Hermann Esser (29 July 1900 – 7 February 1981) was a very early member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). A journalist, Esser was the editor of the Nazi paper, Völkischer Beobachter, and a Nazi member of the Reichstag. In the early history of the party, he was a de facto deputy of Adolf Hitler.
Esser was born in Röhrmoos, Kingdom of Bavaria. The son of a civil servant, he was educated in the high school at Kempten. As a teenager, he volunteered and did service in World War I in the Kgl. Bayerischen 19, Fussartillerie-Regiment.
Esser early on became a socialist, after he joined a left-wing provincial newspaper to train as a journalist. He had previously formed his own Social Democrat party, but as it was small and one of numerous post-Armistice parties in Germany and Austria, it quickly failed.
Having met Anton Drexler through his work, he joined with the group of men that formed the DAP: Drexler, Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart. Esser joined the party, holding membership card No. 2. In 1920 he met Hitler in the regional press office of the Reichswehr (Army of the Weimar Republic), and was made editor of Völkischer Beobachter that same year.
In the fall of 1920, he began his public appearances in Passau.
Esser was able to use his abilities as a public speaker to rouse his audience, encouraging them to attack the political meetings of groups and parties that the NSDAP frowned upon. Esser's speeches were described by Louis Snyder as "crude, uncultured, of low moral character", featuring the kernel of future Nazi policies: extreme nationalism and anti-Semitism. From 1923 to 1925, he became the party's first head of propaganda, turning out a series of posters and a book attacking the Jews.
However, as a political opportunist, he told Hitler that he was ill and could not attend 1923's Beer Hall Putsch, and afterwards fled to Austria. Excluded from the party, along with Julius Streicher, he later returned to Bavaria in January 1924 and sentenced to three months in prison. He later visited Hitler in Landsberg Prison. He became part of the new leadership of the Strassers which threatened to split the party in two, and it was only in 1926 after Hitler's return that the split was avoided.
After Esser fell out with Streicher, and Hitler sided with his opponent, Esser threatened to go to the media with the NSDAP's secrets. He was bought off by being made editor of Illustrierter Beobachter until 1932 in which he engaged the public through gossip and scandal. From 1929 to 1933, he was the party's floor leader in Munich's city council. In 1933 he was elected to the Reichstag representing Upper Bavaria-Swabia.
In May 1933, Esser returned to Passau to address a rally celebrating the dedication of the Ostmarkmuseum.
Esser enjoyed life and the power that his media and political power gave him with women. His dalliances led to his being marginalized. After he impregnated a young woman and refused to marry her, she appealed directly to Hitler, who told Esser that he must do the right thing. Upon the birth of the child, Hitler became its godfather.
Esser later sexually assaulted the underage daughter of a businessman. The combined disgust of Strasser, Streicher and Joseph Goebbels led to his suspension from the NSDAP in March 1935. Hitler had previously said of him, "I know Esser is a scoundrel, but I shall hold on to him as long as he is useful to me."
Knowing too much to be cast aside, he was given various minor secretarial roles in the party in Bavaria by Hitler, but away from Munich. He was later re-admitted by Hitler and became influential in the reorganisation of the party. After his exclusion from politics in Bavaria and the Reichstag in 1935, Hitler as Chancellor appointed him Undersecretary for Tourism in the Reich propaganda ministry. In December 1939, he became Vice President of the Reichstag.
He first wrote and published his book Die jüdische Weltpest (The Jewish World Plague) in 1933. After the pogroms of the Kristallnacht of 9 November 1938, he republished it in early 1939, again under the NSDAP press. His last official NSDAP duty was as the main guest speaker at the 23rd Nazi Party anniversary.
Arrested by the Americans after the end of the war in Europe, he was released in 1947 after being considered an unimportant Nazi official. Esser then went into hiding only to be re-arrested in 1949 by the West German Police. Charged under the new West Germany anti-Nazification laws, he was found guilty of being a "major offender" and sentenced to five years hard labour with a loss of civil rights for life. He was then released in 1952.
The early timeline of Nazism begins with its origins and continues until Hitler's rise to power.Eidgenössische Sammlung
Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.Esser
Esser is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Esser (musician), English musician born Ben Esser
Bernard Esser (1840-1901), American farmer
Clarence Esser (1921–2009), American football player
Dave Esser (born 1957), English footballer
Dick Esser (1918–1979), Dutch field hockey player
Dragutin Esser, French racing driver
Franz Esser (1900–1982), German footballer
George Esser (died 2006), American civil rights activist
Hans Esser, German fencer
Heinrich Esser (1818–1872), German classical violinist, composer and conductor
Hermann Esser (1900–1981), German Nazi leader
Irene Esser (born 1991), Venezuelan beauty pageant winner
Jan F. Esser (1877–1946), Dutch plastic surgeon
Janice Ferri Esser, American television writer
Leo Esser (born 1907), German diver
Luke Esser, American politician
Mark Esser (born 1956), American baseball player
Markus Esser (born 1980), German hammer thrower
Michael Esser (born 1987), German footballer
Patrick J. Esser, American businessman
Paul Esser (1913–1988), German actor and voice actor
Piet Esser (1914–2004), Dutch sculptor
Robin Esser (1935-2017), English newspaper executive and editor
Roswitha Esser (born 1941), West German sprint canoeist
Walter Esser (born 1945), German modern pentathleteFaith and Beauty Society
The BDM-Werk Glaube und Schönheit (German for BDM Faith and Beauty Society) was founded in 1938 to serve as a tie-in between the work of the League of German Girls (BDM) and that of the National Socialist Women's League. Membership was voluntary and open to girls aged 17 to 21.German National Movement in Liechtenstein
The German National Movement in Liechtenstein (German: Volksdeutsche Bewegung in Liechtenstein, VDBL) was a National Socialist party in Liechtenstein that existed between 1938 and 1945.German Workers' Party
The German Workers' Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). The DAP only lasted from 5 January 1919 until 24 February 1920.Hirden
Hirden (the hird) was a uniformed paramilitary organisation during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, modelled the same way as the German Sturmabteilungen.Illustrierter Beobachter
Illustrierter Beobachter (Illustrated Observer) was an illustrated propaganda magazine which the German Nazi Party published. It was published from 1926 to 1945 in Munich, and edited by Hermann Esser.
It began as a monthly publication and its first issue showed members of the Bamberger Nationalist Party marching in front of a Jewish Synagogue and denounced Jacob Rosny Rosenstein, a potential Nobel Laureate as a "disgrace to German culture". Special editions denounced England and France for starting the war.Liechtenstein Homeland Service
Liechtenstein Homeland Service (German: Liechtensteiner Heimatdienst, LHD) was a political party in Liechtenstein that advocated corporate statism and the abolition of party politics.Established in the autumn of 1933, the party's positions began to radicalize and move toward National Socialist ideas within a few months of existence. By December 1933, this radicalization caused some members (such as co-founder Eugen Schafhauser) to abandon the party.LHD merged with the Christian-Social People's Party (VP) in 1936 to form the Patriotic Union (VU).List of Nazi Party leaders and officials
This is a list of Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials.List of Presidents of the Landtag of Bavaria
The following is a list of Presidents of the Landtag of Bavaria from 1819 to the present day.National Front (Switzerland)
The National Front was a far-right political party in Switzerland that flourished during the 1930s. At its peak the group had as many as 9,000 members, according to the Historical Dictionary of Switzerland,
and "may have had a membership of 25,000 or so", according to the Simon Wiesenthal Center.National Socialist Flyers Corps
The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).
During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.National Union (Switzerland)
The National Union (French: Union Nationale) was a French-speaking fascist political party in Switzerland between 1932 and 1939.
The Union was formed in Geneva in 1932 by Georges Oltramare, a lawyer and writer. Noted for his anti-Semitic writing, Oltramare founded the Order Politique Nationale in 1931 but merged it with the Union de Défense Economique the following year to form the National Union. The group continued under Oltramare's leadership until 1940 when he moved to Paris in order to co-operate more closely with the Nazis. Oltramare spent four years as a member of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland representing the National Union.The Union became notorious for a demonstration in Geneva on November 9, 1932 when their march to the city's Salle Communale was counterdemonstrated by the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland. In the resulting trouble the Swiss army opened fire on the Socialists resulting in 13 deaths.Nationale Jeugdstorm
The Nationale Jeugdstorm (English: National Youth Storm; NJS) was a Dutch youth movement that existed from 1934 to 1945, organized as the Dutch equivalent of the German Hitlerjugend and as a Nazi counterpart of Scouting Nederland.Presidium of the Reichstag (Nazi Germany)
Presidium of the Reichstag (Nazi Germany)
It consisted of the Reichtagspräsident, Erster Stellvertreter (First Deputy President), Zweiter Stellvertreter (Second Deputy President) and Dritter Stellvertreter (Third Deputy President)The Immortals (neo-Nazis)
The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.Toothbrush moustache
The toothbrush moustache is a moustache style that is shaved at the edges, leaving three to five centimetres of facial hair above the centre of the lip. The sides of the moustache are vertical rather than tapered, giving it the appearance of toothbrush bristles that are attached to the nose. The style first became popular in the United States in the late 19th century—from there it spread to Germany and elsewhere—reaching a height of popularity in the inter-war years, before becoming unfashionable after World War II due to its association with Adolf Hitler.
Other names for this style of moustache include: the Hitler, Charlie Chaplin, 1/3, philtrum moustache, postage stamp, and soul stache.Volksdeutsche Bewegung
Volksdeutsche Bewegung (German; literally "Ethnic German Movement") was a Nazi movement in Luxembourg that flourished under the German-occupied Luxembourg during World War II.
Formed by Damian Kratzenberg, a university professor with a German background, the movement only emerged after the invasion and was declared the only legal political movement in Luxembourg by the Nazis. Using the slogan Heim ins Reich (Home to the Reich), their declared aim was the full incorporation of Luxembourg into Nazi Germany. The policy was supported by Nazis who used the Bewegung as means towards this end. The aim was accomplished in August 1942, although the VDB continued to operate and peaked at 84,000 members. Many of these joined when it became clear that membership was necessary to retain employment. A number of leading members also held dual membership of the National Socialist German Workers Party after incorporation. The movement disappeared after the war, and Kratzenberg was executed in 1946.