Herbert Morrison

Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth, CH, PC (3 January 1888 – 6 March 1965) was a British Labour politician who held a variety of senior positions in the Cabinet.

During the inter-war period, he was Minister of Transport during the 1929-31 Labour Government, then, after losing his seat in Parliament in 1931, became Leader of the London County Council in the 1930s. Returning to the Commons in 1935, he was defeated by Clement Attlee in the Labour leadership election that year, but later acted as Home Secretary in the wartime coalition.

Morrison organised Labour's victorious 1945 election campaign, and was appointed Leader of the House of Commons and Deputy Prime Minister in Attlee's governments of 1945–51. Attlee, Morrison, Ernest Bevin, Stafford Cripps and (initially) Hugh Dalton formed the "Big Five" who dominated those governments. Morrison oversaw Labour's nationalisation programme, although he opposed Aneurin Bevan's proposals for a nationalised hospital service as part of the setting up of the National Health Service. Morrison developed his social views from his work in local politics and always emphasised the importance of public works to deal with unemployment. In the final year of Attlee's premiership, Morrison had an unhappy term as Foreign Secretary. He was hailed as "Lord Festival" for his successful leadership of the Festival of Britain, a critical and popular success in 1951 that attracted millions of visitors to fun-filled educational exhibits and events in London and across the country.

Morrison was widely expected to succeed Attlee as Labour leader, but Attlee, who disliked him, postponed stepping down until 1955. Morrison, who was by then considered too old, came a poor third in the ensuing Labour leadership election.[1]


The Lord Morrison of Lambeth

Herbert Morrison 1947
Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
26 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Prime MinisterClement Attlee
Preceded byClement Attlee
Succeeded byAnthony Eden
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
In office
25 May 1945 – 2 February 1956
LeaderClement Attlee
Preceded byArthur Greenwood
Succeeded byJim Griffiths
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
9 March 1951 – 26 October 1951
Prime MinisterClement Attlee
Preceded byErnest Bevin
Succeeded byAnthony Eden
Lord President of the Council
In office
26 July 1945 – 9 March 1951
Prime MinisterClement Attlee
Preceded byLord Woolton
Succeeded byThe Viscount Addison
Leader of the House of Commons
In office
26 July 1945 – 16 March 1951
Prime MinisterClement Attlee
Preceded byAnthony Eden
Succeeded byJames Chuter Ede
Home Secretary
In office
4 October 1940 – 23 May 1945
Prime MinisterWinston Churchill
Preceded bySir John Anderson
Succeeded byDonald Somervell
Minister of Supply
In office
12 May 1940 – 4 October 1940
Prime MinisterWinston Churchill
Preceded byLeslie Burgin
Succeeded byAndrew Rae Duncan
Leader of the London County Council
In office
9 March 1934 – 27 May 1940
Preceded byWilliam Ray
Succeeded byCharles Latham
Minister of Transport
In office
7 June 1929 – 24 August 1931
Prime MinisterRamsay MacDonald
Preceded byWilfrid Ashley
Succeeded byJohn Pybus
Chairman of the Labour Party
In office
5 October 1928 – 4 October 1929
LeaderRamsay MacDonald
Preceded byGeorge Lansbury
Succeeded bySusan Lawrence
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
2 November 1959 – 6 March 1965
Life Peerage
Member of Parliament
for Lewisham South
Lewisham East (1945–1950)
In office
5 July 1945 – 8 October 1959
Preceded bySir Assheton Pownall
Succeeded byCarol Johnson
Member of Parliament
for Hackney South
In office
14 November 1935 – 5 July 1945
Preceded byMarjorie Graves
Succeeded byHerbert William Butler
In office
30 May 1929 – 27 October 1931
Preceded byGeorge Garro-Jones
Succeeded byMarjorie Graves
In office
6 December 1923 – 29 October 1924
Preceded byClifford Erskine-Bolst
Succeeded byGeorge Garro-Jones
Personal details
Born
Herbert Stanley Morrison

3 January 1888
37, Mordaunt Street, Stockwell, London, England
Died6 March 1965 (aged 77)
Peckham, South London, England
NationalityBritish
Political partyLabour
Spouse(s)Margaret Kent (1919–1953) Edith Meadowcroft (1955-1965)
ChildrenMary Morrison (1921-2006)

Early life

Morrison was born in Stockwell Lambeth, London, to Priscilla (née Lyon; died 1907) and Henry Morrison (died 1917), one of six children who survived infancy. Henry Morrison was a police constable, whose Conservative political opinions his son would later come to disagree with strongly.

As a baby, he permanently lost the sight in his right eye due to infection. He attended Stockwell Road Primary School and, from the age of 11, St Andrew's Church of England School. He left school at 14 to become an errand boy. His early politics were radical, and he briefly flirted with the Social Democratic Federation over the Independent Labour Party (ILP). As a conscientious objector, he worked in a market garden in Letchworth in World War One.[2]

Political career

Early career

Morrison eventually became a pioneer leader in the London Labour Party. He was elected to the Metropolitan Borough of Hackney in 1919 when the Labour Party won control of the Borough, and he was Mayor in 1920–21. Morrison was a follower of Clapton Orient FC and became a shareholder in the club. He was elected to the London County Council (LCC) in 1922 and at the 1923 general election he became Member of Parliament (MP) for Hackney South, but lost that seat the following year when Ramsay MacDonald's first administration lost the general election.[2]

Morrison returned to Parliament in the 1929 general election, and MacDonald appointed him Minister of Transport. Morrison, like many others in the party, was deeply disheartened by MacDonald's national government, and he lost his seat again in 1931.

London

Morrison continued to sit on the London County Council and in 1933 was elected to lead the Labour Group. He wrote a book Socialisation and Transport : the Organisation of Socialised Industries with Particular Reference to the London Passenger Transport Bill which encapsulated his ideas on nationalisation. Managers would be appointed to run monopoly industries in the public interest. He did not, however, envisage democratic control by the workers.[3] Unexpectedly, Labour won the 1934 LCC election and Morrison became Leader of the Council. This gave him control of almost all local government services in London. His main achievements here included the unification of bus, tram and trolleybus services with the Underground, by the creation of the London Passenger Transport Board (colloquially known as London Transport) in 1933, and creating the Metropolitan Green Belt around the suburbs. He confronted the Government over its refusal to finance the replacement of Waterloo Bridge, and eventually they agreed to pay 60% of the cost of the new bridge.[2]

In the 1935 election, Morrison was once again elected to the House of Commons and immediately challenged Attlee for the leadership of the party. He was defeated by a wide margin in the final ballot, a defeat ascribed to his unfamiliarity with the MPs who had served in the previous Parliament. Both he and his supporter Hugh Dalton put some of the blame on the Masonic New Welcome Lodge, who, they claimed, backed the third-place leadership candidate Arthur Greenwood and then switched their votes to Attlee.[4] After losing, Morrison concentrated on his LCC work. He convinced Labour to adopt the new electioneering techniques that opponents had been using, especially using advertising agencies in the 1937 local elections.[5] For example, he stressed housing, education and his own leadership with posters featuring Morrison alongside children and with a backdrop of new LCC flats above slogans such as 'Labour Puts Human Happiness First', ‘Labour Gets Things Done’ and ‘Let Labour Finish the Job.’[6]

In 1939, Conservative MPs defeated Herbert Morrison's bill introducing "site value rating", a tax on similar lines to Land Value Tax, in the old London County Council area.[7][8]

By the late 1960s (long after Morrison had left the leadership of the London County Council), London Conservatives frequently accused him of seeking to 'build the Tories out of London',[9] the implication being that the LCC would deliberately build council houses in order to affect local voting patterns. His biographers, Bernard Donoghue and George W. Jones, have written that "Morrison never said or wrote" the words attributed to him.[10]

Wartime Coalition

In 1940, Morrison was appointed the first Minister of Supply by Winston Churchill, but shortly afterwards succeeded Sir John Anderson as Home Secretary. Morrison's London experience in local government was particularly useful during the Blitz, and the Morrison shelter was named after him. He made radio appeals for more fire guards in December 1940 ('Britain shall not burn').[11]

Morrison had to take many potentially unpopular and controversial decisions by the nature of wartime circumstances. On 21 January 1941, he banned the Daily Worker for opposing war with Germany and supporting the Soviet Union. The ban lasted for a total of 18 months before it was rescinded.

The arrival of black American troops caused concern in the government, leading Morrison, the Home Secretary, to comment "I am fully conscious that a difficult social problem might be created if there were a substantial number of sex relations between white women and coloured troops and the procreation of half-caste children." That was in a memorandum for the cabinet in 1942.[12] In 1942, Morrison was confronted with an appeal from the Central British Fund for German Jewry (now World Jewish Relief) to admit 350 Jewish children from Vichy France[13]. Although Case Anton ensured the scheme's failure, Morrison had been reluctant to accept it beforehand, wanting to avoid provoking the ‘anti-foreign and anti-semitic feeling which was quite certainly latent in this country (and in some isolated cases not at all latent)’.[14]

In 1943, he ran for the post of Treasurer of the Labour Party but lost a close contest to Arthur Greenwood.[15]

Deputy Prime Minister

After the end of the war, Morrison was instrumental in drafting the Labour Party's 1945 manifesto Let us Face the Future.[2] He organised the general election campaign and enlisted the help of left-wing cartoonist Philip Zec, with whom he had clashed during the early stages of the war when, as Minister of Supply, he took exception to an illustration commenting on the costs of supplying the country with petrol.[16][17] Labour won a massive and unexpected victory, and Morrison was appointed Deputy Prime Minister and Leader of the House of Commons, having switched his own seat to Lewisham East. He was the chief sponsor of the Festival of Britain.

Morrison supervised the major Labour programme of nationalising large sectors of industry. As Lord President chaired the Committee on the Socialization of Industries, he followed the model that was already in place of setting up public corporations, such as the BBC in broadcasting (1927). The owners of corporate stock were given government bonds, and the government took full ownership of each affected company, consolidating it into a national monopoly. The management remained the same, only now they became public servants working for the government. For the Labour Party leadership, nationalisation was a method to consolidate national planning in their own hands. It was not designed to modernise old industries, make them efficient, or transform their organisational structure.[18][19]

In July 1946, Morrison, together with US ambassador Henry F. Grady proposed "The Morrison-Grady Plan", intended to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, calling for federalisation under overall British trusteeship. Ultimately, the plan was rejected by both Palestinians and Israelis.

After Ernest Bevin's resignation as Foreign Secretary, Morrison took over his role, but did not feel at ease in the Foreign Office. He took an aggressive stance against Iran's nationalist Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and approved his overthrow.[20] His tenure there was cut short by Labour's defeat in the 1951 general election, and he was appointed a Companion of Honour in November that year.[21]

Festival of Britain

In16695
The 300-foot-tall Skylon at the Festival of Britain, 1951

Morrison lacked a deep concern for foreign affairs, but he was an enthusiastic leader of a major domestic project, the Festival of Britain. Starting in 1947, he was the prime mover of the 1951 fair. The original goal was to celebrate the centennial of the Great Exhibition of 1851.[22] However, the plans were changed. It was not to be another World Fair, and international themes were absent; even the Commonwealth was ignored. Instead, the Festival focused entirely on Britain and its achievements; it was funded chiefly by the government, with a budget of £12-million. The Conservatives gave little support. The Labour government was losing support, and the implicit goal of the festival was to give the people a feeling of successful recovery from the war's devastation, as well as promoting British science, technology, industrial design, architecture and the arts.[23] Historian Kenneth O. Morgan says the Festival was a "triumphant success" as thousands:

flocked to the South Bank site, to wander around the Dome of Discovery, gaze at the Skylon, and generally enjoy a festival of national celebration. Up and down the land, lesser festivals enlisted much civic and voluntary enthusiasm. A people curbed by years of total war and half-crushed by austerity and gloom, showed that it had not lost the capacity for enjoying itself....Above all, the Festival made a spectacular setting as a showpiece for the inventiveness and genius of British scientists and technologists.[24]

End of political career

Although Morrison had effectively been Attlee's heir apparent since the 1930s, Attlee had always distrusted him. Attlee remained as Leader through the early 1950s and fought the 1955 election, finally announcing his retirement after Labour's defeat. Morrison was then 67, and was seen to be too old to embark on a new leadership role. During the leadership election, he was the interim Leader of the Labour Party. Although he stood, he finished last, by a wide margin, of the three candidates, with many of his supporters switching to Hugh Gaitskell. Gaitskell won the election, and Morrison resigned as Deputy Leader.

During the Suez Crisis, Morrison advocated unilateral action by the United Kingdom against Egypt, following Colonel Nasser's seizure of the Suez Canal. Morrison stood down at the 1959 general election and was made a life peer as Baron Morrison of Lambeth, of Lambeth in the County of London on 2 November 1959.[25] He was appointed President of the British Board of Film Censors.

Personal life

While working in a market garden in Letchworth during World War One, Morrison met his first wife, Margaret Kent (1896–1953), a secretary and daughter of a railway clerk. The couple married on 15 March 1919. His total involvement in politics, however, meant that theirs was not a happy marriage; his later autobiography made no mention of Kent or their daughter, Mary.

Following Kent's death in July 1953, Morrison married Edith Meadowcroft (b. c.1908), a businesswoman of Conservative politics. The pair married on 6 January 1955 and their relationship appeared much more successful.[2]

Morrison's grandson Peter Mandelson was a cabinet minister in the Labour governments of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.

Death

He died on 6 March 1965, coincidentally in the same month as the London County Council was abolished.

TV portrayal

Morrison was Foreign Secretary at the time of the defection of the double agents Guy Burgess and Donald Duart Maclean. In the 1977 Granada TV play Philby, Burgess and Maclean by Iain Curteis, Arthur Lowe appeared as Morrison – glowering to the camera in his final shot to show the opaque right lens of his spectacles.

References

  1. ^ Laybourn, Keith (2002) “Morrison, Herbert Stanley” in John Ramsden, ed., The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-century British Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198601344. pp. 443–44
  2. ^ a b c d e Howell, David (2004) "Morrison, Herbert Stanley, Baron Morrison of Lambeth (1888–1965)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press; doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35121
  3. ^ Kynaston, David (2007). A World to Build. London: Bloomsbury. p. 24. ISBN 9780747585404.
  4. ^ Hamill, John; Prescott, Andrew (April 2006). "The Masons' Candidate: New Welcome Lodge No. 5139 and the Parliamentary Labour Party". Labour History Review. 71 (1): 9–41(33). doi:10.1179/174581806X103862. This cites as note number 2 H. Morrison, Herbert Morrison: An Autobiography by Lord Morrison of Lambeth, London, Odhams, 1960, p. 164
  5. ^ Dominic Wring, "“Selling socialism”-The marketing of the “very old” British Labour Party." European Journal of Marketing 35#9/10 (2001): 1038-1046. online
  6. ^ Donoughue and Jones, 1972, pp. 209-11
  7. ^ Wetzel, Dave (20 September 2004) The case for taxing land. New Statesman.
  8. ^ "London Rating (Site Values) — A Bill". Land Value Taxation Campaign. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
  9. ^ Ken Young, John Kramer, Strategy and conflict in metropolitan housing (Heinemann Educational, 1978), p. 262.
  10. ^ Donoghue and Jones, Herbert Morrison: Portrait of a Politician. p. xxxi
  11. ^ audiobook titled The Blitz
  12. ^ Marc Blitzstein, Roland Hayes and the ‘Negro Chorus’ at the Royal Albert Hall in 1943. nickelinthemachine.com. May 2011
  13. ^ Gottlieb, Amy Zahl. Men of Vision: Anglo-Jewry's Aid to Victims of the Nazi Regime, 1933-1945. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998, p.175
  14. ^ Gottlieb, Amy Zahl. Men of Vision: Anglo-Jewry's Aid to Victims of the Nazi Regime, 1933-1945. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998, p.17
  15. ^ Whiting, R. C. (2004) "Greenwood, Arthur (1880–1954)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  16. ^ Contentious Cartoon by Dr Tim Benson , PoliticalCartoon.co.uk
  17. ^ Tabloid Nation: The Birth of the Daily Mirror to the Death of the Tabloid, by Chris Horrie, André Deutsch (2003)
  18. ^ Sked, Alan and Cook, Chris (1979) Post-War Britain: A Political History. ISBN 0140179127. pp 31–34
  19. ^ Beer, Samuel H. (1965) British Politics in the Collectivist Age. pp 188–216
  20. ^ Painter, David S. (1988), The United States, Great Britain, and Mossadegh (PDF), Georgetown University, ISBN 1-56927-332-4, archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2010, retrieved 23 November 2009
  21. ^ "No. 39396". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 November 1951. p. 6235.
  22. ^ Bernard Donoughue, and G. W. Jones, Herbert Morrison: Portrait of a Politician (1973), pp 492-95.
  23. ^ F.M. Leventhal, "'A Tonic to the Nation': The Festival of Britain, 1951." Albion 27#3 (1995): 445-453.
  24. ^ Kenneth O. Morgan (1992). Britain Since 1945: The People's Peace. Oxford UP. p. 111.
  25. ^ "No. 41860". The London Gazette. 3 November 1959. p. 6942.

Further reading

Herbert Morrison published his Autobiography in 1960. His other publications included:

  • Socialisation and Transport, 1933;
  • Looking Ahead (wartime speeches), 1933;
  • Parliamentary Government in Britain, 1949.

The main biography is:

  • Herbert Morrison – Portrait of a Politician (1977), by Bernard Donoughue and George Jones. (Reprinted by Orion with an introduction by Peter Mandelson 2001). ISBN 1-84212-441-2

Biographical essays include:

  • Mackintosh, John P. 'Herbert Morrison' in the original Dictionary of National Biography (supplement).
  • Morgan, Kenneth O. "Herbert Morrison", in Morgan, Labour people (1987) pp 176–88.
  • 'Herbert Morrison' by Greg Rosen in Kevin Jefferys (ed) Labour Forces: From Ernie Bevin to Gordon Brown (2002) pp 25–42.

Scholarly studies:

  • Berger, Stefan. "Herbert Morrison's London Labour Party in the Interwar Years and the SPD: Problems of Transferring German Socialist Practices to Britain." European Review of History: Revue europeenne d'histoire 12.2 (2005): 291-306.
  • Hopkins, Michael F. "Herbert Morrison, the Cold War and Anglo-American Relations, 1945–1951." in Cold War Britain, 1945–1964 (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2003) pp. 17–29.
  • Lowe, Peter. "Herbert Morrison, the Labour Government, and the Japanese Peace Treaty, 1951." in Kazuo Chiba, and Peter Lowe, eds. Britain, the United States and Japans Return to Normal, 1951-1972 (Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE, 1993). pp 1–27.
  • Radice, Giles. The Tortoise and the Hares: Attlee, Bevin, Cripps, Dalton, Morrison (Politico's Publishing, 2008).
  • Wring, Dominic. "“Selling socialism”-The marketing of the “very old” British Labour Party." European Journal of Marketing 35#9/10 (2001): 1038-1046. online

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Clifford Erskine-Bolst
Member of Parliament for Hackney South
19231924
Succeeded by
George Garro-Jones
Preceded by
George Garro-Jones
Member of Parliament for Hackney South
19291931
Succeeded by
Marjorie Graves
Preceded by
Marjorie Graves
Member of Parliament for Hackney South
19351945
Succeeded by
Herbert Butler
Preceded by
Sir Assheton Pownall
Member of Parliament for Lewisham East
19451950
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Lewisham South
19501959
Succeeded by
Carol Johnson
Party political offices
Preceded by
Fred Knee
Secretary of the London Labour Party
1914–1945
Succeeded by
Donald Himson Daines
Preceded by
Emil Davies
Leader of the Labour Party on London County Council
1925–1929
Succeeded by
Cecil Manning
Preceded by
George Lansbury
Chair of the Labour Party
1928–1929
Succeeded by
Susan Lawrence
Preceded by
Lewis Silkin
Leader of the Labour Party on London County Council
1933–1940
Succeeded by
Lord Latham
Preceded by
Arthur Greenwood
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
1945–1955
Succeeded by
Jim Griffiths
Political offices
Preceded by
Wilfrid Ashley
Minister of Transport
1929–1931
Succeeded by
John Pybus
Preceded by
Sir William Ray
Leader of the London County Council
1933–1940
Succeeded by
Lord Latham
Preceded by
Leslie Burgin
Minister of Supply
1940
Succeeded by
Andrew Duncan
Preceded by
Sir John Anderson
Home Secretary
1940–1945
Succeeded by
Sir Donald Bradley Somervell
Preceded by
Lord Woolton
Lord President of the Council
1945–1951
Succeeded by
Viscount Addison
Preceded by
Anthony Eden
Leader of the House of Commons
1945–1951
Succeeded by
Chuter Ede
Preceded by
Clement Attlee
Deputy Prime Minister
1945–1951
Succeeded by
Sir Anthony Eden
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Foreign Secretary
1951
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Media offices
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President of the British Board of Film Censors
1960–1965
Succeeded by
David Ormsby-Gore
1935 Labour Party (UK) leadership election

The 1935 Labour Party leadership election took place on 26 November 1935 when Herbert Morrison and Arthur Greenwood challenged Clement Attlee, the incumbent party leader of only one month and one day. Attlee, previously Deputy Leader, had been appointed as an interim leader the previous month when George Lansbury resigned and the general election was looming.

With the Labour Party now having roughly three times as many MPs as in the 1931-5 Parliament, both Morrison and Greenwood stood in the annual election for leader, feeling that Attlee's appointment had only been intended as an interim measure. Morrison had not been an MP at the time of the October appointment, whilst Greenwood had declined to offer himself as a candidate then because he was strongly associated with trade union leaders such as Ernest Bevin, who were widely regarded as the reasons for forcing Lansbury to resign, a move that the vast majority of Labour MPs opposed.

1937 London County Council election

An election to the County Council of London took place on 4 March 1937. The council was elected by First Past the Post with each elector having two votes in the two-member seats. The Labour Party made gains, increasing their majority over the Municipal Reform Party.

1952 Labour Party (UK) deputy leadership election

The 1952 Labour Party deputy leadership election took place on 11 November 1952, after sitting deputy leader Herbert Morrison was challenged by Aneurin Bevan.

1953 Labour Party (UK) deputy leadership election

The 1953 Labour Party deputy leadership election took place on 29 October 1953, after sitting deputy leader Herbert Morrison was challenged by Aneurin Bevan.

1954 Labour Party (UK) Shadow Cabinet election

Elections to the Labour Party's Shadow Cabinet (more formally, its "Parliamentary Committee") occurred in 1954. In addition to the 12 members elected, the Leader (Clement Attlee), Deputy Leader (Herbert Morrison), Labour Chief Whip (William Whiteley), Labour Leader in the House of Lords (William Jowitt) were automatically members.

The 12 winners of the election are listed below:

† Multiple candidates tied for position.

1955 Labour Party (UK) Shadow Cabinet election

Elections to the Labour Party's Shadow Cabinet (more formally, its "Parliamentary Committee") occurred in 1955. In addition to the 12 members elected, the Leader (Clement Attlee), Deputy Leader (Herbert Morrison), Labour Chief Whip (William Whiteley), Labour Leader in the House of Lords (William Jowitt) were automatically members.

The 12 winners of the election are listed below:

† Multiple candidates tied for position.

1955 Labour Party (UK) leadership election

The 1955 Labour Party leadership election was held following the resignation of Clement Attlee. Attlee was Prime Minister from 1945 to 1951 and stayed on as leader of the Labour Party until he lost the 1955 general election.

1956 Labour Party (UK) deputy leadership election

The 1956 Labour Party deputy leadership election took place on 2 February 1956, after the resignation of sitting deputy leader Herbert Morrison. Morrison resigned after his heavy defeat in the leadership election in December 1955, but the party decided not to hold a deputy leadership election until the new year.

Arthur Greenwood

Arthur Greenwood, (8 February 1880 – 9 June 1954) was a British politician. A prominent member of the Labour Party from the 1920s until the late 1940s, Greenwood rose to prominence within the party as secretary of its research department from 1920 and served as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health in the short-lived Labour government of 1924. In 1940, he was instrumental in resolving that Britain would continue fighting Nazi Germany in World War II.

Festival of Britain

The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951. Historian Kenneth O. Morgan says the Festival was a "triumphant success" as people:

flocked to the South Bank site, to wander around the Dome of Discovery, gaze at the Skylon, and generally enjoy a festival of national celebration. Up and down the land, lesser festivals enlisted much civic and voluntary enthusiasm. A people curbed by years of total war and half-crushed by austerity and gloom, showed that it had not lost the capacity for enjoying itself....Above all, the Festival made a spectacular setting as a showpiece for the inventiveness and genius of British scientists and technologists.

Labour cabinet member Herbert Morrison was the prime mover; in 1947 he started with the original plan to celebrate the centennial of the Great Exhibition of 1851. However it was not to be another World Fair, for international themes were absent, as was the British Commonwealth. Instead the 1951 festival focused entirely on Britain and its achievements; it was funded chiefly by the government, with a budget of £12 million. The Labour government was losing support and so the implicit goal of the festival was to give the people a feeling of successful recovery from the war's devastation , as well as promoting British science, technology, industrial design, architecture and the arts.

The Festival's centrepiece was in London on the South Bank of the Thames. There were events in Poplar (Architecture), Battersea (The Festival Pleasure Gardens), South Kensington (Science) and Glasgow (Industrial Power). Festival celebrations took place in Cardiff, Stratford-upon-Avon, Bath, Perth, Bournemouth, York, Aldeburgh, Inverness, Cheltenham, Oxford, Norwich, Canterbury and elsewhere, and there were touring exhibitions by land and sea.

The Festival became a "beacon for change" that proved immensely popular with thousands of elite visitors and millions of popular ones. It helped reshape British arts, crafts, designs and sports for a generation. Journalist Harry Hopkins highlights the widespread impact of the "Festival style". They called it "Contemporary". It was:

clean, bright and new.... It caught hold quickly and spread first across London and then across England....In an island hitherto largely given up to gravy browns and dull greens, "Contemporary" boldly espoused strong primary colors.

Hackney South (UK Parliament constituency)

Hackney South was a parliamentary constituency in "The Metropolis" (later the County of London). It was represented by nine Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, only two of whom, Horatio Bottomley and Herbert Morrison, were returned.

Herbert Butler

Herbert William Butler JP (30 January 1897 – 16 November 1971) was a British Labour politician.

Butler was the son of Frank Butler. He was educated at a London County Council elementary school, and served in the Royal Navy during World War I, from 1916 to 1919. as a stoker. Following the war he became involved in Labour politics, and in 1922 became agent for Herbert Morrison who was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Hackney South at the 1923 general election. In the 1930s he was a leading opponent of Oswald Mosley's Blackshirt movement, which was active in the Hackney area.He became a Justice of the Peace (JP) for London in 1929, and in 1934 he was elected to Hackney Borough Council. He was subsequently made an alderman and Mayor of Hackney in 1936/37. He remained a member of the borough council for more than thirty years, and was also a member of the North East Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board, chairman of the Hackney and Queen Elizabeth hospital group, and a freeman of the Borough of Hackney.At the 1945 general election he was elected to succeed Herbert Morrison as MP for Hackney South, and held the seat until its abolition in 1955. From 1950 to 1951, Butler was Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) to the Civil Lord of the Admiralty, Walter "Stoker" Edwards. the Hackney South constituency was abolished at the 1955 general election, when Butler was elected as MP for the new constituency of Hackney Central. He held that seat until his retirement at the 1970 general election.He died in St Leonard's Hospital, Shoreditch in November 1971, aged 74.

Herbert Morrison (announcer)

Herbert Oglevee "Herb" Morrison ((1905-05-14)May 14, 1905 – (1989-01-10)January 10, 1989) was an American radio journalist best known for his dramatic report of the Hindenburg disaster, a catastrophic fire that destroyed the LZ 129 Hindenburg zeppelin on May 6, 1937, killing 36 people.

Little is known of Morrison's early life, his career prior to the on-site report he gave of the Hindenburg's fiery destruction, and of his career subsequent to the tragedy.

Lewisham South (UK Parliament constituency)

Lewisham South was a parliamentary constituency in Lewisham, London which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1950 until it was abolished for the February 1974 general election.

Morrison–Grady Plan

The Morrison–Grady Plan, also known as the Morrison Plan or the Provincial Autonomy Plan was a joint Anglo-American plan for the creation of a unitary federal trusteeship in Mandatory Palestine, announced on 31 July 1946.Following the issuance of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry report on 20 April 1946, a new committee was created to establish how the Anglo-American proposals would be implemented, led by British Deputy Prime Minister Herbert Morrison and US diplomat Henry F. Grady. Morrison presented the plan to the British Parliament on 31 July 1946. In the United States, President Truman’s initial support for the plan changed after American Zionist lobbying against it before the November mid-term elections. The pressure from American Zionists resulted in President Truman rejecting the plan, despite it having been proposed by Truman’s own appointee. The United States then had no Palestine policy.The plan became the point of departure for the London Conference of 1946–47, convened by the British on 1 October 1946.

Road Traffic Act 1930

The Road Traffic Act 1930 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom introduced by the Minister of Transport Herbert Morrison.

Treasurer of the Labour Party

The Treasurer of the Labour Party is a position on the National Executive Committee of the British Labour Party.

Although a post with little power, in the past, it was often hotly contested by people who later became big names in British politics: Arthur Greenwood beat Herbert Morrison in 1943, Hugh Gaitskell beat Aneurin Bevan in 1954, who in turn beat George Brown in 1956, while James Callaghan beat Michael Foot in 1967. Since the 1990s, the post has typically been held by a senior member of one of the larger Trade Unions.

Since the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (PPERA) came into force, the Labour Party has had to register a Treasurer to the Electoral Commission, who becomes legally responsible for various returns to the Electoral Commission. It has been the practice of the NEC to register the full-time General Secretary as Treasurer under PPERA, rather than the elected volunteer Treasurer. This has created two Treasurer roles within the party, so to disambiguate these roles the elected Treasurer is often called Party Treasurer, and the PPERA Treasurer is often called Registered Treasurer. The party accounts are signed by both treasurers using these titles, though under PPERA only the General Secretary need sign them.

In 2008 the post was contested by the incumbent Jack Dromey and by human rights lawyer Mark McDonald, with Dromey being re-elected. In 2010, former Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott was defeated by Diana Holland.

House of Commons
House of Lords
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Secretary of State for Foreign
and Commonwealth Affairs

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