Hereford (/ˈhɛrɪfərd/ (listen)) is a cathedral city, civil parish and county town of Herefordshire, England. It lies on the River Wye, approximately 16 miles (26 km) east of the border with Wales, 24 miles (39 km) southwest of Worcester, and 23 miles (37 km) northwest of Gloucester. With a population of 58,896,[1] it is the largest settlement in the county.

The name "Hereford" is said to come from the Anglo-Saxon "here", an army or formation of soldiers, and the "ford", a place for crossing a river. If this is the origin it suggests that Hereford was a place where a body of armed men forded or crossed the Wye. The Welsh name for Hereford is Henffordd, meaning "old road", and probably refers to the Roman road and Roman settlement at nearby Stretton Sugwas. Much of the county of Herefordshire was Welsh-speaking, as reflected in the Welsh names of many places in the county (see History of Herefordshire).

An early town charter from 1189 granted by Richard I of England describes it as "Hereford in Wales".[2] Hereford has been recognised as a city since time immemorial, with the status being reconfirmed as recently as October 2000.[3][4]

It is now known chiefly as a trading centre for a wider agricultural and rural area. Products from Hereford include: cider, beer, leather goods, nickel alloys, poultry, chemicals, and cattle, including the famous Hereford breed.

Wye Bridge, Hereford

Hereford Cathedral and Wye Bridge
Hereford is located in Herefordshire
Location within Herefordshire
Population58,896 [1]
OS grid referenceSO515405
• London135.7m
Civil parish
  • Hereford
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Postcode districtHR1-HR4
Dialling code01432
PoliceWest Mercia
FireHereford and Worcester
AmbulanceWest Midlands
EU ParliamentWest Midlands
UK Parliament


Hereford Cathedral, from Church Street
Hereford Cathedral, from Church Street

Hereford became the seat of Putta, Bishop of Hereford, some time between AD 676 and 688, after which the settlement continued to grow due to its proximity to the border between Mercia and Wales, becoming the Saxon capital of West Mercia by the beginning of the 8th century.[5]

Hostilities between the Anglo-Saxons and the Welsh came to a head with the Battle of Hereford in 760, in which the Britons freed themselves from the influence of the English.[6] Hereford was again targeted by the Welsh during their conflict with the Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor in AD 1056 when, supported by Viking allies, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Gwynedd and Powys, marched on the town and put it to the torch before returning home in triumph.[7] Hereford had the only mint west of the Severn in the reign of Athelstan (924–39), and it was to Hereford, then a border town, that Athelstan summoned the leading Welsh princes.[8]

The present Hereford Cathedral dates from the early 12th century, as does the first bridge across the Wye.[9] Former Bishops of Hereford include Saint Thomas de Cantilupe and Lord High Treasurer of England Thomas Charlton.

The city gave its name to two suburbs of Paris, France: Maisons-Alfort (population 54,600) and Alfortville (population 36,232), due to a manor built there by Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, in the middle of the 13th century.

Hereford, a base for successive holders of the title Earl of Hereford, was once the site of a castle, Hereford Castle, which rivalled that of Windsor in size and scale. This was a base for repelling Welsh attacks and a secure stronghold for English kings such as King Henry IV when on campaign in the Welsh Marches against Owain Glyndŵr. The castle was dismantled in the 18th century and landscaped into Castle Green.

After the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461, during the Wars of the Roses, the defeated Lancastrian leader Owen Tudor (grandfather of the future Henry VII of England) was taken to Hereford by Sir Roger Vaughan and executed in High Town. A plaque now marks the spot of the execution. Vaughan was later himself executed, under a flag of truce, by Owen's son Jasper.

The Old House, High Town, Hereford - - 11172
The Old House, High Town. This timber-framed Jacobean building, built in 1621, is now a museum.

During the civil war the city changed hands several times. On 30 September 1642 Parliamentarians led by Sir Robert Harley and Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford occupied the city without opposition. In December they withdrew to Gloucester because of the presence in the area of a Royalist army under Lord Herbert. The city was again occupied briefly from 23 April to 18 May 1643 by Parliamentarians commanded by Sir William Waller but it was in 1645 that the city saw most action. On 31 July 1645 a Scottish army of 14,000 under Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven besieged the city but met stiff resistance from its garrison and inhabitants. They withdrew on 1 September when they received news that a force led by King Charles was approaching. The city was finally taken for Parliament on 18 December 1645 by Colonel Birch and Colonel Morgan. King Charles showed his gratitude to the city of Hereford on 16 September 1645 by augmenting the city's coat of arms with the three lions of Richard I of England, ten Scottish Saltires signifying the ten defeated Scottish regiments, a very rare lion crest on top of the coat of arms signifying "defender of the faith" and the even rarer gold-barred peer's helm, found only on the arms of one other municipal authority: those of the City of London.[10]

Nell Gwynne, actress and mistress of King Charles II, is said to have been born in Hereford in 1650 (although other towns and cities, notably Oxford, also claim her as their own); Gwynn Street is named after her. Another famous actor born in Hereford is David Garrick (1717–1779).

The Bishop's Palace next to the Cathedral was built in 1204 and continually used to the present day.[11][12] Hereford Cathedral School is also one of the oldest schools in England. The Harold Street Barracks were completed in 1856.[13]

During World War I, in 1916, a fire at the Garrick Theatre killed eight young girls who had been performing at a charity concert.[14]


Town Hall, Hereford - - 739270
Hereford Town Hall (opened 1904)

The main local government body covering Hereford is Herefordshire Council. Hereford has a "City Council" but this is actually a parish council with city status, and has only limited powers.

Historically Hereford has been the county town of Herefordshire. In 1974 Herefordshire was merged with Worcestershire to become part of the county of Hereford and Worcester, and Hereford became a district of the new county. Hereford had formed a historic borough and was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835.[15] On 1 April 1998 the County of Hereford and Worcester was abolished, and Herefordshire and Worcestershire were re-established as separate counties, although with slightly altered borders.

However the new Herefordshire was a unitary authority without any districts, and so Hereford lost its district status (although, confusingly, the authority's full legal name is the County of Herefordshire District Council). Charter Trustees were appointed to preserve mayoral traditions until a civil parish council could be set up, which happened in 2000. Hereford is one of only eight civil parishes in England which have city status.

Hereford was the name of a parliamentary constituency centring on the city, from 1295 to 2010, when it was renamed as Hereford and South Herefordshire. The current member of the House of Commons for Hereford and South Herefordshire is Jesse Norman of the Conservative Party.



As with all of the UK, Hereford experiences a maritime climate, with limited seasonal temperature ranges, and generally moderate rainfall throughout the year. The nearest Met Office weather station for which 30-year averages are available is Credenhill weather station, about 4 miles (6 km) north east of the city centre. Before 2001, the weather station at Preston Wynne (7 miles, 11 km to the north-east) provided the data.[16]

Since 2001, extremes at Hereford Credenhill have ranged from 33.6 °C (92.5 °F)[17] during July 2006, to as low as −15.8 °C (3.6 °F) during December 2010.[18]




There have been plans for many years for a north–south bypass[20] and currently the plan is for a nine-mile (14 km) dual carriageway; however, HM Government as yet has refused to grant permission or supply funds. However, as of April 2017, Herefordshire Council are doing work on a new Hereford Link Road. Until then the A49 Trunk Road, A465, and A438 continue to run through the city centre. Hereford has been named as the UK's second slowest city with vehicles averaging speeds of 14.09 mph.


Hereford is served by a 4-platform railway station on the Welsh Marches Line which opened in 1854. Services regularly connect to Worcester, Birmingham, London, Manchester, Cardiff and other settlements in Wales. The station is currently operated by Transport for Wales. A second station, Hereford Barton, was closed and later redeveloped.

Military associations

In 1999, the British Army Special Air Service (SAS) moved from their base at Stirling Lines in Hereford since 1960 to a former Royal Air Force base RAF Credenhill in Credenhill that had been redeveloped and was designated as Stirling Lines in 2000. The clock tower on which the names of deceased SAS soldiers are inscribed was re-located.[21]


Hereford, High Street pedestrian shopping area
High Town, Hereford – Pedestrianised shopping area

The main public service employers in Hereford include:

In 2005 Hereford was granted Fairtrade City status.[22]

Major employers in the city include:

  • Bulmers, now owned by HeinekenCider and alcoholic beverages producer. Brands include Woodpecker Cider, Strongbow and Bulmers Cider[23]
  • Special Metals Wiggin Ltd – Manufacturers of nickel alloys[24]
  • Cargill Meats Europe (formerly Sun Valley) – Manufacturers and suppliers of food products for retailers and foodservice operators[25]
  • Painter Brothers – Manufacturers of galvanized steel towers including The Skylon[26]

Other major companies based in Herefordshire include:

  • Spinning Dog Brewery – Brewers of traditional beers in Hereford City
  • Wye Valley Brewery – Producers of such beers as Butty Bach and Hereford Pale Ale (HPA) and other real ales.
  • Weston's Cider – Award-winning cider and perry producer based just outside Hereford

Herefordshire is a global centre for cider production as it supports many acres of orchards, so many breweries and associated organisations exist here, along with other heavy and light industries.[27] Within the city, many are based at the Rotherwas Industrial Estate.


Many of the schools in Hereford have been rebuilt and improved.[28] The Herefordshire and Ludlow College has also been rebuilt to a 21st-century standard.[29] A new NMITE (New Model in Technology and Engineering) university is also planned, which will teach STEM subjects and was stated to open in 2016, but is now due to intake the first cohort of students in 2019. There has also been a number of improvements at Hereford Sixth Form College, where a new business block extension was completed in 2013 and a new reception area was completed in 2015.

Hereford benefitted from the PFI reconstruction schemes for NHS hospitals, with the former County Hospital site having £60 million spent on a brand new, one-site hospital to replace the former 3 hospitals: the General, the Eye Hospital, and the County Hospital. The new Hereford County Hospital was the single largest investment in Herefordshire at that point. In 2015, further funds for more improvements at the hospital were granted.

Current and future projects

A major regeneration project is taking place in Hereford city centre, formerly known as the Edgar Street Grid. This covers an area of around 100 acres (0.40 km2) just north of the old city walls. Work started on 8 October 2012,[30] and should take around 15 years to complete the whole project. The regeneration includes the rebuilding of the canal basin at the end of the currently disused Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canal. The £80 million phase 1 includes a supermarket, department store, multiplex cinema, shops, restaurants, and other facilities and opened in late Spring 2014.[31]

The Butter Market is also due for refurbishment and proposals are being examined.

A proposed bypass has been drawn up to circulate the city, which suffers from rush hour traffic, with potential routes either to the east or west of the city. Both routes would connect with the Rotherwas Access Road which was recently completed, connecting the Rotherwas Industrial Estate to the A49. Rotherwas itself has recently been awarded an Enterprise Zone status by the government which is expected to boost the economy and bring in thousands of new jobs.[32]

A second railway station for Hereford has been discussed, which would be situated in Rotherwas as part of the Enterprise Zone.

Hereford is due to receive half of the 20,600 new homes expected to be built in the county by 2026 as part of the Regional Spatial Strategy.[33]


Hereford is the home of the football club, Hereford FC and they play at Edgar Street in the National League North. They are a phoenix club that was set up in the wake of the demise of Hereford United Football Club in 2014. United were best known for beating Newcastle 2-1 in an FA Cup replay in January 1972, when they were still a non-league side and Newcastle were in the top division of English football. Other notable city clubs include Westfields and Pegasus Juniors.

Hereford Rugby Club announced plans in 2012 for a major £6 million move to a new home.[34]

Hereford Hockey Club is based at the Hereford City Sports Club, with teams entered into leagues in the West Hockey Association.[35]

The city is also home to Hereford Racecourse, a traditional National Hunt course to the north of the city centre which hosted around twenty meetings a year. The company who leased the site decided in 2012 that the site was not viable. What many thought to be the last meeting was held on 16 December 2012, however the course reopened for racing in October 2016.[36]

Many golf courses surround the city at Wormsley (Herefordshire GC), Burghill and Brockington. The racecourse surrounds a golf course in Holmer.

Public leisure

Hereford's public leisure facilities are managed by a not-for-profit trust called HALO Leisure, which runs the Hereford Leisure Centre (that includes huge sports halls, gymnasium, squash courts, and an outdoor athletics facility), and the Hereford Leisure Pool (which includes a gymnasium, full size swimming pool, leisure pool, diving pool, and learners pool).

Clubs and societies

The Hereford Rowing Club (along with the Kayak Club) uses the River Wye; it is a popular club with a junior group. The stretch of river is also used for other water sports. Hereford has a nine pin skittle league, formed on 24 October 1902, and today consists of five divisions.[37]

Hereford has other clubs and societies including the Railway Club, Welsh Club, Military Club, Richmond Place Club and the Whitecross Squash & Lawn Tennis Club.

Hereford has several music clubs/societies such as Herefordshire Youth Orchestra, a group for those up to the age of 21 which anyone in and around the Herefordshire area can audition for. The orchestra is conducted by both Sir Richard Mynors and Hazel Davis.



Plans are now in progress to create a new university in Hereford.[38]


Hereford is home to five colleges, including:

The National School of Blacksmithing is the oldest established Blacksmithing college in the UK, also the largest facility for training smiths in Europe. This is also part of HLC.[39]

  • Hereford Sixth Form College
  • The Royal National College for the Blind – One of the top colleges in Europe for blind and visually impaired students, and one of only two in Britain. The college occupies the former Hereford College of Education campus. The college often plays host to major blind sporting competitions like the Blind World Cup 2010 and Euro 2015 Blind Football Championships, and currently hosts the England Blind Football squad training camps.
  • Holme Lacy College – An agricultural college that was part of the Pershore Group of Colleges (now Warwickshire College), but currently belongs to Herefordshire and Ludlow College (HLC).[40][41]


Hereford's many secondary schools include:

Primary schools in the city include Hereford Cathedral Junior School, a co-educational independent school. Hereford Cathedral Junior School is, with Hereford Cathedral School, part of the ancient Hereford Cathedral Foundation dating back to 676. The Junior School was founded as an independent school in 1898. The City's other primary schools are: Lord Scudamore Academy, St James C of E, St Francis Xavier R.C, Trinity, Holmer C of E, Marlbrook, Riverside, St Martin's, Broadlands, Riverside, Hampton Dene and St Paul's C of E.

Health and social care

In early 2008, Herefordshire Council and NHS Herefordshire became the first local authority and Primary Care Trust to form a new kind of partnership.[49]

The major hospital in Hereford is the Hereford County Hospital. Ambulance services are provided by the West Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust. The Midlands Air Ambulance charity provides air ambulance services across Herefordshire.

A private national firm operates a hospital in Hereford, and the city is well populated with council-funded, private and charity based nursing, residential and other elderly care homes and facilities.

Society and culture


Farming has played a major part in the history of the county of Herefordshire, and for many years the City of Hereford was the epicentre, playing host to the Cattle Market; a major market site.[50]

With the 2001 foot-and-mouth outbreak the market suffered with trade reduced. Established by Act of Parliament, the market had to be provided, and so a Bill was introduced in 2003[51] to move the site to the outskirts of the city. The inner city site would then be available for redevelopment, a process that has now finished.

The new Hereford Cattle Market opened its doors in August 2011 on the site just outside the city[52] and has already proved so successful that trading and business is up on the previous site's record.[53]


Classical composer Sir Edward Elgar lived in Hereford from 1904 to 1911. His association with the city is commemorated with this statue on the Cathedral Close.

The annual Three Choirs Festival, originating in the 18th century and one of the oldest music festivals in the British Isles, is held in Hereford every third year, the other venues being Gloucester and Worcester.

Composer Sir Edward Elgar lived at Plas Gwyn, Eign Hill, in Hereford between 1904 and 1911, writing some of his most famous works during that time. He is commemorated with a statue on the Cathedral Close. One of his Enigma Variations was inspired by a bulldog named Dan falling into the River Wye at Hereford, and the dog is similarly honoured with a wooden statue beside the river. Not long after moving into the city he was (despite not being a city council member) offered but declined the office of mayor of the city. He also visited the city as a conductor at the Three Choirs Festival, the last occasion in 1933 prior to his death.[54]

Hereford is home to the Hereford Police Male Voice Choir who competed on the BBC TV show "Last Choir Standing",[55] and the Railway Choir.

A charity music school is also based in Hereford.[56]

The hymn tune ‘Hereford’ was written by Samuel Sebastian Wesley (1810-1876). He was an organist at Hereford Cathedral (1832-1835). This tune is often sung to the words ‘O Thou who camest from above’.[57]


H.Art, or Herefordshire Art Week, is an annual county-wide exhibition held in September, displaying the work of local artists.[58] Many places usually closed to the public are opened during this week, such as the Bishop's Palace at the Cathedral.

Polish-born sculptor Walenty Pytel has had studios in Hereford since 1963 after training at Hereford College of Art.

There is a statue of a Bronze Hereford bull designed by Brian Alabaster ARBS in front of The Old House[59]


The troops of the fictional commando squad Rainbow were based at RAF Hereford, as detailed in the novel Rainbow Six.

The action of the fictional novels Shades of Grey and The Last Dragonslayer by Jasper Fforde take place in Hereford.[60]

Phil Rickman's Merrily Watkins series of supernatural and mystery novels is set in and around Hereford.[61]

Comedy writer Aaron Gillies began writing using Twitter while working as a sound technician at The Courtyard.[62]


The local radio stations are Free Radio (formerly known as Wyvern FM) which broadcasts on 97.6-96.7-102.8 FM, Sunshine Radio on 106.2 FM, BBC Hereford and Worcester which broadcasts on 94.7FM, Like Radio Like Music, Like Radio. Digital Radio Station available on DAB, Online and On The Go. The station covers Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Gloucester, Cheltenham and Birmingham.

The Hereford Times is the city's only remaining weekly local newspaper as the 'Hereford Journal' ceased publication on 11 June 2014 and the 'Hereford admag' ceased publication in September 2018.

Local TV content is currently provided by BBC Midlands Today and ITV Central News.


The city's main theatre and cultural venue is the Courtyard Centre for the Arts which was opened in 1998, replacing the New Hereford Theatre.

There is also a multi screen Odeon cinema in the Old Market precinct.

MFA Bowl (formerly known as TGS), home to a Ten Pin Bowling alley and Mini Golf course is located near the railway station.

There is also a dedicated Skatepark on Holmer Road.

Notable people

Nell gwyn peter lely c 1675
Hereford claims to be the birthplace of Nell Gwyn, 17th-century actress and mistress of King Charles II of England.

John Kemble, Catholic priest and martyr, was born near Hereford.

Nell Gwyn, David Garrick and Sarah Siddons, actors and actresses, are all historical figures popularly associated with Hereford.

Major-General Stringer Lawrence, first commander-in-chief of British troops in India, under whose command Robert Clive served, was born in Hereford.

Broadcaster Gilbert Harding was born there when his father was master of the local workhouse, as was contemporary actress Beryl Reid.

The original lineup of The Pretenders, with the exception of lead singer Chrissie Hynde, were from Hereford, as were the rock band Mott the Hoople.

Frank Oz, puppeteer for The Muppets and Yoda of Star Wars was born in Hereford and lived there for the first five years of his life.[63]

Footballer Connor Wickham was born in the city.[64]

Ellie Goulding, pop singer and songwriter was born in Hereford.

Hereford is the current home of television personality, Wincey Willis.

The highwayman William Spiggot declared before his execution to the Ordinary's Accounts[65] of Newgate Prison in London that he was the son of an innkeeper from Hereford.[66]

Tourism and attractions

Hereford Mappa Mundi
Hereford Cathedral is home to the Hereford Mappa Mundi, a map of the known world from the late 13th century.

Hereford Cathedral dates from 1079 and contains the Mappa Mundi, a medieval map of the world dating from the 13th century which was restored in the late 20th century. It also has a chained library.[67]

The Old House, Hereford is an historic black and white house in the centre of High Town in Hereford. It is now a museum about life in the Jacobean era of the 1600s when it was built.

The Hereford Museum and Art Gallery, housed in a Victorian Gothic building and opened in 1874, presents artefacts, fine art, and decorative art associated with the local area.

The Hereford Cider Museum is in the city, with a shop, and an interactive guide to producing the drink. It is a registered Charity Trust founded in the early 1970s by people who wanted to record the past, and also the disappearing traditional art of cider making that had been practiced for generations on the farms in the "Cider Counties". Situated in an old cider factory, it opened in 1980 and 1981. In the spring/summer a cider festival is held, started in the mid-1980s, by the Friends of the Museum with the advice of Long Ashton Research station near Bristol. It has a display of named cider apples, and the apples are pressed in the old way. The Museum holds in its Pomological Archive a number of records pertaining to apples and cider.

The Violette Szabo Museum is in Wormelow village, outside the city.

Holme Lacy House, now a hotel for a national chain, was built near the city by John Scudamore in the 1500s. It has played host to famous historical figures in its time.[68]


Several festivals are hosted in Hereford including the Beer on the Wye festival, the Hereford Food Festival, and the Three Choirs Festival.

Twin towns

See also


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External links

1912 Hereford by-election

The Hereford by-election of 1912 was held on 8 March 1912. The by-election was held due to the resignation of the incumbent Conservative MP, John Arkwright. It was won by the Liberal Unionist candidate William Hewins, who was unopposed.

Bishop of Hereford

The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury.

The episcopal see is centred in the City of Hereford where the bishop's seat (cathedra) is in the Cathedral Church of Saint Mary and Saint Ethelbert. The diocese was founded for the minor sub-kingdom of the Magonsæte in 676. It now covers the whole of the county of Herefordshire, southern Shropshire and a few parishes in Worcestershire, Powys and Monmouthshire. The arms of the see are gules, three leopard's faces reversed jessant-de-lys or, which were the personal arms of Bishop Thomas de Cantilupe (d.1282).Until 1534 the Diocese of Hereford was in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church and two of its Bishops were canonised. During the English Reformation the bishops of England and Wales conformed to the independent Church of England under Henry VIII and Edward VI, but, under Mary I, they adhered to the Roman Catholic Church. Since the accession of Elizabeth I the diocese has again been part of the Church of England and Anglican Communion.

Richard Frith's election was confirmed on 17 October 2014 and he was installed as Bishop of Hereford on 22 November 2014 in Hereford Cathedral. The bishop's residence is The Palace, Hereford.

Deaf Smith County, Texas

Deaf Smith County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,372. The county seat is Hereford, which is known as the "Beef Capital of the World". The county was created in 1876 and later organized in 1890.The Hereford, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Deaf Smith County.

Diocese of Hereford

The Diocese of Hereford is a Church of England diocese based in Hereford, covering Herefordshire, southern Shropshire and a few parishes within Worcestershire in England, and a few parishes within Powys and Monmouthshire in Wales. The cathedral is Hereford Cathedral and the bishop is the Bishop of Hereford. The diocese is one of the oldest in England (created in 676 and based on the minor sub-kingdom of the Magonsæte) and is part of the Province of Canterbury.

On 16 July 2014, it was announced that Richard Frith, Bishop suffragan of Hull, was to become the next Bishop of Hereford; his canonical election was confirmed on 17 October 2014 and he was installed on 22 November in Hereford Cathedral.

Handley Page Hampden

The Handley Page HP.52 Hampden was a British twin-engine medium bomber of the Royal Air Force (RAF). It was part of the trio of large twin-engine bombers procured for the RAF, joining the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley and Vickers Wellington. The newest of the three medium bombers, the Hampden was often referred to by aircrews as the "Flying Suitcase" because of its cramped crew conditions. The Hampden was powered by Bristol Pegasus radial engines but a variant known as the Handley Page Hereford had in-line Napier Daggers.

The Hampden served in the early stages of the Second World War, bearing the brunt of the early bombing war over Europe, taking part in the first night raid on Berlin and the first 1,000-bomber raid on Cologne. When it became obsolete, after a period of mainly operating at night, it was retired from RAF Bomber Command service in late 1942. By 1943, the rest of the trio were being superseded by the larger four-engined heavy bombers such as the Avro Lancaster.

Hereford, Texas

Hereford ( HUR-furd) is a city in and county seat of Deaf Smith County, Texas, United States. It is 48 miles southwest of Amarillo. The population was 15,370 at the 2010 census. It is the only incorporated locality named "Hereford" in the country.Hereford's local water supply contains an unusually high level of naturally occurring fluoride. Because fluoride is used to protect against tooth decay, Hereford earned the title "The Town Without a Toothache".

It is also known as the "Beef Capital of the World" because of the large number of cattle fed in the area. The city is named for the Hereford breed. The local economy is affected significantly by growth in the dairy and ethanol industries.

The area is known for its semiarid climate, with heavy farming and ranching throughout the area sustained by irrigation from the Ogallala Aquifer and the saltier Santa Rosa Aquifer beneath it.

Hereford is home to the headquarters of the Deaf Smith Electric Cooperative, which serves Deaf Smith, Castro, Parmer, and Oldham Counties.A rich Western heritage includes the Las Escarbadas ranch house of the XIT Ranch once located southwest of Hereford. The restored historic structure can now be seen at the National Ranching Heritage Center at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. The Deaf Smith County Historical Museum at 400 Sampson Street in Hereford offers indoor and outdoor exhibits on the settlement of West Texas.

In December 2015, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer voted Hereford not only the "most conservative" city in Texas, but also in the United States, in terms of political contributions. Other West Texas communities in the most conservative lineup are Childress (number 9), Dalhart (number 8), and Monahans (number five). Princeton in Collin County north of Dallas was ranked number two. In contrast, Vashon Island, Washington, was named the "most liberal" city in the nation regarding political donations.

Hereford Cathedral

Hereford Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Anglican Diocese of Hereford in Hereford, England. Its most famous treasure is Mappa Mundi, a mediaeval map of the world created around 1300 by Richard of Holdingham. The map is listed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. The cathedral is a Grade I listed building. The site of the cathedral became a place of worship in the 8th century or earlier although the oldest part of the current building, the bishop's chapel, dates to the 11th century.

Hereford F.C.

Hereford Football Club ( (listen)) is an English association football club from the city of Hereford. They were founded in 2014 as a phoenix club for Hereford United, and inherited their Edgar Street stadium. They are nicknamed 'The Whites' after their predominantly white kit, or 'The Bulls' after the Hereford cattle breed, and their motto is 'Our greatest glory lies not in never having fallen, but in rising when we fall'. The club is affiliated to the Herefordshire County Football Association.

The club currently plays in the National League North, the sixth tier of the English football league system.

They entered the football pyramid before the 2015–16 season, and won the Midland Football League Premier Division followed by the Southern League South & West and the Southern League Premier.

Hereford Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

Hereford Township is a township in Berks County, Pennsylvania, United States, of which it is the easternmost municipality. Its population was 2,997 at the 2010 census. It is in Upper Perkiomen School District.

Hereford United F.C.

Hereford United Football Club was an English association football club based in the city of Hereford that last played in the Southern League Premier Division, the seventh tier of English football. Founded in 1924, the club was elected to the Football League in 1972, and spent 31 seasons in the League in two spells, 25 of them in the fourth tier. The club reached the old Second Division in 1976, its best league performance, but was relegated after only one season at that level.

Hereford achieved national prominence in 1972 when, as a Southern League club, they knocked top-flight Newcastle United out of the FA Cup.Hereford played at Edgar Street for their entire history. They were nicknamed 'The Whites' or 'The Lilywhites', after their predominantly white kit, or 'The Bulls' after the Hereford cattle breed. The club's motto was "Our greatest glory lies not in never having fallen, but in rising when we fall". The club was affiliated to the Herefordshire County FA. On 19 December 2014, the club was wound up in the High Court after a petition had been brought against it by HM Revenue and Customs.

Following the demise of United, a new 'phoenix club' was being set up, Hereford. The new club incorporates the words 'Forever United' into its crest design, as well as the iconic Hereford Bull.

Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service

The Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering Herefordshire and Worcestershire in the West Midlands region of England. The two counties consist of around 1,500 square miles, and a population of over 750,000 people.

The service was created in 1974 when The County Of Hereford Fire Brigade and The Worcester City & County Fire Brigade were merged to create The County Of Hereford and Worcester Fire Brigade. The two counties were split up again in 1998 but the fire service remained, and is now run by a joint fire authority.

The service has 332 wholetime operational staff, 369 retained (part-time) staff, 21 Fire Control staff, as well as about 98 non-uniformed support staff. The busiest areas of Hereford and Worcester fire & rescue is Worcester and Redditch both averaging roughly 1,500 call outs a year, the least busiest areas being Peterchurch and Fownhope averaging between 10-20 callouts a year. Evesham & Peterchurch stations are also home to the fire services realistic training facilities. The main training centre is at Droitwich fire station, and more complex training is undertaken at the Fire Service College in Moreton In Marsh

Neighbouring fire services include: Gloucestershire, Warwickshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Mid and West Wales, South Wales and the West Midlands.

Hereford cattle

The Hereford is a British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire, in the West Midlands of England. It has been exported to many countries, and there are more than five million purebred Hereford cattle in over fifty nations worldwide. The Hereford cattle export trade began from United Kingdom in 1817, starting in Kentucky, United States, spreading across the United States and Canada through Mexico to the great beef-raising countries of South America. Today, Hereford cattle dominate the world scene from Australasia to the Russian steppes. They can be found in Israel, Japan and throughout continental Europe and Scandinavia, in the temperate parts of Australia, Canada, the United States, Kazakhstan and Russia, in the centre and east of Argentina, in Uruguay, in Chile and New Zealand, where they make up the largest proportion of registered cattle. They are found all around Brazil and they are also found in some Southern African countries (mainly in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe). They originally found great popularity among ranchers of the American Southwest, testament to the hardiness of the breed; while originating in cool, moist Britain, they have proven to thrive in much harsher climates on nearly every continent.

The World Hereford Council is based in the United Kingdom. There are currently 17 member countries with 20 Hereford societies and 10 nonmember countries, with a total of eight societies. In the United States, the official Hereford organization, and breed registry, is the American Hereford Association. It is the second-largest society of its kind in the country.

Hereford railway station

Hereford railway station serves the city of Hereford, England. Managed by Transport for Wales, it lies on the Welsh Marches Line between Leominster and Abergavenny, is the western terminus of the Cotswold Line and also has an hourly West Midlands Trains service from Birmingham New Street. The station has four platforms for passenger trains, and two additional relief lines for goods services.

Accorded "Secure Station" status in 2004, the station has a staffed ticket office, self-service ticket machines, a café, and indoor waiting rooms. Automated ticket barriers have been in operation since 28 February 2006.


Herefordshire () is a county in the West Midlands of England, governed by Herefordshire Council. It borders Shropshire to the north, Worcestershire to the east, Gloucestershire to the south-east, and the Welsh counties of Monmouthshire and Powys to the west.

Hereford is a cathedral city and is the county town; with a population of approximately 55,800 inhabitants it is also the largest settlement. The county is one of the most rural and sparsely populated in England, with a population density of 82/km² (212/sq mi). The land use is mostly agricultural and the county is well known for its fruit and cider production, and the Hereford cattle breed.

Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford

Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford is Child ballad 144 (Roud 2338).

Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway

The Shrewsbury and Hereford Railway was an independently developed English railway, the first to run train services in Herefordshire.

Built between 1850 and 1853, it crossed a number of services by both the Great Western Railway (GWR) and London and North Western Railway (LNWR) companies, became a joint railway from 1862.

Today, the line forms the northern section of Network Rail's Welsh Marches Line, served mainly by Transport for Wales.

Special Air Service

The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army. The SAS was founded in 1941 as a regiment, and later reconstituted as a corps in 1950. The unit undertakes a number of roles including covert reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, direct action and hostage rescue. Much of the information and actions regarding the SAS is highly classified, and is not commented on by the British government or the Ministry of Defence due to the sensitivity of their operations.The corps currently consists of the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment, the regular component under operational command of United Kingdom Special Forces, as well as the 21st (Artists) Special Air Service Regiment (Reserve) and the 23rd Special Air Service Regiment (Reserve), which are reserve units under operational command of the 1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade.The Special Air Service traces its origins to 1941 and the Second World War. It was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947, named the 21st Special Air Service Regiment (Artists Rifles). The 22nd Special Air Service Regiment, which is part of the regular army, gained fame and recognition worldwide after its televised rescue of all but one of the hostages held during the 1980 Iranian Embassy siege.

Viscount Hereford

Viscount Hereford is the oldest extant viscountcy in the Peerage of England, making the holder the Premier Viscount of England. The title was created in 1550 for Walter Devereux, 9th Baron Ferrers of Chartley.The Devereux (/ˈdɛvəruːks/) family is of Norman descent and came to England after the Norman conquest in 1066 – this branch lorded over Lyonshall and Bodenham, Herefordshire as their main estates. Sir Walter Devereux (d. 1485), married Anne Ferrers, 7th Baroness Ferrers of Chartley (d.1469) (see the Baron Ferrers of Chartley for earlier history of this title). He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Ferrers of Chartley in her right. Devereux was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, fighting on the side of King Henry VII. Their son, the eighth Baron, married Cicely, daughter of William Bourchier, Viscount Bourchier, son of Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex and 5th Baron Bourchier) (see the Baron Bourchier for more information on the Bourchier family). He was succeeded by his son, the ninth Baron who served with distinction in the French Wars of King Henry VIII and was honoured in 1550 when he was created Viscount Hereford in the Peerage of England.He was succeeded by a grandson, the son of his second son, Hon. Sir Richard Devereux. This latter Walter Devereux was also a prominent soldier during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Lord Hereford was a Field Marshal of the forces sent to quell the Northern Rebellion of 1569 and led an expedition to occupy Ulster in 1573. In 1570 he succeeded his first cousin twice removed as eighth Baron Bourchier in right of his great-grandmother Cecily Bourchier. In 1572 the earldom of Essex held by the Bourchier family (which had become extinct in 1540) was revived when he was created Earl of Essex in the Peerage of England. On his death the titles passed to his son Robert, the second Earl. He was the highly trusted courtier, soldier and favourite of Queen Elizabeth I. However, Lord Essex after many years defied the Queen and tried to raise a rebellion in London. He was condemned to death for high treason and beheaded in the Tower of London on 25 February 1601. His titles were forfeited.However, his son Robert was restored in blood in 1603 and became the third Earl. He later fought as a Parliamentarian in the Civil War, leading the Parliamentary forces against Charles I at the Battle of Edgehill, the first major battle of the Civil War. He died on 14 September 1646 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on the 19 October, both Houses of Parliament attending the funeral. On Lord Essex's death the earldom of Essex became extinct. The barony of Ferrers of Chartley and barony of Bourchier fell into abeyance. leaving the viscountcy alone continuing (extant).The Hereford viscountcy was inherited by the 4th Viscount's cousin Sir Walter Devereux, 2nd baronet who became the 5th Viscount Hereford. He had previously represented in different parliaments Worcester, Tamworth and Lichfield in the House of Commons.The titles descended from father to son until the death of his grandson, the seventh Viscount, in 1683. This Viscount died at the age of nine and was succeeded by his younger brother, the eighth Viscount. He died childless at an early age and was succeeded by his second cousin once removed, the ninth Viscount. He was the great-grandson of Sir George Devereux, brother of the fifth Viscount and had served as Member of Parliament for Montgomery prior to his succession in 1700. He was Lord-Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire 1711-14.

His son, the 10th Viscount, represented Montgomery in Parliament for over 20 years until his succession in 1740. He died without male issue and was succeeded by his kinsman, the 11th Viscount. He was a great-great grandson of Sir George Devereux mentioned.Lord Hereford was succeeded by his eldest son, the 12th Viscount. He was childless and on his death in 1783 the titles passed to his younger brother, the 13th Viscount who moved the principal Welsh seat of the viscountcy from Montgomeryshire to Pencoyd in Brecknockshire. He was succeeded by his son, the 14th Viscount. He was a Tory politician and served under the Duke of Wellington as Captain of the Honourable Band of Gentlemen Pensioners from 1828 to 1830 and under Sir Robert Peel as Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms from 1834 to 1835.

The 15th Viscount, the Reverend Robert, was an Hon. Canon of Durham. From 1924, the 17th Viscount resided at Hampton Court, Herefordshire, which was sold by his grandson, the 18th Viscount, in 1972. The 18th Viscount instead chose to make his home at Haseley Court, Oxfordshire, which he relinquished in 1982, when he settled at Lyford Cay, near Nassau, in the Bahamas.

The titles are held by the 19th Viscount, who succeeded his father in 2004.

The Devereux Baronetcy, of Castle Bromwich in the County of Warwick, was created in the Baronetage of England in 1611 for the Hon. Edward Devereux, seated at Castle Bromwich Hall, landowner and the fourth son of the first Viscount Hereford. He had briefly served Tamworth in the House of Commons. His eldest son succeeded his first cousin twice removed downwards as fifth Viscount Hereford in 1646.The viscountcy of Hereford is the senior viscountcy in the Peerage of England. The Viscount Hereford is also the only one of the three English Viscounts who does not hold a higher title.

Welsh Marches line

The Welsh Marches line (in Welsh: Llinell y Mers), known historically as the North and West Route, is the railway line running from Newport in south-east Wales to Shrewsbury in the West Midlands region of England by way of Abergavenny, Hereford and Craven Arms and thence (by some definitions) to Crewe via Whitchurch. The line thus links the south of Wales to north-west England via the Welsh Marches region, bypassing Birmingham. Through services from south-west Wales, Swansea and Cardiff to Manchester (hourly in each direction) and from Cardiff to Wrexham, Chester, the north coast of Wales and Anglesey (every two hours in each direction) constitute the bulk of passenger operations on the route.

Railways in Hereford
Hereford Barrs Court
Hereford Barton
Rotherwas Junction
Northern Ireland
Unitary authorities
Major settlements

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