Heraclitus

Heraclitus of Ephesus (/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/;[1] Greek: Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, translit. Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus,[2] then part of the Persian Empire. He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the apparently riddled[3] and allegedly paradoxical[4] nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the heedless unconsciousness of humankind,[5] he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher".

Heraclitus was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as being the fundamental essence of the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice"[6] (see panta rhei below). This is commonly considered to be a key contribution in the development of the philosophical concept of becoming, as contrasted with "being", and has sometimes been seen in a dialectical relationship with Parmenides' statement that "whatever is, is, and what is not cannot be", the latter being understood as a key contribution in the development of the philosophical concept of being. For this reason, Parmenides and Heraclitus are commonly considered to be two of the founders of ontology. Scholars have generally believed that either Parmenides was responding to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus to Parmenides, though opinion on who was responding to whom has varied over the course of the 20th and 21st centuries.[7] Heraclitus' position was complemented by his stark commitment to a unity of opposites in the world, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same". Through these doctrines Heraclitus characterized all existing entities by pairs of contrary properties, whereby no entity may ever occupy a single state at a single time. This, along with his cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos" (literally, "word", "reason", or "account") has been the subject of numerous interpretations.

Heraclitus
Utrecht Moreelse Heraclite
Heraclitus by Johannes Moreelse. The image depicts him as "the weeping philosopher" wringing his hands over the world, and as "the obscure" dressed in dark clothing—both traditional motifs
Bornc. 535 BCE
Diedc. 475 BCE (age c. 60)
EraAncient philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolIonian
Main interests
Metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics, cosmology
Notable ideas
Logos, "everything flows", fire is the arche, idios kosmos, unity of opposites

Life

Efez agora odeon prytaneion RB
Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor, birthplace of Heraclitus

The main source for the life of Heraclitus is Diogenes Laërtius, although some have questioned the validity of his account as "a tissue of Hellenistic anecdotes, most of them obviously fabricated on the basis of statements in the preserved fragments".[8] Diogenes said that Heraclitus flourished in the 69th Olympiad,[9] 504–501 BCE. All the rest of the evidence—the people Heraclitus is said to have known, or the people who were familiar with his work—confirms the floruit. His dates of birth and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age at which Diogenes says he died,[10] with the floruit in the middle.

Heraclitus was born to an aristocratic family c. 540 BC in Ephesus,[11] in the Persian Empire, in what is now called present-day Efes, Turkey.[12][13] His father was named either Blosôn or Herakôn.[9] Diogenes says that he abdicated the kingship (basileia) in favor of his brother[3] and Strabo confirms that there was a ruling family in Ephesus descended from the Ionian founder, Androclus, which still kept the title and could sit in the chief seat at the games, as well as a few other privileges.[14] How much power the king had is another question. Ephesus had been part of the Persian Empire since 547 and was ruled by a satrap, a more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians considerable autonomy. Diogenes says that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the youths in the temple of Artemis and when asked to start making laws he refused saying that the constitution (politeia) was ponêra,[15] which can mean either that it was fundamentally wrong or that he considered it toilsome. Two extant letters between Heraclitus and Darius I, quoted by Diogenes, are undoubtedly later forgeries.[16]

With regard to education, Diogenes says that Heraclitus was "wondrous" (thaumasios, which, as Socrates explains in Plato's Theaetetus and Gorgias, is the beginning of philosophy) from childhood. Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes, which contradicts Heraclitus' statement (so says Diogenes) that he had taught himself by questioning himself. Burnet states in any case that "... Xenophanes left Ionia before Herakleitos was born."[17] Diogenes relates that as a boy Heraclitus had said he "knew nothing" but later claimed to "know everything".[18] His statement that he "heard no one" but "questioned himself", can be placed alongside his statement that "the things that can be seen, heard and learned are what I prize the most."[19]

Diogenes relates that Heraclitus had a poor opinion of human affairs.[9] He believed that Hesiod and Pythagoras lacked understanding though learned[20] and that Homer and Archilochus deserved to be beaten.[21] Laws needed to be defended as though they were city walls.[22] Timon of Phlius is said to have called him a "mob-reviler". Heraclitus hated the Athenians and his fellow Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked ways.[23] According to Diogenes Laërtius: "Finally, he became a hater of his kind (misanthrope) and wandered the mountains [...] making his diet of grass and herbs."

Heraclitus' life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy. The physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. Diogenes lists various stories about Heraclitus' death: In two versions, Heraclitus was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease. In one account, however, the philosopher "buried himself in a cowshed, expecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by the warmth of the manure", while another says he treated himself with a liniment of cow manure and, after a day prone in the sun, died and was interred in the marketplace. According to Neathes of Cyzicus, after smearing himself with dung, Heraclitus was devoured by dogs.[24][25]

He died after 478 BC from a hydropsy.[11]

Works

Raphael School of Athens Michelangelo
Heraclitus (with the face and in the style of Michelangelo) sits apart from the other philosophers in Raphael's School of Athens.

Diogenes states that Heraclitus' work was "a continuous treatise On Nature, but was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology." Theophrastus says (in Diogenes) "...some parts of his work [are] half-finished, while other parts [made] a strange medley."[3]

Diogenes also tells us that Heraclitus deposited his book as a dedication in the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the largest temples of the 6th century BCE and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ancient temples were regularly used for storing treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional circumstances; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this period refer to the work. Says Kahn:[8] "Down to the time of Plutarch and Clement, if not later, the little book of Heraclitus was available in its original form to any reader who chose to seek it out." Diogenes says:[3] "the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans."

As with the other pre-Socratics, his writings survive now only in fragments quoted by other authors. These are catalogued using the Diels–Kranz numbering system.

Ancient characterizations

"The Obscure"

At some time in antiquity he acquired this epithet denoting that his major sayings were difficult to understand. According to Diogenes Laërtius,[3] Timon of Phlius called him "the Riddler" (αἰνικτής; ainiktēs), and explained that Heraclitus wrote his book "rather unclearly" (asaphesteron) so that only the "capable" should attempt it. By the time of Cicero he had become "the dark" (ὁ Σκοτεινός; ho Skoteinós)[26] because he had spoken nimis obscurē, "too obscurely", concerning nature and had done so deliberately in order to be misunderstood. The customary English translation of ὁ Σκοτεινός follows the Latin, "the Obscure".

The "weeping philosopher"

Bust of Heraclitus, 'The Weeping Philosopher' LACMA M.83.4
Bust of Heraclitus, "The Weeping Philosopher" by Johann Christoph Ludwig Lücke ca. 1757

Diogenes Laërtius ascribes the theory that Heraclitus did not complete some of his works because of melancholia to Theophrastus.[3] Later he was referred to as the "weeping philosopher", as opposed to Democritus, who is known as the "laughing philosopher".[27] If Stobaeus[28] writes correctly, Sotion in the early 1st century CE was already combining the two in the imaginative duo of weeping and laughing philosophers: "Among the wise, instead of anger, Heraclitus was overtaken by tears, Democritus by laughter." The view is expressed by the satirist Juvenal:[29]

The first of prayers, best known at all the temples, is mostly for riches... Seeing this then do you not commend the one sage Democritus for laughing... and the master of the other school Heraclitus for his tears?

The motif was also adopted by Lucian of Samosata in his "Sale of Creeds", in which the duo is sold together as a complementary product in the satirical auction of philosophers. Subsequently, they were considered an indispensable feature of philosophic landscapes. Montaigne proposed two archetypical views of human affairs based on them, selecting Democritus' for himself.[30] The weeping philosopher may have been mentioned in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.[31] Donato Bramante painted a fresco, "Democritus and Heraclitus," in Casa Panigarola in Milan.[32]

Philosophy

Logos

"The idea that all things come to pass in accordance with this Logos"[33] and "the Logos is common,"[34] is expressed in two famous but obscure fragments:

This Logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this Logos, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep. (DK 22B1)

For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. But although the Logos is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding. (DK 22B2)

The meaning of Logos also is subject to interpretation: "word", "account", "principle", "plan", "formula", "measure", "proportion", "reckoning."[35] Though Heraclitus "quite deliberately plays on the various meanings of logos",[36] there is no compelling reason to suppose that he used it in a special technical sense, significantly different from the way it was used in ordinary Greek of his time.[37]

The later Stoics understood it as "the account which governs everything,"[38] and Hippolytus, in the 3rd century CE, identified it as meaning the Christian Word of God.[39]

Panta rhei, "everything flows"

Hendrik ter Brugghen - Heraclitus
Heraclitus by Hendrick ter Brugghen

The phrase πάντα ῥεῖ (panta rhei) "everything flows"[40] either was spoken by Heraclitus or survived as a quotation of his. This famous aphorism used to characterize Heraclitus' thought comes from Simplicius,[41] a neoplatonist, and from Plato's Cratylus. The word rhei (as in rheology) is the Greek word for "to stream", and is etymologically related to Rhea according to Plato's Cratylus.[42]

The philosophy of Heraclitus is summed up in his cryptic utterance:[43]

ποταμοῖσι τοῖσιν αὐτοῖσιν ἐμβαίνουσιν, ἕτερα καὶ ἕτερα ὕδατα ἐπιρρεῖ.
Potamoisi toisin autoisin embainousin, hetera kai hetera hudata epirrei
"Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers."

The quote from Heraclitus appears in Plato's Cratylus twice; in 401d as:[44]

τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν οὐδέν
Ta onta ienai te panta kai menein ouden
"All entities move and nothing remains still"

and in 402a[45]

"πάντα χωρεῖ καὶ οὐδὲν μένει" καὶ "δὶς ἐς τὸν αὐτὸν ποταμὸν οὐκ ἂν ἐμβαίης"
Panta chōrei kai ouden menei kai dis es ton auton potamon ouk an embaies
"Everything changes and nothing remains still ... and ... you cannot step twice into the same stream"[46]

Instead of "flow" Plato uses chōrei, "to change place" (χῶρος; chōros).

The assertions of flow are coupled in many fragments with the enigmatic river image:[47]

Ποταμοῖς τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐμβαίνομέν τε καὶ οὐκ ἐμβαίνομεν, εἶμέν τε καὶ οὐκ εἶμεν.
"We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not."

Compare with the Latin adages Omnia mutantur and Tempora mutantur (8 CE) and the Japanese tale Hōjōki, (1200 CE) which contains the same image of the changing river, and the central Buddhist doctrine of impermanence.

However, the German classicist and philosopher Karl-Martin Dietz interprets this fragment as an indication by Heraclitus, for the world as a steady constant: "You will not find anything, in which the river remains constant. [...] Just the fact, that there is a particular river bed, that there is a source and a estuary etc. is something, that stays identical. And this is [...] the concept of a river".[48]

Hodos ano kato, "the way up and the way down"

In ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω[49] the structure anō katō is more accurately translated as a hyphenated word: "the upward-downward path". They go on simultaneously and instantaneously and result in "hidden harmony".[50] A way is a series of transformations: the πυρὸς τροπαὶ, "turnings of fire",[51] first into sea, then half of sea to earth and half to rarefied air.

The transformation is a replacement of one element by another: "The death of fire is the birth of air, and the death of air is the birth of water."[52]

This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made. But it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, and measures going out.[53]

This latter phraseology is further elucidated:

All things are an interchange for fire, and fire for all things, just like goods for gold and gold for goods.[54]

Heraclitus considered fire as the most fundamental element. He believed fire gave rise to the other elements and thus to all things. He regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the noble part of the soul, and water the ignoble part. A soul should therefore aim toward becoming more full of fire and less full of water: a "dry" soul was best. According to Heraclitus, worldly pleasures made the soul "moist", and he considered mastering one's worldly desires to be a noble pursuit which purified the soul's fire.[55] Norman Melchert interpreted Heraclitus as using "fire" metaphorically, in lieu of Logos, as the origin of all things.[56]

Dike eris, "strife is justice"

If objects are new from moment to moment so that one can never touch the same object twice, then each object must dissolve and be generated continually momentarily and an object is a harmony between a building up and a tearing down. Heraclitus calls the oppositional processes ἔρις (eris), "strife", and hypothesizes that the apparently stable state, δίκη (dikê), or "justice", is a harmony of it:[57]

We must know that war (πόλεμος polemos) is common to all and strife is justice, and that all things come into being through strife necessarily.

As Diogenes explains:[58]

All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of things (τὰ ὅλα ta hola, "the whole") flows like a stream.

In the bow metaphor Heraclitus compares the resultant to a strung bow held in shape by an equilibrium of the string tension and spring action of the bow:[59]

There is a harmony in the bending back (παλίντροπος palintropos) as in the case of the bow and the lyre.

Hepesthai to koino, "follow the common"

People must "follow the common" (ἕπεσθαι τῷ κοινῷ hepesthai tō koinō)[60] and not live having "their own judgement (phronēsis)". He distinguishes between human laws and divine law (τοῦ θείου toū theiou lit. "of God").[61] By "God" Heraclitus does not mean the Judeo-Christian version of a single God as primum movens of all things, God as Creator, but the divine as opposed to human; the immortal as opposed to the mortal, the cyclical as opposed to the transient. It is more accurate to speak of "the Divine" and not of "God".

He removes the human sense of justice from his concept of God; i.e., humanity is not the image of God: "To God all things are fair and good and just, but people hold some things wrong and some right."[62] God's custom has wisdom but human custom does not,[63] and yet both humans and God are childish (inexperienced): "human opinions are children's toys"[64] and "Eternity is a child moving counters in a game; the kingly power is a child's."[65]

Wisdom is "to know the thought by which all things are steered through all things",[66] which must not imply that people are or can be wise. Only Zeus is wise.[67] To some degree then Heraclitus seems to be in the mystic's position of urging people to follow God's plan without much of an idea what that may be. In fact there is a note of despair: "The fairest universe (κάλλιστος κόσμος kállistos kósmos) is but a heap of rubbish (σάρμα sárma lit. "sweepings") piled up (κεχυμένον kechuménon, i.e. "poured out") at random (εἰκῇ eikê "aimlessly")."[68]

Ethos anthropoi daimon, "Man's character is [his] fate"

This influential quote by Heraclitus "ἦθος ἀνθρώπῳ δαίμων" (DK 22B119) has led to numerous interpretations. Whether in this context "daimon" can indeed be translated to mean "fate" is disputed; however, it lends much sense to Heraclitus' observations and conclusions about human nature in general. While the translation with "fate" is generally accepted as in Kahn's "a man's character is his divinity", in some cases, it may also stand for the soul of the departed.[69]

Influence

Bramante heracleitus and democritus.jpeg
Crying Heraclitus and laughing Democritus, from a 1477 fresco by Donato Bramante, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan

Plato

To Heraclitus, a perceived object is a harmony between two fundamental units of change, a waxing and a waning. He typically uses the ordinary word "to become" (gignesthai or ginesthai, present tense or aorist tense of the verb, with the root sense of "being born"), which led to his being characterized as the philosopher of becoming rather than of being. He recognizes the fundamental changing of objects with the flow of time.

Plato argues against Heraclitus as follows:[70]

How can that be a real thing which is never in the same state? ... for at the moment that the observer approaches, then they become other ... so that you cannot get any further in knowing their nature or state .... but if that which knows and that which is known exist ever ... then I do not think they can resemble a process or flux ....

In Plato one experienced unit is a state, or object existing, which can be observed. The time parameter is set at "ever"; that is, the state is to be presumed present between observations. Change is to be deduced by comparing observations and is thus presumed a function that happens to objects already in being, rather than something ontologically essential to them (such that something that does not change cannot exist) as in Heraclitus. In Plato, no matter how many of those experienced units you are able to tally, you cannot get through the mysterious gap between them to account for the change that must be occurring there. This limitation is considered a fundamental limitation of reality by Plato and in part underpins his differentiation between imperfect experience from more perfect Forms. The fact that this is no limitation for Heraclitus motivates Plato's condemnation.

Stoics

Stoicism was a philosophical school which flourished between the 3rd century BC and about the 3rd century AD. It began among the Greeks and became the major philosophy of the Roman Empire before declining with the rise of Christianity in the 3rd century.

Throughout their long tenure the Stoics believed that the major tenets of their philosophy derived from the thought of Heraclitus.[71] According to Long, "the importance of Heraclitus to later Stoics is evident most plainly in Marcus Aurelius."[72] Explicit connections of the earliest Stoics to Heraclitus showing how they arrived at their interpretation are missing but they can be inferred from the Stoic fragments, which Long concludes are "modifications of Heraclitus."[73]

The Stoics were interested in Heraclitus' treatment of fire. In addition to seeing it as the most fundamental of the four elements and the one that is quantified and determines the quantity (logos) of the other three, he presents fire as the cosmos, which was not made by any of the gods or men, but "was and is and ever shall be ever-living fire."[74] Fire is both a substance and a motivator of change, it is active in altering other things quantitatively and performing an activity Heraclitus describes as "the judging and convicting of all things."[75] It is "the thunderbolt that steers the course of all things."[76] There is no reason to interpret the judgement, which is actually "to separate" (κρίνειν krinein), as outside of the context of "strife is justice" (see subsection above).

The earliest surviving Stoic work, the Hymn to Zeus of Cleanthes,[77] though not explicitly referencing Heraclitus, adopts what appears to be the Heraclitean logos modified. Zeus rules the universe with law (nomos) wielding on its behalf the "forked servant", the "fire" of the "ever-living lightning." So far nothing has been said that differs from the Zeus of Homer. But then, says Cleanthes, Zeus uses the fire to "straighten out the common logos" that travels about (phoitan, "to frequent") mixing with the greater and lesser lights (heavenly bodies). This is Heraclitus' logos, but now it is confused with the "common nomos", which Zeus uses to "make the wrong (perissa, left or odd) right (artia, right or even)" and "order (kosmein) the disordered (akosma)."[78]

The Stoic modification of Heraclitus' idea of the Logos was also influential on Jewish philosophers such as Philo of Alexandria, who connected it to "Wisdom personified" as God's creative principle. Philo uses the term Logos throughout his treatises on Hebrew Scripture in a manner clearly influenced by the Stoics.

Church fathers

Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem 01
Democriet (laughing) & Herakliet (crying) by Cornelis van Haarlem

The church fathers were the leaders of the early Christian Church during its first five centuries of existence, roughly contemporaneous to Stoicism under the Roman Empire. The works of dozens of writers in hundreds of pages have survived.

All of them had something to say about the Christian form of the Logos. The Catholic Church found it necessary to distinguish between the Christian logos and that of Heraclitus as part of its ideological distancing from paganism. The necessity to convert by defeating paganism was of paramount importance. Hippolytus of Rome therefore identifies Heraclitus along with the other Pre-Socratics (and Academics) as sources of heresy. Church use of the methods and conclusions of ancient philosophy as such was as yet far in the future, even though many were converted philosophers.

In Refutation of All Heresies[79] Hippolytus says: "What the blasphemous folly is of Noetus, and that he devoted himself to the tenets of Heraclitus the Obscure, not to those of Christ." Hippolytus then goes on to present the inscrutable DK B67: "God (theos) is day and night, winter and summer, ... but he takes various shapes, just as fire, when it is mingled with spices, is named according to the savor of each." The fragment seems to support pantheism if taken literally. German physicist and philosopher Max Bernard Weinstein classed these views with pandeism.[80]

Hippolytus condemns the obscurity of it. He cannot accuse Heraclitus of being a heretic so he says instead: "Did not (Heraclitus) the Obscure anticipate Noetus in framing a system ...?" The apparent pantheist deity of Heraclitus (if that is what DK B67 means) must be equal to the union of opposites and therefore must be corporeal and incorporeal, divine and not-divine, dead and alive, etc., and the Trinity can only be reached by some sort of illusory shape-shifting.[81]

The Christian apologist Justin Martyr, however, took a much more positive view of him. In his First Apology, he said both Socrates and Heraclitus were Christians before Christ: "those who lived reasonably are Christians, even though they have been thought atheists; as, among the Greeks, Socrates and Heraclitus, and men like them." [82]

See also

The following articles on other topics contain non-trivial information that relates to Heraclitus in some way.

Notes

  1. ^ Hanks, Patrick; Urdang, Laurence, eds. (1979). Collins English Dictionary. London, Glasgow: Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-433078-5.
  2. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Heraclitus" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 309–310.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 6
  4. ^ William Harris – Heraclitus: The Complete Philosophical Fragments
  5. ^ "The waking have one common world, but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own" (DK B89).
  6. ^ This is how Plato puts Heraclitus' doctrine. See Cratylus, 402a.
  7. ^ John Palmer (2016). Parmenides. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  8. ^ a b Kahn, Charles (1979). The Art and Thought of Heraclitus: Fragments with Translation and Commentary. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–23. ISBN 978-0-521-28645-9.
  9. ^ a b c Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 1
  10. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 3
  11. ^ a b Ríos Pedraza, Francisco; Haya Segovia, Fernando (2009). Historia de la Filosofía. Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-84-673-5147-7.
  12. ^ Naddaf 2005, p. 126.
  13. ^ Wiesehöfer 2003, pp. 201–202.
  14. ^ Strabo, Chapter 1, section 3.
  15. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 2
  16. ^ G. S. Kirk (2010), Heraclitus: The Cosmic Fragments, Cambridge University Press, p. 1. ISBN 0521136679
  17. ^ Chapter 3 beginning.
  18. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 5
  19. ^ DK B55.
  20. ^ DK B40.
  21. ^ DK B42.
  22. ^ DK B44.
  23. ^ DK B125a.
  24. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 4
  25. ^ Fairweather, Janet (1973). "Death of Heraclitus". p. 2.
  26. ^ De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, Chapter 2, Section 15.
  27. ^ Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (1995). Moral and Political Essays. Translated by John M. Cooper; J.F. Procopé. Cambridge University Press. p. 50 note 17. ISBN 978-0-521-34818-8.
  28. ^ III.20.53
  29. ^ Satire X. Translation from Juvenal (1903). Thirteen Satires of Juvenal. Sidney George Owen (trans.). London: Methuen & Co. p. 61.
  30. ^ de Montaigne, Michel (2004-10-26). Of Democritus and Heraclitus. The Essays. Project Gutenberg.
  31. ^ Act I Scene II Line 43.
  32. ^ Levenson, Jay, ed. (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-300-05167-4.
  33. ^ DK B1.
  34. ^ DK B2.
  35. ^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: leg-". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.
  36. ^ K.F. Johansen, "Logos" in Donald Zeyl (ed.), Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy, Greenwood Press 1997.
  37. ^ pp. 419ff., W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1962.
  38. ^ DK B72, from Marcus Aurelius, Meditations iv. 46
  39. ^ DK B2, DK B50, from Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, ix. 9
  40. ^ Beris, A.N. and A.J. Giacomin, "πάντα ῥεῖ: Everything Flows", Cover Article, Applied Rheology, 24(5), 52918 (2014), pp. 1–13; Errata: In line 2 of each abstract, "παντα" should be "πάντα".
  41. ^ Barnes (1982), p. 65, and also Peters, Francis E. (1967). Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon. NYU Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0814765524. Commentary on Aristotle's Physics, 1313.11.
  42. ^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: sreu". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth ed.). In pronunciation the -ei- is a diphthong sounding like the -ei- in reindeer. The initial r is aspirated or made breathy, which indicates the dropping of the s in *sreu-.
  43. ^ DK22B12, quoted in Arius Didymus apud Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 15.20.2
  44. ^ Cratylus Paragraph Crat. 401 section d line 5.
  45. ^ Cratylus Paragraph 402 section a line 8.
  46. ^ This sentence has been translated by Seneca in Epistulae, VI, 58, 23.
  47. ^ DK B49a, Harris 110. Others like it are DK B12, Harris 20; DK B91, Harris 21.
  48. ^ Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004). Heraklit von Ephesus und die Entwicklung der Individualität. Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben. p. 60. ISBN 978-3772512735.
  49. ^ DK B60
  50. ^ DK B54.
  51. ^ DK B31
  52. ^ DK B76.
  53. ^ DK B30.
  54. ^ DK B90
  55. ^ Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy
  56. ^ Melchert, Norman (2006). The Great Conversation (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530682-8.
  57. ^ DK B80: "Εἰδέναι δὲ χρὴ τὸν πόλεμον ἐόντα ξυνὸν καὶ δίκην ἔριν, καὶ γινόμενα πάντα κατ' ἔριν καὶ χρεών".
  58. ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 8
  59. ^ DK B51.
  60. ^ The initial part of DK B2, often omitted because broken by a note explaining that ξυνός ksunos (Ionic) is κοινός koinos (Attic).
  61. ^ DK B114.
  62. ^ DK B102.
  63. ^ DK B78.
  64. ^ DK B70.
  65. ^ DK B52.
  66. ^ DK B41.
  67. ^ DK B32.
  68. ^ DK B124.
  69. ^ Thomas L. Cooksey (2010). Plato's 'Symposium': A Reader's Guide. p. 69. Continuum International Publishing Group (London & New York). ISBN 978-0-8264-4067-9
  70. ^ Cratylus Paragraph 440 sections c-d.
  71. ^ Long, A.A. (2001). Stoic Studies. University of California Press. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-0-520-22974-7.
  72. ^ Long (2001), p. 56.
  73. ^ Long (2001), p. 51.
  74. ^ DK B60.
  75. ^ DK B66.
  76. ^ DK B64.
  77. ^ Different translations of this critical piece of literature, transitional from pagan polytheism to the modern religions and philosophies, can be found at Rolleston, T.W. "Stoic Philosophers: Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus". www.numinism.net. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2007-11-28. Ellery, M.A.C. (1976). "Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus". Tom Sienkewicz at http://www.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2007-11-28. External link in |publisher= (help) "Hymn to Zeus". Translated by not stated. Holy, Holy, Holy at thriceholy.net: Hypatia's Bookshelf.
  78. ^ The ancient Greek can be found in Blakeney, E.H. The Hymn of Cleanthes: Greek Text Translated into English: with Brief Introduction and Notes. New York: The MacMillan Company. Downloadable Google Books at [1].
  79. ^ Book IX leading sentence.
  80. ^ Max Bernhard Weinsten, Welt- und Lebensanschauungen, Hervorgegangen aus Religion, Philosophie und Naturerkenntnis ("World and Life Views, Emerging From Religion, Philosophy and Nature") (1910), p. 233: "Dieser Pandeismus, der von Chrysippos (aus Soloi 280-208 v. Chr.) herrühren soll, ist schon eine Verbindung mit dem Emanismus; Gott ist die Welt, insofern als diese aus seiner Substanz durch Verdichtung und Abkühlung entstanden ist und entsteht, und er sich strahlengleich mit seiner Substanz durch sie noch verbreitet. Daß Gott als feurig gedacht wird (jedoch auch als Atem oder Äther) ist dem Menschen entnommen, dessen Wärme sein Lebensprinzip bedeutet; eine Idee, die sich schon bei den ersten griechischen Philosophen und namentlich bei Heraklit findet."
  81. ^ Hippolytus. "Refutation of All Heresies". New Advent. pp. Book IX Chapter 5. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
  82. ^ Martyr, Justin. "First Apology of Justin". Early Christian Writings.

Further reading

Editions and translations

  • Botten, Mick. (2012). Herakleitos – Logos Made Manifest, Upfront Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78035-064-6 All fragments, in Greek and English, with commentary and appendices
  • Davenport, Guy (translator) (1979). Herakleitos and Diogenes. Bolinas: Grey Fox Press. ISBN 978-0-912516-36-3. Complete fragments of Heraclitus in English
  • Heraclitus; Haxton (translator), Brooks; Hillman (Forward), James (2001). Fragments: The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus. New York: Viking (The Penguin Group, Penguin Putnam, Inc.). ISBN 978-0-670-89195-5.. Parallel Greek & English
  • Kahn, Charles H. (1979). The Art and Thought of Heraclitus. An Edition of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21883-2.
  • Kirk, G.S. (1954). Heraclitus, the Cosmic Fragments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Marcovich, Miroslav (2001). Heraclitus. Greek Text with a Short Commentary. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89665-171-6. First edition: Heraclitus, editio maior. Mérida, Venezuela, 1967
  • Patrick, G.T.W. (1889). Heraclitus of Ephesus: The Fragments.
  • Robinson, T.M. (1987). Heraclitus: Fragments: A Text and Translation with a Commentary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-6913-9.
  • Sallis, John; Maly, Kenneth, eds. (1980). Heraclitean fragments. University: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-0027-2.
  • Wright, M.R. (1985). The Presocratics: The main Fragments in Greek with Introduction, Commentary and Appendix Containing Text and Translation of Aristotle on the Presocratics. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 978-0-86292-079-1.

Selected bibliography

  • Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics: Analysis and Fragments. Trafford Publishing. pp. 26–45 under Heraclitus. ISBN 978-1-4120-4843-9.
  • Barnes, Jonathan (1982). The Presocratic Philosophers [Revised Edition]. London & New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-05079-1.
  • Burnet, John (2003). Early Greek Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-2826-2. First published in 1892, this book has had dozens of editions and has been used as a textbook for decades. The first edition is downloadable from Google Books
  • Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004): Metamorphosen des Geistes. Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 2004, Band 1: Prometheus der Vordenker: Vom göttlichen zum menschlichen Wissen. Band 2: Platon und Aristoteles. Das Erwachen des europäischen Denkens. Band 3: Heraklit von Ephesus und die Entwicklung der Individualität. Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart, 2004, ISBN 3-7725-1300-X
  • Dilcher, Roman (1995). Studies in Heraclitus. Hildesheim: Olms. ISBN 978-3-487-09986-6.
  • Fairbanks, Arthur (1898). The First Philosophers of Greece. New York: Scribner.
  • Graham, D.W. (2002). "Heraclitus and Parmenides". In Caston, V.; Graham, D.W. (eds.). Presocratic Philosophy: Essays in Honour of Alexander Mourelatos. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 27–44. ISBN 978-0-7546-0502-7.
  • Graham, D.W. (2008). "Heraclitus: Flux, Order, and Knowledge". In Curd, P.; Graham, D.W. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 169–188. ISBN 978-0-19-514687-5.
  • Guthrie, W.K.C. (1962). A History of Greek Philosophy: The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Heidegger, Martin; Fink, Eugen; Seibert (translator), Charles H. (1993). Heraclitus Seminar. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 978-0-8101-1067-0.. Transcript of seminar in which two German philosophers analyze and discuss Heraclitus' texts.
  • Kirk, G.S.; Raven, J.E. (1957). The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lavine, T.Z. (1984). From Socrates to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. (Bantam Books). Chapter 2: Shadow and Substance, Section: Plato's Sources: The Pre–SocraticPhilosophers: Heraclitus and Parmenides. ISBN 978-0-553-25161-6.
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Laërtius, Diogenes (1925). "Others: Heraclitus" . Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 2:9. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library.
  • Luchte, James (2011). Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0567353313.
  • Magnus, Magus; Fuchs, Wolfgang (introduction) (2010). Heraclitean Pride. Towson: Furniture Press Books. ISBN 978-0-9826299-2-5. Creative re-creation of Heraclitus' lost book, from the fragments
  • McKirahan, R.D. (2011). Philosophy before Socrates, An Introduction With Text and Commentary. Indianapolis: Hackett. ISBN 978-1-60384-183-2.
  • Mourelatos, Alexander, ed. (1993). The Pre-Socratics : a collection of critical essays (Rev. ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-02088-4.
  • Naddaf, Gerard (2005). The Greek Concept of Nature. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0791463734.
  • Pyle, C.M. (1997). 'Democritus and Heracleitus: An Excursus on the Cover of this Book,' Milan and Lombardy in the Renaissance. Essays in Cultural History. Rome, La Fenice. (Istituto di Filologia Moderna, Università di Parma: Testi e Studi, Nuova Serie: Studi 1.) (Fortuna of the Laughing and Weeping Philosophers topos)
  • Rodziewicz, A. (2011). "Heraclitus historicus politicus". Studia Antyczne I Mediewistyczne. 44: 5–35. ISSN 0039-3231.
  • Schofield, Malcolm; Nussbaum, Martha Craven, eds. (1982). Language and logos : studies in ancient Greek philosophy presented to G.E.L. Owen. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. ISBN 978-0-521-23640-9.
  • Taylor, C.C.W. (ed.), Routledge History of Philosophy: From the Beginning to Plato, Vol. I, pp. 80–117. ISBN 0-203-02721-3 Master e-book ISBN, ISBN 0-203-05752-X (Adobe eReader Format) and ISBN 0-415-06272-1 (Print Edition).
  • Tarán, L. (1999). "337–378". Elenchos. 20: 9–52.
  • Vlastos, G. (1955). "On Heraclitus". American Journal of Philology. 76 (4): 337–378. doi:10.2307/292270. JSTOR 292270.
  • Wheelwright, Philip (1959). Heraclitus. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Wiesehöfer, Josef (2003). "Heracleitus of Ephesus". HERACLEITUS OF EPHESUS – Encyclopaedia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XII, Fasc. 2. pp. 201–202.

External links

Antisthenes (Heraclitean)

Antisthenes (Ancient Greek: Ἀντισθένης) was a writer from ancient Greece who was a disciple of Heraclitus, on whose work he wrote a commentary.This Antisthenes may be the same as the one who wrote a work on the succession of the Greek philosophers (αἱ τῶν φιλοσόφων διαδοχαί), which is often referenced by Diogenes Laërtius in his own work. This remains unclear, however, and Laërtius may have been referring to the historian Antisthenes of Rhodes instead, who may have also been the same Antisthenes mentioned by Phlegon of Tralles.

Becoming (philosophy)

In philosophy, becoming is the possibility of change in a thing that has being, that exists.

In the philosophical study of ontology, the concept of becoming originated in ancient Greece with the philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who in the sixth century BC, said that nothing in this world is constant except change and becoming. This point was made by Heraclitus with the famous quote "No man ever steps in the same river twice." His theory stands in direct contrast to the philosophic idea of being, first argued by Parmenides, a Greek philosopher from the italic Magna Grecia, who believed that the change or "becoming" we perceive with our senses is deceptive, and that there is a pure perfect and eternal being behind nature, which is the ultimate truth of being. This point was made by Parmenides with the famous quote "what is-is". Becoming, along with its antithesis of being, are two of the foundation concepts in ontology. Scholars have generally believed that either Parmenides was responding to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus to Parmenides, though opinion on who was responding to whom changed over the course of the 20th century.

In philosophy, the word "becoming" concerns a specific ontological concept which should not be confused with process philosophy as a whole or with the related study of process theology.

Cratylus

Cratylus (; Ancient Greek: Κρατύλος, Kratylos) was an ancient Athenian philosopher from the mid-late 5th century BCE, known mostly through his portrayal in Plato's dialogue Cratylus. He was a radical proponent of Heraclitean philosophy and influenced the young Plato.

Cuvier (crater)

Cuvier is a lunar impact crater on the southern part of the Moon's near side. It is attached to the east-southeast rim of the unusually shaped formation Heraclitus. To the northeast is the crater Clairaut.

The rim of this crater has been worn and eroded by subsequent impacts, leaving an outer wall that has been rounded and diminished in prominence. There is a small but notable crater pair lying across the northern rim, and two other smaller craters lie along the east and south rims. There are also several small craterlets lying across the rim to the north-northwest. Where the rim is shared with Heraclitus, there is a slight inward bulge to the wall, producing a short section where the rim appears slightly flatter.

The interior floor is level and nearly featureless, and much of the floor appears to have been resurfaced. This surface does not possess the low albedo characteristic of the lunar mare, and it matches the hue of the surrounding terrain. Instead, the floor is marked by faint traces of ray material from elsewhere.

Ephesian school

Ephesian school sometimes refers to the philosophical thought of the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who considered that the being of all the universe is fire. According to him, the being is material and one, but at the same time he acknowledges that the world witnesses constant change. Motion of the archelement (fire) is discordant and unharmonious, even though harmony is the final result of the process.

Although there was never an official "Ephesian School," Diogenes Laërtius (ix. 6) mentions that his philosophy did have followers who called themselves "Heracliteans." Plato portrays Cratylus in his dialogue of the same name as a disciple of Heraclitus.

Heraclitus (commentator)

Heraclitus (Greek: Ἡράκλειτος; fl. 1st century AD) was a grammarian and rhetorician who wrote a Greek commentary on Homer which is still extant.

Little is known about Heraclitus. It is generally accepted that he lived sometime around the 1st century AD. His one surviving work has variously been called Homeric Problems, Homeric Questions, or Homeric Allegories.In his work, Heraclitus defended Homer against those who denounced him for his immoral portrayals of the gods. Heraclitus based his defense of Homer on allegorical interpretation. He gives interpretations of major episodes from the Iliad and the Odyssey, particularly those that received the greatest criticism, such as the battles between the gods and the love affair between Aphrodite and Ares.Many of his allegories are physical, claiming that the poems represent elemental forces; or ethical, that they contain edifying concealed messages. An important example of physical allegory is Heraclitus' interpretation of the love affair between Aphrodite and Ares. He argues that Aphrodite and Ares represent Love and Strife, the forces responsible for the mixture and separation of the elements in Empedocles' philosophy, which were "united together after their ancient rivalry {philoneikia} in one accord". Because "everything was joined together {harmosthenai} tranquilly and harmoniously", Heraclitus argues, "[it] was reasonable for all the gods to laugh and rejoice together at this because their individual inclinations were not at variance over immoral acts, but were enjoying peaceful accord". He also interprets the affair as an allegory for the art of metalworking. His work contains a good deal of philosophical knowledge, especially Stoicism.

Heraclitus and Democritus (Rubens)

Heraclitus and Democritus is a 1603 painting by the Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens. It is now held in the National Sculpture Museum in Valladolid. It shows the ancient Greek philosophers Heraclitus and Democritus.

Rubens produced the work as a commission for Francisco Gómez de Sandoval Rojas y Borja, valet to Philip III of Spain. It passed through several collections, ending up in that of the Syrian oil magnate Akram Ojjeh. After Ojjeh's death, it was sold to the Spanish Ministry of Culture for 175,000,000 pesetas in December 1999 via Christie's of London.

Ionian School (philosophy)

The Ionian school of Pre-Socratic philosophy was centred in Miletus, Ionia in the 6th century BC. Miletus and its environs was a thriving mercantile melting pot of current ideas of the time. The Ionian School included such thinkers as Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, and Archelaus. The collective affinity of this group was first acknowledged by Aristotle who called them physiologoi (φυσιολόγοι), meaning 'those who discoursed on nature'. The classification can be traced to the second-century historian of philosophy Sotion. They are sometimes referred to as cosmologists, since they were largely physicalists who tried to explain the nature of matter.

While some of these scholars are included in the Milesian school of philosophy, others are more difficult to categorize.

Most cosmologists thought that, although matter could change from one form to another, all matter had something in common which did not change. They did not agree on what all things had in common, and did not experiment to find out, but used abstract reasoning rather than religion or mythology to explain themselves, thus becoming the first philosophers in the Western tradition.

Later philosophers widened their studies to include other areas of thought. The Eleatic school, for example, also studied epistemology, or how people come to know what exists. But the Ionians were the first group of philosophers that we know of, and so remain historically important.

Logos

Logos (UK: , US: ; Ancient Greek: λόγος, romanized: lógos; from λέγω, légō, lit. 'I say') is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse". It became a technical term in Western philosophy beginning with Heraclitus (c.  535 – c.  475 BC), who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge.Ancient Greek philosophers used the term in different ways. The sophists used the term to mean discourse. Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse" or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric, and considered it one of the three modes of persuasion alongside ethos and pathos. Pyrrhonist philosophers used the term to refer to dogmatic accounts of non-evident matters. The Stoics spoke of the logos spermatikos (the generative principle of the Universe) which foreshadows related concepts in Neoplatonism.Within Hellenistic Judaism, Philo (c.  20 BC – c.  50 AD) adopted the term into Jewish philosophy.

Philo distinguished between logos prophorikos ("the uttered word") and the logos endiathetos ("the word remaining within").The Gospel of John identifies the Christian Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos), and further identifies Jesus Christ as the incarnate Logos. Early translators of the Greek New Testament such as Jerome (in the 4th century AD) were frustrated by the inadequacy of any single Latin word to convey the meaning of the word logos as used to describe Jesus Christ in the Gospel of John. The Vulgate Bible usage of in principio erat verbum was thus constrained to use the (perhaps inadequate) noun verbum for "word", but later Romance language translations had the advantage of nouns such as le mot in French. Reformation translators took another approach. Martin Luther rejected Zeitwort (verb) in favor of Wort (word), for instance, although later commentators repeatedly turned to a more dynamic use involving the living word as felt by Jerome and Augustine. The term is also used in Sufism, and the analytical psychology of Carl Jung.

Despite the conventional translation as "word", it is not used for a word in the grammatical sense; instead, the term lexis (λέξις, léxis) was used. However, both logos and lexis derive from the same verb légō (λέγω), meaning "(I) count, tell, say, speak".

Milesian school

The Milesian school () was a school of thought founded in the 6th century BC. The ideas associated with it are exemplified by three philosophers from the Ionian town of Miletus, on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor: Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. They introduced new opinions contrary to the prevailing belief of how the world was organized, in which natural phenomena were explained solely by the will of anthropomorphized gods. The Milesians conceived of nature in terms of methodologically observable entities, and as such was one of the first truly scientific philosophies.

The Milesian school is not synonymous with the Ionian, which includes the philosophies of the Milesians plus distinctly different Ionian thinkers such as Heraclitus. The Ionian School contains the three philosophers that form the Milesian School as well as a few more who were added on during the 5th Century, but the Ionian School looked more into the thought behind everything while the Milesian School was more focused on nature.

Misanthropy

Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature. A misanthrope or misanthropist is someone who holds such views or feelings. The word's origin is from the Greek words μῖσος (misos, "hatred") and ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos, "man, human"). The condition is often confused with asociality.

On Nature (Heraclitus)

For other philosophical literature of the same name see On Nature (disambiguation)

On Nature is a philosophical treatise written by Heraclitus. According to Diogenes, it was divided into three discourses; one on the universe, another on politics (and ethics), and one on theology. Theophrastus says (in Diogenes) "... some parts of his work are half-finished, while other parts make a strange medley."Diogenes also tells us that Heraclitus deposited his book, inscribed on a single papyrus roll, as a dedication in the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, at Ephesus, one of the largest temples of the 6th century BCE and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ancient temples were regularly used for storing treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional circumstances; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this period refer to the work. Says Kahn: "Down to the time of Plutarch and Clement, if not later, the little book of Heraclitus was available in its original form to any reader who chose to seek it out." Diogenes says: "the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans."As with other pre-Socratics, his writings only survive in fragments quoted by other authors.

On the Pathos of Truth

"On the Pathos of Truth" (German: Über das Pathos der Wahrheit) is a short essay by Friedrich Nietzsche concerning the motivation of philosophers to seek knowledge as an end in itself. Nietzsche identifies this motivation with pride. On this point the essay prefigures theories concerning a destructive "will to truth" that Nietzsche discusses in On the Genealogy of Morals, Beyond Good and Evil, and The Gay Science.As an illustration of a motivated seeker of truth, Nietzsche takes Heraclitus, although he also discusses Pythagoras and Empedocles. He recounts Heraclitus as being psychologically distant from other people, due to being aware of truth while others are not:

...no one will be able to imagine such regal self-esteem, such boundless conviction that one is the sole fortunate wooer of truth. Men of this sort live within their own solar system, and that is where they must be sought....Such a being might seem more comprehensible in a remote shrine, among images of the gods and amidst cold, sublime architecture.

Nietzsche's focus is on the psychology and social life of the philosopher, identifying misanthropy and seclusion as the result of being motivated toward knowledge itself, regardless of any features of the philosopher's cosmology, physics, or epistemology.Nietzsche concludes the essay by identifying a need to have art along with knowledge. Art is necessary because it adds emotion and purpose to society. Knowledge is limited; for example, a knowledge of matter and motion will not reveal any purpose in the universe. While the motivation for knowledge in itself brings about insights which help society, art allows constant variation which can affirm a sense a purposiveness, which is an emotional need of individuals."On the Pathos of Truth" was written in 1872, and was intended to be a preface or foreword, but no book was ever written to follow it. Nietzsche, however, did collect it, along with four other such prefaces to unwritten books, and gave the edition to Cosima Wagner as a Christmas present.

Parmenides

Parmenides of Elea (; Greek: Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης; fl. late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, which included Southern Italy). Parmenides has been considered the founder of metaphysics or ontology and has influenced the whole history of Western philosophy. He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy, which also included Zeno of Elea and Melissus of Samos. Zeno's paradoxes of motion were to defend Parmenides' view.

The single known work by Parmenides is a poem, On Nature, only fragments of which survive, containing the first sustained argument in the history of philosophy. In it, Parmenides prescribes two views of reality. In "the way of truth" (a part of the poem), he explains how all reality is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, and necessary. In "the way of opinion", Parmenides explains the world of appearances, in which one's sensory faculties lead to conceptions which are false and deceitful, yet he does offer a cosmology.

Parmenides philosophy has been explained with the slogan "whatever is is, and what is not cannot be". He is also credited with the phrase out of nothing nothing comes. He argues that "A is not" can never be thought or said truthfully, and thus despite appearances everything exists as one, giant, unchanging thing. This is generally considered one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of being, and has been contrasted with Heraclitus's statement that "No man ever steps into the same river twice" as one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of becoming. Scholars have generally believed that either Parmenides was responding to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus to Parmenides.

Alexius Meinong held a view similar to Parmenides, that even the "golden mountain" is real because it can be talked about. The rivalry between Heraclitus and Parmenides has been re-introduced in discussions over the A theory and B theory of time.

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks (German: Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen) is an incomplete book by Friedrich Nietzsche. He had a clean copy made from his notes with the intention of publication. The notes were written around 1873. In it he discussed five Greek philosophers from the sixth and fifth centuries BC. They are Thales, Anaximander, Heraclitus, Parmenides, and Anaxagoras. He had, at one time, intended to include Democritus, Empedocles, and Socrates. The book ends abruptly after the discussion of Anaxagoras's cosmogony.

Polemos

In Greek mythology, Polemos or Polemus (Greek: Πόλεμος Pólemos; "war") was a Daemon; a divine personification or embodiment of war. No cult practices or myths are known for him, and as an abstract representation he figures mainly in allegory and philosophical discourse. The Roman counterpart of this figure was Bellum.

Thunderbolt

A thunderbolt or lightning bolt is a symbolic representation of lightning when accompanied by a loud thunderclap. In Indo-European mythology, the thunderbolt was identified with the 'Sky Father'; this association is also found in later Hellenic representations of Zeus and Vedic descriptions of the vajra wielded by the god Indra. It may have been a symbol of cosmic order, as expressed in the fragment from Heraclitus describing "the Thunderbolt that steers the course of all things".In its original usage the word may also have been a description of the consequences of a close approach between two planetary cosmic bodies, as Plato suggested in Timaeus, or, according to Victor Clube, meteors, though this is not currently the case. As a divine manifestation the thunderbolt has been a powerful symbol throughout history, and has appeared in many mythologies. Drawing from this powerful association, the thunderbolt is often found in military symbolism and semiotic representations of electricity.

Unity of opposites

The unity of opposites is the central category of dialectics, said to be related to the notion of non-duality in a deep sense. It defines a situation in which the existence or identity of a thing (or situation) depends on the co-existence of at least two conditions which are opposite to each other, yet dependent on each other and presupposing each other, within a field of tension.

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