Heraclea Cybistra

Heraclea Cybistra (Ancient Greek: Ἡράκλεια Κύβιστρα), or simply Heraclea or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), also transliterated as Heracleia, was a town of ancient Cappadocia or Cilicia; located near modern Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey). It had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills. It lay in the way of armies and was more than once sacked by the Arab invaders of Asia Minor (by Harun al-Rashid in 806 and al-Ma'mun in 832). Three hours’ ride south is the famous "Hittite" rock relief of a lynx, representing a king (probably of neighbouring Tyana) adoring a god. This was the first "Hittite" monument discovered in modern times (early 18th century, by the Swede Otter, an emissary of Louis XIV).

Heraclea Cybistra
Ancient Greek: Ἡράκλεια Κύβιστρα
Heraclea Cybistra is located in Turkey
Heraclea Cybistra
Shown within Turkey
LocationTurkey
RegionKonya Province
Coordinates37°30′53″N 34°02′22″E / 37.514768°N 34.039332°ECoordinates: 37°30′53″N 34°02′22″E / 37.514768°N 34.039332°E

References

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Heraclea". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 308.

See also

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Cappadocia (theme)

The Theme of Cappadocia (Greek: θέμα Καππαδοκίας) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) encompassing the southern portion of the namesake region from the early 9th to the late 11th centuries.

Cataonia

Cataonia (Ancient Greek: Kαταoνία) was one of the divisions of ancient Cappadocia.

It is described by Strabo, who had visited it, as a level plain surrounded by mountains: on the south by the Amanus, and on the west by the Antitaurus, which branches off from the Cilician Taurus and contains deep narrow valleys (in one of which was situated Comana, a considerable city on the river Sarus, which flows through the gaps of the Taurus into Cilicia and the Mediterranean). Through the plain of Cataonia flows the river Pyramus, which has its source in the middle of the plain, and also passes through the gaps of the Taurus into Cilicia. The plain is very productive, except that it has no evergreens. Strabo speaks of a temple of Zeus Dacius, where there is a salt-lake of considerable extent with steep banks, so that the descent to it is like going down steps; it was said that the water never increased, and had no visible outlet.

The plain of Cataonia contained no cities, but it had strong forts on the hills, such as Azamora and Dastarcum, round which the Carmalas flowed, probably the modern Zamantı River. It also contained a temple of Cataonian Apollo, which was in great repute in all Cappadocia. Ptolemy has a list of eleven places in his Cataonia, including Cabassus and Heraclea Cybistra, which is far beyond the limits of Strabo's Cataonia. In fact Ptolemy's Cataonia, if there is truth in it, must be a different division of the country. Cataonia also contains Mut (Claudiopolis). Cucusus, mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary, is today Göksun, on the Göksu River, which flows from the west, and joins the Pyramus on the right bank lower down than the junction of the Carmalas and Pyramus. The inhabitants of Cataonia were distinguished by the ancients from the other Cappadocians as a different people, but Strabo could observe no difference in manners or in language.

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The existence of Labarna I is questioned by some modern scholars. Labarna was also a title of early Hittite rulers, such as Hattusili I. Given the relatively few contemporaneous references to Labarna I personally, some scholars have suggested that pioneering Hittitologists may have erred in assuming that Labarna was the personal name of a king. According to this theory, the first Labarna (in the sense of a title) was Hattusili I, who is normally regarded as the second Labarna.Tabarna, a variant of Labarna, is mentioned often in Hattian, Hittite, Hurrian and Akkadian texts from the Hittite archives.

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Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

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Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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