Herder–farmer conflicts in Nigeria usually involve disputes over land and/or cattle between herders (in particular the Fulani and Hausa) and farmers (for example the Adara, Tiv and Tarok). The most impacted states are those of the Nigerian Middle Belt like Benue, Taraba and Plateau.
Since the Fourth Nigerian Republic’s founding in 1999, farmer-herder violence has killed more than 10,000 people and displaced hundreds of thousands more. It followed a trend in the increase of farmer-herder conflicts throughout much of the western Sahel, due to an expansion of agriculturist population and cultivated land at the expense of pasturelands; deteriorating environmental conditions, desertification and soil degradation; population growth; breakdown in traditional conflict resolution mechanisms of land and water disputes; and proliferation of small arms and crime in rural areas. Insecurity and violence have led many populations to create self-defence forces and ethnic and tribal militias, which have engaged in further violence. The majority of farmer-herder clashes have occurred between Muslim Fulani herdsmen and Christian farmers, exacerbating ethnoreligious hostilities.
According to the Global Terrorism Index, Fulani militants were the fourth deadliest terrorist group in 2014, using machine guns and attacks on villages to assault and intimidate farmers. After killing around 80 people in total from 2010 to 2013, they killed 1,229 in 2014. Most deaths occurred in the Nigerian Middle Belt, in particular in the states of Benue, Kaduna, Nasarawa, Plateau and Taraba, which recorded 847 deaths. The state of Zamfara, in the northern belt, recorded 229 deaths. In addition to terrorist attacks, Fulani militants were also involved in non-state armed conflicts with groups from Eggon, Jukun and Tiv farming communities. These conflicts resulted in over 800 deaths by 2015. The year 2016 saw further incidents in Agatu, Benue and Nimbo, Enugu State.
In April 2018 Fulani gunmen killed 19 people during an attack on the church, afterwards they burnt dozens of nearby homes. In June 2018, over 200 people were killed and 50 houses were burnt in clashes between farmers and Fulani cattle herders in Plateau State. In October 2018, Fulani herdsmen killed at least 19 people in Bassa. By 2018, over 2000 people were killed in those conflicts. On 16 December 2018, Militants believed to be Fulani Herdsmen attacked a village in Jema'a, killing 15 people and injuring at least 24 others, the attack occurred at a wedding ceremony.
On 11 February 2019, an attack on an Adara settlement named Ungwar Bardi by suspected Fulani gunmen killed 11. Reprisal attack by Adara targeted settlements of the Fulani killing at least 141 people with 65 missing. The attacks took place in Kajuru LGA of Kaduna State. According to a governor the motive was to destroy specific communities.
Adolphus Williamson Howells (9 August 1866; died 3 December 1938) was an Anglican bishop in the 20th century.Howells was educated at Fourah Bay College and ordained in 1899. He was a teacher at Badagry, Breadfruit, Ikoyi and Lagos, where he was Principal of the CMS Training Institution. He was Pastor of St John, Arolya from 1902 to 1918. In 1919 he became the first Vicar of Christ Church Pro-Cathedral; and in 1920 consecrated at Assistant Bishop for the Niger Delta.Agatu massacres
The Agatu attacks and massacres occurred in Agatu, Benue State, began in late February 2016 and continued for several days into March.Aminu Safana
Aminu Shuaibu Safana (April 1961 – October 17, 2007) was a Nigerian politician who represented the Batsari/Safana/Danmusa constituency of Katsina State in the House of Representatives.A doctor by training, Safana was a graduate of Ahmadu Bello University and the Universities of Leeds and London. He had been a confidant of President Umaru Yar'Adua, and had served as secretary of Katsina State's government while Yar'Adua was governor.He was elected to the House of Representatives in 2003, and was reelected in 2007. He was a People's Democratic Party member and chairman of the house's Committee on Health. On October 17, 2007, Safana collapsed on the assembly's floor; he was pronounced dead the same day at the Abuja National Hospital, the cause of death being identified as a heart attack.Bertram Lasbrey
Bertram Lasbrey was a long serving Anglican bishop in the 20th century.
He was born in 1881, educated at Bedford School and St Catharine's College, Cambridge and ordained in 1905. He held Curacies at St Andrew, Bishop Auckland and St John, Melcombe Regis. He was then Vicar of St Gabriel, Bishopwearmouth. In 1922 he became Bishop on the Niger, a post he held for 23 years. Returning to England he was an Assistant Bishop in the Diocese of Worcester. He died on 6 April 1976.Climate security
Climate security describes serious threats to the security of people, ecosystems and prosperity of countries, due to climate warming, and climate actions to adapt and mitigate impacts.Denis Hall (bishop)
Denis Bartlett Hall (9 April 1899 – 5 April 1983) was an Anglican bishop in the mid twentieth century.He was educated at Bristol Grammar School and served in the RNVR from 1917 to 1919. He graduated from the University of Bristol in 1923, after which he studied for ordination at Ridley Hall, Cambridge. After a curacy at St Gabriel, Sunderland he was Chaplain of the school ship, HMS Conway. He was Vicar of Bishopston, Bristol from 1930 to 1947; Assistant Bishop on the Niger from 1947 to 1957; Vicar of Thornton Heath from 1957 to 1961; and Rector of Tormarton from 1961 to 1966. He was an Assistant Bishop of Canterbury from 1960 to 1961.Herbert Tugwell
Herbert Tugwell (15 March 1854 – 22 July 1936) was a colonial Anglican bishop in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Tugwell was born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge and ordained in 1881. He was Curate of St Mary, Petworth and then a Church Mission Society (CMS) missionary in Lagos.In 1894 he was appointed to the episcopate as Bishop of Western Equatorial Africa. The CMS decided to create two assistant bishops to help with the workload of the large diocese and to assuage African opinion. James Johnson, although the most prominent clergyman in the colony, was considered unsafe. Instead the more conservative Charles Phillips of Ondo was appointed, along with Isaac Oluwole, a former principal of the CMS Grammar School, Lagos.
When the Western Equatorial Africa diocese was split in 1919, Tugwell became the inaugural Bishop on the Niger.
He returned to England in 1921 and served as Rector of Mavesyn Ridware, Staffordshire from 1921 to 1927.
He died on 22 July 1936 and was buried in St. Helen's Church, Benson, Oxfordshire. He had married Caroline White and had a son and a daughter; he had become a Doctor of Divinity (DD).
In 1939, a church in the Anglican Diocese of Lagos was named after him. The church, Bishop Tugwell Memorial Anglican Church (BTM for short), is reputed to be the oldest Igbo Anglican church in the whole of Lagos. BTM Anglican Church marked its 75th anniversary with a church service on 19 October 2014.History of Northern Nigeria
The history of Northern Nigeria covers the history of the region form pre-historic times to the modern period of Northern Nigerian state.Internally Displaced Person Camp in Lagos
Internally Displaced Person Camp in Lagos is located in the Ibeju Lekki area of Lagos State, and it was established in the first quarter of the year 2016 by the Federal Government to cater for migrants and internally displaced persons in the state as well as served as a re-integration centre.
The centre was established in partnership with Web of Hearts, which is a non-governmental organization based in Lagos State. The centre was commissioned by Hajiya Hadiza Sani Kangiwa,who is the Honourable Federal Commissioner, National Commission for Refugees, Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons
According to Hajiya Kangiwa during the commissioning “This centre is to serve as a component of the Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration (AVRR) programme. We have set it up in collaboration with Web of Hearts with whom we have recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding to serve as a transit centre where returnee migrants would be provided with counselling services, mentorship, family reunification, skill acquisition, training, temporary accommodation and much more.” Also, the executive director of Web of Hearts, Bose Aggrey believes that the place will motivate stranded Nigerian abroad to return home.List of terrorist incidents in 2019
This is a list of terrorist incidents which took place in 2019, including attacks by violent non-state actors, split up by month. Note that terrorism related to drug wars and cartel violence is not included in these lists.
List of terrorist incidents in January 2019
List of terrorist incidents in February 2019
List of terrorist incidents in March 2019
List of terrorist incidents in April 2019
List of terrorist incidents in May 2019
List of terrorist incidents in June 2019
List of terrorist incidents in July 2019
List of terrorist incidents in August 2019
List of terrorist incidents in September 2019
List of terrorist incidents in October 2019
List of terrorist incidents in November 2019
List of terrorist incidents in December 2019Nigerian refugees
Nigerian refugees are persons originating from the country of Nigeria, but seeking refuge outside the borders of their native country.Nigerian refugees in Niger
Nigerian refugees in Niger are people from Nigeria but taking refuge in Niger. This is predominantly as a result of the Boko haram insurgency in North-Eastern Nigeria. As of July 2016, there are 280,000 refugees in Diffa region of Niger and approximately 6,000 and 10,000 displaced persons in refugee camp of Sayam Forage and Kabelawa respectively.According to a report by the National Emergency Management Agency, there 138,321 refugees in Niger.Oromo–Somali clashes
The Oromo–Somali clashes began in December 2016 following territorial disputes between Oromo and Somali communities in Ethiopia. Hundreds of people were killed.Overgrazing
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, game reserves, or nature reserves. It can also be caused by immobile, travel restricted populations of native or non-native wild animals. However, "overgrazing" is a controversial concept, based on equilibrium system theory.
It reduces the usefulness, productivity, and biodiversity of the land and is one cause of desertification and erosion. Overgrazing is also seen as a cause of the spread of invasive species of non-native plants and of weeds. It is caused by nomadic grazers in huge populations of travel herds, such as the American bison of the Great Plains, or migratory Wildebeests of the African savannas, or by holistic planned grazing.Pastoralism
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as cattle, camels, goats, yaks, llamas, reindeer, horses and sheep."Pastoralism" often has a mobile aspect but this can take many forms and be at different scales. Sedentary pastoralism is becoming more common as the hardening of political borders, expansion of crop agriculture, and building of fences reduces ability to move. Mobile pastoralism includes moving herds distances in search of fresh pasture and water, something that can occur daily or even within a few hours, to transhumance, where animals are moved seasonally, to nomadism, where pastoralists and families move with the animals year-round. In sedentary pastoralism, or pastoral farming, pastoralists grow crops and improve pastures for their livestock. One example is a savanna area where pastoralists and their animals gather when rainwater is abundant and the pasture is rich, then scatter during the drying of the savanna. . Another is the movement of livestock from summer pastures in lowlands, to montane pastures in the summer where grass is green and plentiful during the dry season . Grazing in woodlands and forests may be referred to as silvopastoralism .
Pastoralist herds interact with their environment, and mediate human relations with the environment as a way of turning uncultivated plants like wild grass into consumable, high quality, food. In many places, grazing herds on savannas and woodlands can help maintain the biodiversity of the savannas and prevent them from evolving into dense shrublands or forests. Grazing and browsing at the appropriate levels often can increase biodiversity in Mediterranean climate regions , . Pastoralists may also use fire to make ecosystems more suitable for grazing and browsing animals. For instance, the Turkana people of northwest Kenya use fire to prevent the invasion of the savanna by woody plant species. Biomass of the domesticated and wild animals was increased by a higher quality of grass.Pastoralism is found in many variations throughout the world, generally where enviornmental charactersitics such as aridity, poor soils, cold or hot temperature, and lack of water make crop growing difficult or impossible. Pastoralism remains a way of life in Africa, the Tibetan plateau, the Eurasian steppes, the Andes, Patagonia, the Pampas, Australia, and other many other places. Composition of herds, management practices, social organization and all other aspects of pastoralism vary between areas and between social groups. Many traditional practices have also had to adapt to the changing circumstance of the modern world, including climatic conditions affecting the availability of grasses and the loss of mobility over large landscapes. Ranches of the United States and sheep stations and cattle stations of Australia are seen by some as modern variations.Richard Utaegbulam
Richard Utaegbulam (1904-1968) was an Anglican priestUtaegbulam was born in Umuezeala and educated at St Paul's College, Awka. He was ordained in 1941 He served at Umuahia, Bonny and Aba.
He became a Canon Residentiary at St. Michael, Aba in 1953; and it's Archdeacon in 1960. He was leader of the movement to create a separate Diocese of Aba, now a reality. Utaegbulam died in Umuahia Hospital.Sahel
The Sahel () is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south. Having a semi-arid climate, it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea. The name is derived from the Arabic word sāḥil (ساحل, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈsaːħil]) meaning "coast" or "shore" in a figurative sense (in reference to the southern edge of the vast Sahara), while the name in Swahili means "coastal [dweller]" in a literal sense.
The Sahel part of Africa includes (from west to east) parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger, the extreme north of Nigeria, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon, Central African Republic and the extreme north of Ethiopia.Historically, the western part of the Sahel was sometimes known as the Sudan region. This belt was roughly located between the Sahara and the coastal areas of West Africa.Thomas Dennis (priest)
Thomas John Dennis (1869-1917) was an Anglican priest who was the main translator of the Bible into the Ibo language. in the 20th century.Thomas John Dennis was born in 1869 and grew up in the County of Sussex on the south coast of England. He was educated at the CMS College, Islington and Durham University. He was ordained in 1894. He was with the CMS in Sierra Leone from 1893 to 1894. He came to West Africa in 1893 and was ordained on Whitsunday 13 May 1894. He was acting Vice-Principal of Fourah Bay College, Freetown for about a year then joined the Niger Mission in November 1894. His duties were initially mainly administrative, as Acting Secretary to the mission in 1895. After the death of the Secretary, H.H. Dobinson, in 1897 Dennis became Secretary and was appointed Archdeacon of Onitsha in 1905.From 1906 to 1913 he made a new translation of the Bible into the Ibo language for the British and Foreign Bible Society. He was also Commissary and Examining Chaplain to the Rt Rev. Herbert Tugwell, Bishop in Western Equatorial Africa. he has a school named after him.War
War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties.
The scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology ( POL-ə-MOL-ə-jee), from the Greek polemos, meaning "war", and -logy, meaning "the study of".
While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature, others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.