Herodian dynasty

The Herodian dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as vassals of the Roman Empire. The Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support, bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until his death in 4 BCE, when it was divided between his sons as a Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those tetrarchies, including Judea proper, were incorporated into Judaea Province from 6 CE, though limited Herodian de facto kingship continued until Agrippa I's death in 44 CE and nominal title of kingship continued until 92 CE, when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power over his de jure domain.

Herod coin
Coin of Herod the Great

Origin

During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus (134–104 BCE), Judea conquered Edom (Idumea) and forced the Edomites to convert to Judaism.

The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reached high-ranking positions. In the days of Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas, was appointed governor of Edom. His son Antipater, father of Herod the Great, was the chief adviser to Hasmonean Hyrcanus II and managed to establish a good relationship with the Roman Republic, who at that time (63 BCE) extended their influence over the region, following conquest of Syria and intervention in a civil war in Judea.

Julius Caesar appointed Antipater to be procurator of Judea in 47 BCE and he appointed his sons Phasael and Herod to be governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. Antipater was murdered in 43 BCE; however, his sons managed to hold the reins of power and were elevated to the rank of tetrarchs in 41 BCE by Mark Antony.

Rise to power

In 40 BCE, the Parthians invaded the eastern Roman provinces and managed to drive the Romans out of many areas. In Judea, the Hasmonean dynasty was restored under king Antigonus as a pro-Parthian monarch. Herod the Great, the son of Antipater the Idumean and Cypros (possibly of Nabataean descent), managed to escape to Rome. After convincing the Roman Senate of his sincere intentions in favor of Romans he eventually was announced as king of the Jews by the Roman Senate.[1] Despite his announcement as king of the whole of Judea, Herod did not fully conquer it until 37 BCE. He subsequently ruled the Herodian kingdom as a vassal king for 34 years, crushing the opposition while also initiating huge building projects, including the harbor at Caesarea Maritima, the plaza surrounded by retaining walls at the Temple Mount, the Masada and the Herodium, among other fortresses and public works. Herod ruled Judea until 4 BCE; at his death his kingdom was divided among his three sons as a tetrarchy.

Tetrarchies

Herod Archelaus, son of Herod and Malthace the Samaritan, was given the main part of the kingdom: Judea proper, Edom and Samaria. He ruled for ten years until 6 CE, when he was "banished to Vienne in Gaul, where according to Dion Cassius Cocceianus, "Hist. Roma," lv. 27—he lived for the remainder of his days."[2] See also Census of Quirinius.

Philip the Tetrarch, sometimes erroneously called Herod Philip I, son of Herod and his fifth wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, was given jurisdiction over the northeast part of his father's kingdom; he ruled there until his death in 34 CE.

Herod Antipas, another son of Herod and Malthace, was made ruler of the Galilee and Perea; he ruled there until he was exiled to Gaul by emperor Caligula in 39 CE. Herod Antipas is probably the person referenced in the Christian New Testament Gospels, playing a role in the death of John the Baptist and the trial of Jesus.

Agrippa I was the grandson of Herod; thanks to his friendship with Emperor Caligula, the emperor appointed him ruler with the title of king over the territories of Herod Philip I in 37 CE, which were after Herod Philip's death in 34 CE shortly part of the Roman province of Syria, and in 39 CE he was given the territories of Herod Antipas. In 41 CE, Emperor Claudius added to his territory the parts of Iudea province, that previously belonged to Herod Archelaus. Thus Agrippa I practically re-united his grandfather's kingdom under his rule. Agrippa died in 44 CE.

Agrippa I's son Agrippa II was appointed King and ruler of the northern parts of his father's kingdom. He actively participated in the quelling of the Great Revolt of Judea on the Roman side. Agrippa II was the last of the Herodians, and with his death in 92 CE the dynasty was extinct, and the kingdom became fully incorporated into the Roman province of Judaea.

In addition, Aristobulus of Chalcis of the Herodian dynasty was tetrarch of Chalcis and king of Armenia Minor. His father, Herod of Chalcis ruled as king of Chalcis earlier.

List of Herodian rulers (47 BCE – 100 CE)

Herodian dynasty in later culture

Literature

Novels

  • Hordos u-Miryam (1935), a Hebrew novel by Aaron Orinowsky
  • Mariamne (1967), a Swedish novel by Pär Lagerkvist
  • Claudius the God (1934), an English novel by Robert Graves, features Herod Agrippa I as an important character

Plays

Poetry

  • Herod and Mariamne (1888), an English poem by Amelie Rives
  • Mariamne (1911), an English poem by Thomas Sturge Moore

Movies

Figurative arts

Painting

Performing arts

Music

Ballet

  • La Marianna (1785), an Italian ballet by Giuseppe Banti (chor.)

Opera

See also

References

  1. ^ Jewish War 1.14.4: Mark Antony " …then resolved to get him made king of the Jews… told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Antony and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices [to the Roman gods], and to lay the decree in the Capitol. Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign."
  2. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Archelaus: Banishment and Death

Bibliography

  • Julia Wilker, Für Rom und Jerusalem. Die herodianische Dynastie im 1. Jahrhundert n.Chr. (Berlin, Verlag Antike, 2007) (Studien zur Alten Geschichte, 5).

Further reading

  • Burrell, Barbara, and Ehud Netzer. “Herod the Builder.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 12 (1999): 705–715.
  • Kokkinos, Nikos. The Herodian Dynasty: Origins, Role In Society and Eclipse. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.
  • Kropp, Andreas J M. “Kings in Cuirass — Some Overlooked Full-Length Portraits of Herodian and Nabataean Dynasts.” Levant 45, no. 1 (2013): 45–56.
  • Richardson, Peter. Herod: King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.
  • Rocca, Samuel. Herod’s Judaea: a Mediterranean state in the classical world. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008.

External links

Antipater the Idumaean

Antipater I the Idumaean (died 43 BC) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name.A native of Idumaea, southeast of Judea between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which during the time of the Hebrew Bible had been known as the land of Edom, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judea in the name of Roman Republic.

When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, with the right to collect taxes. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the Governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. After the assassination of Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony. The pro-Roman politics of Antipater led to his increasing unpopularity among the devout, non-Hellenized Jews. He died by poison.

The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater, as well as his insinuation into the Hasmonean court, paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who used this position to marry the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endear himself to Rome and become king of Judea under Roman influence.

Aristobulus IV

Aristobulus IV (31–7 BC) was a prince of Judea from the Herodian dynasty, and was married to his cousin, Berenice, daughter of Costobarus and Salome I. He was the son of Herod the Great and his second wife, Mariamne I, the last of the Hasmoneans, and was thus a descendant of the Hasmonean Dynasty.

Aristobulus lived most of his life outside of Judaea, having been sent at age 12 along with his brother Alexander to be educated at the Imperial court of Rome in 20 BC, in the household of Augustus himself. Aristobulus was only 3 when his paternal aunt Salome contrived to have his mother executed for adultery. When the attractive young brothers returned to Jerusalem in 12 BC, the populace received them enthusiastically. That, along with their perceived imperious manner, picked up after having lived much of their lives at the very heart of Roman imperial power, often offended Herod. They also attracted the jealousy of their older half-brother, Antipater II, who deftly incited the aging king's anger with rumors of his favored sons' disloyalty. After many failed attempts at reconciliation between the king and his designated heirs, the ailing Herod had Aristobulus and Alexander strangled on charges of treason in 7 BC, and raised Antipater to the rank of his co-regent and heir apparent.

Herod, however, retained affection for Aristobulus' children, three of whom, Agrippa I, Herod and Herodias, lived to play important roles in the next generation of Jewish rulers. A fourth, Aristobulus' eldest daughter Mariamne, was the wife of Antipater II at the time of his execution and, thereafter, may have been the wife of Ethnarch Herod Archelaus.

Aristobulus Minor

Aristobulus Minor or Aristobulus the Younger (flourished 1st century BC and 1st century AD, died after 44) was a prince from the Herodian Dynasty. He was of Jewish, Nabataean and Edomite ancestry.

He was the youngest son born to prince Aristobulus IV and princess Berenice of Judea. His parents were first cousins and thus Aristobulus was a grandson to Herod the Great.

When growing up, he was educated along with his eldest brothers, Agrippa I and Herod of Chalcis in Rome, along with future Roman Emperor Claudius. Claudius and Aristobulus became friends and he became in high favor with the future emperor. Claudius and Aristobulus had sent letters to each other.

Aristobulus lived at enmity with Agrippa I. Aristobulus denounced Agrippa I and forced him to leave from the protection of Flaccus, the Proconsul of Syria. Agrippa I was charged with bribing the Damascenes to support their cause with the Proconsul against the Sidonians.

Aristobulus married Iotapa, a Syrian Princess from the Royal family of Emesa and daughter of King Sampsiceramus II and Queen Iotapa who ruled Emesa from 14-42. This marriage for Aristobulus was a promising marriage in dynastic terms. Iotapa and Aristobulus chose to live as private citizens in the Middle East. Iotapa and Aristobulus had a daughter called Iotapa, who was deaf and mute. Apart from their daughter, they had no further descendants.

In the reign of Emperor Caligula 37-41, Aristobulus had opposed the emperor in setting up statues of himself in the Temple in Jerusalem. He survived his brother Agrippa I, who died in 44.

Aristobulus of Chalcis

Aristobulus of Chalcis (Greek: Ἀριστόβουλος) was a son of Herod of Chalcis and his first wife Mariamne. Herod of Chalcis, ruler of Chalcis in Iturea, was a grandson of Herod the Great through his father, Aristobulus IV. Mariamne was a granddaughter of Herod the Great through her mother, Olympias; hence Aristobulus was a great-grandson of Herod the Great on both sides of his family.

Berenice (daughter of Herod Agrippa)

Berenice of Cilicia, also known as Julia Berenice and sometimes spelled Bernice (Greek: Βερενίκη, Bereníkē; 28 AD – after 81), was a Jewish client queen of the Roman Empire during the second half of the 1st century. Berenice was a member of the Herodian Dynasty that ruled the Roman province of Judaea between 39 BC and 92 AD. She was the daughter of King Herod Agrippa I and a sister of King Herod Agrippa II.

What little is known about her life and background comes mostly from the early historian Flavius Josephus, who detailed a history of the Jewish people and wrote an account of the Jewish Rebellion of 67. Suetonius, Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Aurelius Victor and Juvenal, also tell about her. She is also mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (25:13, 23; 26:30).

However, it is for her tumultuous love life that she is primarily known from the Renaissance. Her reputation was based on the bias of the Romans to the Eastern princesses, like Cleopatra or later Zenobia.

After a number of failed marriages throughout the 40s, she spent much of the remainder of her life at the court of her brother Herod Agrippa II, amidst rumors the two were carrying on an incestuous relationship. During the First Jewish-Roman War, she began a love affair with the future emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus. However, her unpopularity among the Romans compelled Titus to dismiss her on his accession as emperor in 79. When he died two years later, she disappeared from the historical record.

Drusilla (daughter of Herod Agrippa)

Drusilla (38 AD – 25 August 79 AD) was a daughter of Herod Agrippa and thus sister to Berenice, Mariamne and Herod Agrippa II. She perished in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

Herod Agrippa

Herod Agrippa, also known as Herod or Agrippa I (Hebrew: אגריפס;

11 BC – 44 AD), was a King of Judea from 41 to 44 AD. He was the last ruler with the royal title reigning over Judea and the father of Herod Agrippa II, the last King from the Herodian dynasty. The grandson of Herod the Great and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice, He is the king named Herod in the Acts of the Apostles 12:1: "Herod (Agrippa)" (Ἡρώδης Ἀγρίππας).

Agrippa's territory comprised most of modern Israel, including Judea, Galilee, Batanaea and Perea. From Galilee his territory extended east to Trachonitis.

Herod Agrippa II

Herod Agrippa II (Hebrew: אגריפס) (AD 27/28 – c. 92 or 100) officially named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes shortened to Agrippa, was the eighth and last ruler from the Herodian dynasty. He was the fifth member of this dynasty to bear the title of king, but he reigned over territories outside of Judea only as a Roman client. Agrippa was overthrown by his Jewish subjects in 66 and supported the Roman side in the First Jewish–Roman War.

Herod Archelaus

Herod Archelaus (Greek: Ἡρώδης Ἀρχέλαος, Hērōdēs Archelaos; 23 BC – c. 18 AD) was ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea (biblical Edom), including the cities Caesarea and Jaffa, for a period of nine years (circa 4 BC to 6 AD). Archelaus was removed by Roman Emperor Augustus when Judaea province was formed under direct Roman rule, at the time of the Census of Quirinius. He was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace the Samaritan, and was the brother of Herod Antipas, and the half-brother of Herod II. Archelaus (a name meaning "leading the people") came to power after the death of his father Herod the Great in 4 BC, and ruled over one-half of the territorial dominion of his father.

Herod II

Herod II (ca. 27 BC – 33/34 AD) was the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne II, the daughter of Simon Boethus the High Priest (Mark 6:17). For a brief period he was his father's heir. Some writers call him Herod Philip I (not to be confused with Philip the Tetrarch, whom some writers call Herod Philip II).

Herod was the first husband of Herodias, and because the Gospel of Mark states that Herodias was married to Philip, some scholars have argued that his name was actually Herod Philip. Many scholars dispute this, however, and believe the Gospel writer was in error, a suggestion supported by the fact that the later Gospel of Luke drops the name Philip. Because he was the grandson of the high priest Simon Boethus he is sometimes described as Herod Boethus, but there is no evidence he was actually called this.

Herod of Chalcis

Herod of Chalcis (d. 48-49 AD), also known as Herod V, listed by the Jewish Encyclopedia as Herod II, was a son of Aristobulus IV, and the grandson of Herod the Great, Roman client king of Chalcis. He was the brother of Herod Agrippa I and Herodias.

Herodian Tetrarchy

The Herodian Tetrarchy was formed following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BCE, when his kingdom was divided between his sons Herod Archelaus as ethnarch, Herod Antipas and Philip as tetrarchs in inheritance, while Herod's sister Salome I shortly ruled a toparchy of Jamnia. Judea, the major section of the tetrarchy, was transformed by Rome in 6 CE, abolishing the rule of Herod Archelaus, thus forming the Province of Judea by joining together Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea. With the death of Salome I in 10 CE, her domain was also incorporated into the new Judea province. However, other parts of the Herodian Tetrarchy continued to function under Herodians. Thus, Philip the Tetrarch ruled Batanea, with Trachonitis, as well as Auranitis until 34 CE (his domain later being incorporated into the Province of Syria), while Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and Perea until 39 CE. The last notable Herodian ruler with some level of independence was Agrippa I, who was even granted lands of the Judea province, though with his death in 44 CE, the provincial status of Judea was restored for good.

Later Herodians including Herod of Chalcis, Aristobulus of Chalcis and Agrippa II (the last of the Herodian dynasty) were given rule over the Kingdom of Chalcis, a Roman vassal state. Agrippa II died childless and thus Chalcis was incorporated into the province of Syria.

Herodian kingdom

The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate. When Herod died in 4 BCE, the kingdom was divided among his sons into the Herodian Tetrarchy.

Herodias

Herodias (Greek: Ἡρωδιάς, Hērōdiás; c. 15 BC — after 39 AD) was a princess of the Herodian dynasty of Judaea during the time of the Roman Empire.

Phasael

Phasael (died 40 BC; Hebrew: פַצָאֵל, Fatza'el; Latin: Phasaelus; from Greek: Φασάηλος, Phasaelos), was a prince from the Herodian Dynasty of Judea.

Philip the Tetrarch

Philip the Tetrarch, sometimes called Herod Philip II (Greek: Ἡρώδης Φίλιππος, Hērōdēs Philippos) by modern writers (ruled from 4 BC until his death in AD 34) was the son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife, Cleopatra of Jerusalem. Philip II was born in c.26 BCE. He was a half-brother of Herod Antipas and Herod Archelaus; and should not be confused with Herod II, whom some writers call Herod Philip I.

Polemon II of Pontus

Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontus and Polemon of Cilicia (Greek: Μάρκος Ἀντώνιος Πολέμων Πυθόδωρος; 12 BC/11 BC–74) was a prince of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia and Cappadocia. He served as a Roman Client King of Pontus, Colchis and Cilicia.

Polemon II was the second son and middle child of the Pontic Rulers Polemon Pythodoros and Pythodorida of Pontus. His eldest brother was Zenon, also known as Artaxias III, who was Roman Client King of Armenia and his youngest sister was Antonia Tryphaena, who was married to Cotys VIII, King of Thrace.

Tigranes V of Armenia

Tigranes V, also known as Tigran V (Greek: Τιγράνης, Armenian: Տիգրան, 16 BC–36) was a Herodian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia from the years 6 to 12.

Tribes of Israel
United monarchy
Israel
(northern kingdom)
Judah
(southern kingdom)
Hasmonean dynasty
Herodian dynasty
Jewish-Roman Wars
See also

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