescope at moderate magnification, with its core being more easily detected.

Owl Nebula

The Owl Nebula (also known as Messier 97, M97 or NGC 3587) is a planetary nebula located approximately 2,030 light years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It was discovered by French astronomer Pierre Méchain on February 16, 1781. When William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, observed the nebula in 1848, his hand-drawn illustration resembled an owl's head. It has been known as the Owl Nebula ever since.The nebula is approximately 8,000 years old. It is approximately circular in cross-section with a little visible internal structure. It was formed from the outflow of material from the stellar wind of the central star as it evolved along the asymptotic giant branch. The nebula is arranged in three concentric shells, with the outermost shell being about 20–30% larger than the inner shell. The owl-like appearance of the nebula is the result of an inner shell that is not circularly symmetric, but instead forms a barrel-like structure aligned at an angle of 45° to the line of sight.The nebula holds about 0.13 solar masses of matter, including hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; all with a density of less than 100 particles per cubic centimeter. Its outer radius is around 0.91 ly (0.28 pc) and it is expanding with velocities in the range of 27–39 km/s into the surrounding interstellar medium.The 14th magnitude central star has since reached the turning point of its evolution where it condenses to form a white dwarf. It has 55–60% of the Sun's mass, 41–148 times the brightness of the Sun, and an effective temperature of 123,000 K. The star has been successfully resolved by the Spitzer Space Telescope as a point source that does not show the infrared excess characteristic of a circumstellar disk.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.