Heraclea Cybistra (Ancient Greek: Ἡράκλεια Κύβιστρα), or simply Heraclea or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), also transliterated as Heracleia, was a town of ancient Cappadocia or Cilicia; located near modern Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey). It had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills. It lay in the way of armies and was more than once sacked by the Arab invaders of Asia Minor (by Harun al-Rashid in 806 and al-Ma'mun in 832). Three hours’ ride south is the famous "Hittite" rock relief of a lynx, representing a king (probably of neighbouring Tyana) adoring a god. This was the first "Hittite" monument discovered in modern times (early 18th century, by the Swede Otter, an emissary of Louis XIV).
Ancient Greek: Ἡράκλεια Κύβιστρα
Shown within Turkey
Year 1101 (MCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was the 2nd year of the 1100s decade, and the 1st year of the 12th century.831
Year 831 (DCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Al-Abbas ibn al-Ma'mun
Al-Abbas ibn al-Ma'mun (died 838 CE) was an Abbasid prince and general, the son of the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun (r. 813–833). A distinguished military leader in the Arab–Byzantine wars, he was passed over in the succession in favour of his uncle al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842). In 838, he was arrested for his involvement in a failed conspiracy against al-Mu'tasim, and died in prison.Ariassus
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Cappadocia (theme)
The Theme of Cappadocia (Greek: θέμα Καππαδοκίας) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) encompassing the southern portion of the namesake region from the early 9th to the late 11th centuries.Cataonia
Cataonia (Ancient Greek: Kαταoνία) was one of the divisions of ancient Cappadocia.
It is described by Strabo, who had visited it, as a level plain surrounded by mountains: on the south by the Amanus, and on the west by the Antitaurus, which branches off from the Cilician Taurus and contains deep narrow valleys (in one of which was situated Comana, a considerable city on the river Sarus, which flows through the gaps of the Taurus into Cilicia and the Mediterranean). Through the plain of Cataonia flows the river Pyramus, which has its source in the middle of the plain, and also passes through the gaps of the Taurus into Cilicia. The plain is very productive, except that it has no evergreens. Strabo speaks of a temple of Zeus Dacius, where there is a salt-lake of considerable extent with steep banks, so that the descent to it is like going down steps; it was said that the water never increased, and had no visible outlet.
The plain of Cataonia contained no cities, but it had strong forts on the hills, such as Azamora and Dastarcum, round which the Carmalas flowed, probably the modern Zamantı River. It also contained a temple of Cataonian Apollo, which was in great repute in all Cappadocia. Ptolemy has a list of eleven places in his Cataonia, including Cabassus and Heraclea Cybistra, which is far beyond the limits of Strabo's Cataonia. In fact Ptolemy's Cataonia, if there is truth in it, must be a different division of the country. Cataonia also contains Mut (Claudiopolis). Cucusus, mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary, is today Göksun, on the Göksu River, which flows from the west, and joins the Pyramus on the right bank lower down than the junction of the Carmalas and Pyramus. The inhabitants of Cataonia were distinguished by the ancients from the other Cappadocians as a different people, but Strabo could observe no difference in manners or in language.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Ereğli, Konya
Ereğli is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. According to 2009 census, the population of the district is 135,008 of which 95,056 live in the town of Ereğli.Ida of Formbach-Ratelnberg
Ida of Austria (c. 1055 – September 1101) was a Margravine of Austria by marriage to Leopold II of Austria. She was a crusader, participating in the Crusade of 1101 with her own army.Labarna I
Labarna I was the traditional first king of the Hittites, c. early 16th century BC (short chronology). He was the traditional founder of the Hittite Old Kingdom (fl. c. 1600 – 1450 BC). His wife was Tawannanna.
The existence of Labarna I is questioned by some modern scholars. Labarna was also a title of early Hittite rulers, such as Hattusili I. Given the relatively few contemporaneous references to Labarna I personally, some scholars have suggested that pioneering Hittitologists may have erred in assuming that Labarna was the personal name of a king. According to this theory, the first Labarna (in the sense of a title) was Hattusili I, who is normally regarded as the second Labarna.Tabarna, a variant of Labarna, is mentioned often in Hattian, Hittite, Hurrian and Akkadian texts from the Hittite archives.List of ancient settlements in Turkey
Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.William II, Count of Nevers
William II, Count of Nevers (born prior to 1089, reigned 1098 – 21 August 1148), was a crusader in the Crusade of 1101.Üçayaklı ruins
The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.