Hepburn romanization

Hepburn romanization (ヘボン式ローマ字 Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, 'Hepburn-type Roman letters')[1] is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet[2] and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.[3] Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.[1]

The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization. The commission's romanization scheme was popularized by the wide dissemination of a Japanese–English dictionary by commission member and American missionary James Curtis Hepburn which was published in 1886.[1] The "modified Hepburn system" (shūsei Hebon-shiki), also known as the "standard system" (Hyōjun-shiki), was published in 1908 with revisions by Kanō Jigorō and the Society for the Propagation of Romanization (Romaji-Hirome-kai).[4][5]

Although Kunrei romanization is officially favored by the Japanese government today, Hepburn romanization is still in use and remains the worldwide standard.[1] The Hepburn style is regarded as the best way to render Japanese pronunciation for Westerners. Since it is based on English and Italian pronunciations, people who speak English or Romance languages (e.g., Italian, French, Portuguese and Spanish) will generally be more accurate in pronouncing unfamiliar Japanese words romanized in the Hepburn style compared to Nihon-shiki romanization and Kunrei-shiki romanization.[6][7]

Legal status

Hepburn is based on English phonology and has competed with the alternative Nihon-shiki romanization, which was developed in Japan as a replacement of the Japanese script.[6] In 1930 a Special Romanization Study Commission was appointed to compare the two.[6] The Commission eventually decided in favor of a slightly-modified version of Nihon-shiki, which was proclaimed to be Japan's official romanization for all purposes by a September 21, 1937, cabinet ordinance; it is now known as the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ordinance was temporarily overturned by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) during the Occupation of Japan, but it was reissued with slight revisions in 1954.

In 1972 a revised version of Hepburn was codified as ANSI standard Z39.11-1972. It was proposed in 1989 as a draft for ISO 3602 but rejected in favor of the Kunrei-shiki romanization. The ANSI Z39.11-1972 standard was deprecated on October 6, 1994.

As of 1978 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and many other official organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. In addition The Japan Times, the Japan Travel Bureau, and many other private organizations used Hepburn instead of Kunrei-shiki. The National Diet Library used Kunrei-shiki.[8]

Although Hepburn is not a government standard, some government agencies mandate it. For example, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requires the use of Hepburn on passports, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport requires the use of Hepburn on transport signs, including road signs and railway station signs.

In many other areas that it lacks de jure status, Hepburn remains the de facto standard. Signs and notices in city offices and police stations and at shrines, temples and attractions also use it. English-language newspapers and media use the simplified form of Hepburn. Cities and prefectures use it in information for English-speaking residents and visitors, and English-language publications by the Japanese Foreign Ministry use simplified Hepburn as well. Official tourism information put out by the government uses it, as do guidebooks, both local and foreign, on Japan.

Many students of Japanese as a foreign language learn Hepburn.

Variants

Toyooka Station Sign
Former Japan National Railways-style board of Toyooka Station. Between the two adjacent stations, “GEMBUDŌ” follows the Hepburn romanization system, but “KOKUHU” follows the Nihon-shiki/Kunrei-shiki romanization system.

There are many variants of the Hepburn romanization. The two most common styles are as follows:

  • The Traditional Hepburn, as defined in various editions of Hepburn's dictionary, with the third edition (1886)[9] often considered authoritative[10] (although changes in kana usage must be accounted for). It is characterized by the rendering of syllabic n as m before the consonants b, m and p: Shimbashi for 新橋.
  • Modified Hepburn (修正ヘボン式 Shūsei Hebon-shiki),[11] also known as Revised Hepburn, in which (among other points) the rendering of syllabic n as m before certain consonants is no longer used: Shinbashi for 新橋. The style was introduced in the third edition of Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (1954), was adopted by the Library of Congress as one of its ALA-LC romanizations, and is the most common version of the system today.[12]

In Japan itself, there are some variants officially mandated for various uses:

  • Railway Standard (鉄道掲示基準規程 Tetsudō Keiji Kijun Kitei),[13] which follows the Hyōjun-shiki Rōmaji. All Japan Rail and other major railways use it for station names.
  • Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Standard,[14] how to spell Roman letters (Hepburn style) of road signs, which follows the modified Hepburn style. It is used for road signs.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs Passport Standard (外務省旅券規定 Gaimushō Ryoken Kitei),[15] a permissive standard, which explicitly allows the use of "non-Hepburn romaji" (非ヘボン式ローマ字 hi-Hebon-shiki rōmaji) in personal names, notably for passports. In particular, it renders the syllabic n as m before b, m and p, and romanizes long o as oh, oo or ou (Satoh, Satoo or Satou for 佐藤).

Details of the variants can be found below.

Obsolete variants

The romanizations set out in the first and second versions of Hepburn's dictionary are primarily of historical interest. Notable differences from the third and later versions include:

Second version

  • and were written as ye: Yedo
  • and were written as dzu: kudzu, tsudzuku
  • キャ, キョ, and キュ were written as kiya, kiyo and kiu
  • クヮ was written as kuwa[16]

First version

The following differences are in addition to those in the second version:

  • was written as sz.
  • was written as tsz.
  • and were written as du.
  • クヮ was written as kuwa.

Features

The main feature of Hepburn is that its orthography is based on English phonology. More technically, where syllables that are constructed systematically, according to the Japanese syllabary, contain an "unstable" consonant in the modern spoken language, the orthography is changed to something that better matches the real sound as an English-speaker would pronounce it. For example, is written shi not si.

Some linguists such as Harold E. Palmer, Daniel Jones and Otto Jespersen object to Hepburn, as the pronunciation-based spellings can obscure the systematic origins of Japanese phonetic structures, inflections, and conjugations.[17] Supporters argue that Hepburn is not intended as a linguistic tool.

Long vowels

The long vowels are generally indicated by macrons ( ¯ ).[18][19] Since the diacritical sign is usually missing on typewriters and people may not know how to input it on computer keyboards, the circumflex accent ( ˆ ) is often used in its place.[20][21]

The combinations of vowels are written as follows in traditional/modified Hepburn:

A + A

In traditional and modified:

The combination of a + a is written aa if they are in two adjacent syllables.
  • 邪悪(じゃあく): {ji + ya} + {a + ku} = jaaku – evil

In traditional Hepburn:

The long vowel a is written aa
  • お婆さん(おばあさん): {o} + {ba + a} + {sa + n} = obaa-san[18] – grandmother

In modified Hepburn:

The long vowel a is indicated by a macron:
  • お婆さん(おばあさん): {o} + {ba + a} + {sa + n} = obāsan[19] – grandmother

I + I

In traditional and modified:

The combination i + i is always written ii.
  • お兄さん(おにいさん): o + ni + i + sa + n = oniisan – older brother
  • お爺さん(おじいさん): o + ji + i + sa + n = ojiisan – grandfather
  • 美味しい(おいしい): o + i + shi + i = oishii – delicious
  • 新潟(にいがた): ni + i + ga + ta = Niigata
  • 灰色(はいいろ): ha + i + i + ro = haiiro – grey

U + U

In traditional and modified:

The combination u + u is written uu if they are in two adjacent syllables or it is the end part of terminal form of a verb:
  • 食う(くう): {ku} + {-u} = kuu – to eat
  • 縫う(ぬう): {nu} + {-u} = nuu – to sew
  • 湖(みずうみ): {mi + zu} + {u + mi} = mizuumi - lake
The long vowel u is indicated by a macron:
  • 数学(すうがく): {su + u} + {ga + ku} = sūgaku – mathematics
  • 注意(ちゅうい): {chu + u} + {i} = chūi – attention
  • ぐうたら: {gu + u + ta + ra} = gūtara – loafer
  • 憂鬱(ゆううつ): {yu + u} + {u + tsu} = yūutsu - depression

E + E

In traditional and modified:

The combination e + e is written ee if they are in two adjacent syllables:
  • 濡れ縁(ぬれえん): {nu + re} + {e + n} = nureen – open veranda

In traditional Hepburn:

The long vowel e is written ee:
  • お姉さん(おねえさん): {o} + {ne + e} + {sa + n} = oneesan[18] – older sister

In modified Hepburn:

The long vowel e is indicated by a macron:
  • お姉さん(おねえさん): {o} + {ne + e} + {sa + n} = onēsan[19] – older sister

O + O

In traditional and modified:

The combination o + o is written oo if they are in two adjacent syllables:
  • 小躍り(こおどり): {ko} + {o + do + ri} = koodori – dance
The long vowel o is indicated by a macron:
  • 氷(こおり): {ko + o + ri} = kōri – ice
  • 遠回り(とおまわり): {to + o} + {ma + wa + ri} = tōmawari – roundabout route
  • 大阪(おおさか): {o + o} + {sa + ka} = ŌsakaOsaka

O + U

In traditional and modified:

The combination o + u is written ou if they are in two adjacent syllables or it is the end part of terminal form of a verb:
  • 追う(おう): {o} + {-u} = ou – to chase
  • 迷う(まよう): {ma + yo} + {-u} = mayou – to get lost
  • 子馬(こうま): {ko} + {u + ma} = kouma – foal
  • 仔牛(こうし): {ko} + {u + shi} = koushi – calf
The long vowel o is indicated by a macron:
  • 学校(がっこう): {ga + (sokuon)} + {ko + u} = gakkō – school
  • 東京(とうきょう): {to + u} + {kyo + u} = TōkyōTokyo
  • 勉強(べんきょう): {be + n} + {kyo + u} = benkyō – study
  • 電報(でんぽう): {de + n} + {po + u} = dempō[18] or denpō[19]telegraphy
  • 金曜日(きんようび): {ki + n} + {yo + u} + {bi} = kinyōbi[18] or kin'yōbi[19] – Friday
  • 格子(こうし): {ko + u} + {shi} = kōshi – lattice

E + I

In traditional and modified:

The combination e + i is written ei.
  • 学生(がくせい): ga + ku + se + i = gakusei – student
  • 経験(けいけん): ke + i + ke + n = keiken – experience
  • 制服(せいふく): se + i + fu + ku = seifuku – uniform
  • 姪(めい): me + i = mei – niece
  • 招いて(まねいて): ma + ne + i + te = maneite – call/invite and then

Other combination of vowels

All other combinations of two different vowels are written separately:

  • 軽い(かるい): ka + ru + i = karui – light (for weight)
  • 鴬(うぐいす): u + gu + i + su = uguisu – bush warbler
  • 甥(おい): o + i = oi – nephew

Loanwords

The long vowels indicated by chōonpu (ー) within loanwords are written with macrons (ā, ī, ū, ē, ō) as follows:

  • セーラー: se + (chōonpu) + ra + (chōonpu) = sērā – sailor
  • パーティー: pa + (chōonpu) + ti + (chōonpu) = pātī – party
  • ヒーター: hi + (chōonpu) + ta + (chōonpu) = hītā – heater
  • タクシー: ta + ku + shi + (chōonpu) = takushī – taxi
  • スーパーマン: su + (chōonpu) + pa + (chōonpu) + ma + n = Sūpāman – Superman
  • バレーボール: ba + re + (chōonpu) + bo + (chōonpu) + ru = barēbōru – volleyball
  • ソール: so + (chōonpu) + ru = sōru – sole

The combinations of two vowels within loanwords are written separately:

  • バレエ: ba + re + e = baree – ballet
  • ソウル: so + u + ru = souru – soul, Seoul
  • ミイラ: mi + i + ra = miira – mummy

Variations

There are many variations on the Hepburn system for indicating the long vowels. For example, 東京(とうきょう) can be written as:

  • Tōkyō – indicated with macrons. That follows the rules of the traditional and modified Hepburn systems and is considered to be standard.
  • Tokyo – not indicated at all. That is common for Japanese words that have been adopted into English and is also the convention used in the de facto Hepburn used in signs and other English-language information around Japan, mentioned in the paragraph on legal status.
  • Tôkyô – indicated with circumflex accents, like the alternative Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanizations. They are often used when macrons are unavailable or difficult to input, due to their visual similarity.
  • Tohkyoh – indicated with an h (only applies after o). It is sometimes known as "passport Hepburn" as the Japanese Foreign Ministry has authorized (but not required) it in passports.[22][23][24]
  • Toukyou – written using kana spelling: ō as ou or oo (depending on the kana) and ū as uu. That is sometimes called wāpuro style, as it is how text is entered into a Japanese word processor by using a keyboard with Roman characters. The method most accurately represents the way that vowels are written in kana by differentiating between おう (as in とうきょう(東京), written Toukyou in this system) and おお (as in とおい(遠い), written tooi in this system).
    • However, using this method makes the pronunciation of ou become ambiguous, either a long o or two different vowels: o and u. See Wāpuro rōmaji#Phonetic accuracy for details.
  • Tookyoo – written by doubling the long vowels. Some dictionaries such as Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese dictionary[25] and Basic English writers' Japanese-English wordbook follow this style, and it is also used in the JSL form of romanization. It is also used to write words without reference to any particular system.[26]

Particles

In traditional and modified:

  • When is used as a particle, it is written wa.

In traditional Hepburn:

  • When is used as a particle, Hepburn originally recommended ye.[18] This spelling is obsolete, and it is commonly written as e (Romaji-Hirome-Kai, 1974[27]).
  • When is used as a particle, it is written wo.[18]

In modified Hepburn:[19]

  • When is used as a particle, it is written e.
  • When is used as a particle, it is written o.

Syllabic n

In traditional Hepburn:[18]

Syllabic n () is written as n before consonants, but as m before labial consonants: b, m, and p. It is sometimes written as n- (with a hyphen) before vowels and y (to avoid confusion between, for example, んあ n + a and na, and んや n + ya and にゃ nya), but its hyphen usage is not clear.
  • 案内(あんない): annai – guide
  • 群馬(ぐんま): GummaGunma
  • 簡易(かんい): kan-i – simple
  • 信用(しんよう): shin-yō – trust

In modified Hepburn:[19]

The rendering m before labial consonants is not used and is replaced with n. It is written n' (with an apostrophe) before vowels and y.
  • 案内(あんない): annai – guide
  • 群馬(ぐんま): Gunma – Gunma
  • 簡易(かんい): kan'i – simple
  • 信用(しんよう): shin'yō – trust

Long consonants

Elongated (or "geminate") consonant sounds are marked by doubling the consonant following a sokuon, ; for consonants that are digraphs in Hepburn (sh, ch, ts), only the first consonant of the set is doubled, except for ch, which is replaced by tch.[18][19]

  • 結果(けっか): kekka – result
  • さっさと: sassato – quickly
  • ずっと: zutto – all the time
  • 切符(きっぷ): kippu – ticket
  • 雑誌(ざっし): zasshi – magazine
  • 一緒(いっしょ): issho – together
  • こっち: kotchi (not kocchi) – this way
  • 抹茶(まっちゃ): matcha (not maccha) – matcha
  • 三つ(みっつ): mittsu – three

Romanization charts

Gojūon Yōon
あ ア a い イ i う ウ u え エ e お オ o
か カ ka き キ ki く ク ku け ケ ke こ コ ko きゃ キャ kya きゅ キュ kyu きょ キョ kyo
さ サ sa し シ shi す ス su せ セ se そ ソ so しゃ シャ sha しゅ シュ shu しょ ショ sho
た タ ta ち チ chi つ ツ tsu て テ te と ト to ちゃ チャ cha ちゅ チュ chu ちょ チョ cho
な ナ na に ニ ni ぬ ヌ nu ね ネ ne の ノ no にゃ ニャ nya にゅ ニュ nyu にょ ニョ nyo
は ハ ha ひ ヒ hi ふ フ fu へ ヘ he ほ ホ ho ひゃ ヒャ hya ひゅ ヒュ hyu ひょ ヒョ hyo
ま マ ma み ミ mi む ム mu め メ me も モ mo みゃ ミャ mya みゅ ミュ myu みょ ミョ myo
や ヤ ya ゆ ユ yu よ ヨ yo
ら ラ ra り リ ri る ル ru れ レ re ろ ロ ro りゃ リャ rya りゅ リュ ryu りょ リョ ryo
わ ワ wa ゐ ヰ i † ゑ ヱ e † を ヲ o ‡
ん ン n /n'
が ガ ga ぎ ギ gi ぐ グ gu げ ゲ ge ご ゴ go ぎゃ ギャ gya ぎゅ ギュ gyu ぎょ ギョ gyo
ざ ザ za じ ジ ji ず ズ zu ぜ ゼ ze ぞ ゾ zo じゃ ジャ ja じゅ ジュ ju じょ ジョ jo
だ ダ da ぢ ヂ ji づ ヅ zu で デ de ど ド do ぢゃ ヂャ ja ぢゅ ヂュ ju ぢょ ヂョ jo
ば バ ba び ビ bi ぶ ブ bu べ ベ be ぼ ボ bo びゃ ビャ bya びゅ ビュ byu びょ ビョ byo
ぱ パ pa ぴ ピ pi ぷ プ pu ぺ ペ pe ぽ ポ po ぴゃ ピャ pya ぴゅ ピュ pyu ぴょ ピョ pyo
  • Each entry contains hiragana, katakana, and Hepburn romanization, in that order.
  • † — The characters in red are rare historical characters and are obsolete in modern Japanese.[28][29] In modern Hepburn romanization, they are often undefined.[19]
  • ‡ — The characters in blue are rarely used outside of their status as a particle in modern Japanese,[20] and romanization follows the rules above.

Extended katakana

These combinations are used mainly to represent the sounds in words in other languages.

Digraphs with orange backgrounds are the general ones used for loanwords or foreign places or names, and those with blue backgrounds are used for more accurate transliterations of foreign sounds, both suggested by the Cabinet of Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.[30] Katakana combinations with beige backgrounds are suggested by the American National Standards Institute[31] and the British Standards Institution as possible uses.[32] Ones with purple backgrounds appear on the 1974 version of the Hyōjun-shiki formatting.[27]

イィ yi イェ ye
ウァ wa ウィ wi ウゥ wu* ウェ we ウォ wo
ウュ wyu
ヴァ va ヴィ vi vu ヴェ ve ヴォ vo
ヴャ vya ヴュ vyu ヴィェ vye ヴョ vyo
キェ kye
ギェ gye
クァ kwa クィ kwi クェ kwe クォ kwo
クヮ kwa
グァ gwa グィ gwi グェ gwe グォ gwo
グヮ gwa
シェ she
ジェ je
スィ si
ズィ zi
チェ che
ツァ tsa ツィ tsi ツェ tse ツォ tso
ツュ tsyu
ティ ti トゥ tu
テュ tyu
ディ di ドゥ du
デュ dyu
ニェ nye
ヒェ hye
ビェ bye
ピェ pye
ファ fa フィ fi フェ fe フォ fo
フャ fya フュ fyu フィェ fye フョ fyo
ホゥ hu
ミェ mye
リェ rye
ラ゜ la リ゜ li ル゜ lu レ゜ le ロ゜ lo
リ゜ャ lya リ゜ュ lyu リ゜ェ lye リ゜ョ lyo
va vi ve vo
  • * — The use of ウゥ to represent wu is rare in modern Japanese except for Internet slang and transcription of the Latin digraph VV into katakana.
  • ⁑ — has a rarely-used hiragana form in that is also vu in Hepburn romanization systems.
  • ⁂ — The characters in green are obsolete in modern Japanese and very rarely used.[28][29]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Hadamitzky, Wolfgang; Spahn, Mark (October 2005). "Romanization systems". Wolfgang Hadamitzky: Japan-related Textbooks, Dictionaries, and Reference Works. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  2. ^ Backhaus, Peter (29 December 2014). "To shine or to die: the messy world of romanized Japanese". The Japan Times Online. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  3. ^ "'Ti' or 'chi'? Educators call to unify romanization styles in Japan". Mainichi Daily News. 2 April 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  4. ^ Seeley, Christopher (2000). A History of Writing in Japan (Illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780824822170.
  5. ^ Unger, J. Marshall (1996). Literacy and Script Reform in Occupation Japan: Reading between the Lines. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780195356380.
  6. ^ a b c Carr, Denzel. The New Official Romanization of Japanese. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Mar., 1939), pp. 99-102.
  7. ^ Haruhiko Kindaichi, Takeshi Shibata, Naoki Hayashi (1988). 日本語百科大事典 [Japanese encyclopedia]. Taishukan Shoten.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Kent, et al. "Oriental Literature and Bibliography." p. 155.
  9. ^ 和英語林集成第三版 [Digital 'Japanese English Forest Collection']. Meiji Gakuin University Library (in Japanese). Meiji Gakuin University. March 2010 [2006]. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  10. ^ "明治学院大学図書館 - 『和英語林集成』デジタルアーカイブス". Meijigakuin.ac.jp. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  11. ^ "Japanese" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  12. ^ "UHM Library : Japan Collection Online Resources". Hawaii.edu. 2005-10-06. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  13. ^ "鉄道掲示基準規程". Homepage1.nifty.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  14. ^ 道路標識のローマ字(ヘボン式) の綴り方 [How to spell Roman letters (Hepburn style) of road signs]. Kictec (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  15. ^ "パスポートセンター ヘボン式ローマ字表 : 神奈川県". Pref.kanagawa.jp. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  16. ^ James Curtis Hepburn (1872). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary (2nd ed.). American Presbyterian mission press. pp. 286–290. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  17. ^ 松浦四郎 (October 1992). "104年かかった標準化". 標準化と品質菅理 -Standardization and Quality Control-. Japanese Standards Association. 45: 92–93.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i James Curtis Hepburn (1886). A Japanese-English And English-Japanese Dictionary. (Third Edition). Z. P Maruyama & Co. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (Fourth Edition). Kenkyūsha. 1974.
  20. ^ a b Fujino Katsuji (1909). ローマ字手引き [RÔMAJI TEBIKI] (in Japanese). Rômaji-Hirome-kai.
  21. ^ Cabinet of Japan (December 9, 1954). 昭和29年内閣告示第1号 ローマ字のつづり方 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1954 - How to write Romanization] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved 2011-05-19.
  22. ^ Bureau of Citizens and Culture Affairs of Tokyo. "PASSPORT_ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表" [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on December 5, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  23. ^ Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. ヘボン式ローマ字綴方表 [Table of Spelling in Hepburn Romanization] (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  24. ^ Consulate-General of Japan in Detroit. "Example of Application Form for Passport" (PDF) (in Japanese). Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  25. ^ Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary. "Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary (9780198607489): Shigeru Takebayashi, Kazuhiko Nagai: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
  26. ^ "ローマ字の長音のつづり方". Xembho.s59.xrea.com. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  27. ^ a b "標準式ローマ字つづり―引用". Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  28. ^ a b Cabinet of Japan (November 16, 1946). 昭和21年内閣告示第33号 「現代かなづかい」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.33 in 1946 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on October 6, 2001. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  29. ^ a b Cabinet of Japan (July 1, 1986). 昭和61年内閣告示第1号 「現代仮名遣い」 [Japanese Cabinet Order No.1 in 1986 - Modern kana usage] (in Japanese). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  30. ^ Cabinet of Japan. "平成3年6月28日内閣告示第2号:外来語の表記" [Japanese cabinet order No.2 (June 28, 1991):The notation of loanword]. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  31. ^ "米国規格(ANSI Z39.11-1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27.
  32. ^ "英国規格(BS 4812 : 1972)―要約". Retrieved 2016-02-27.

References

  • Kent, Allen, Harold Lancour, and Jay Elwood Daily (Executive Editors). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science Volume 21. CRC Press, April 1, 1978. ISBN 0824720210, 9780824720216.

External links

Battle of Sekigahara

The Battle of Sekigahara (Shinjitai: 関ヶ原の戦い; Kyūjitai: 關ヶ原の戰い, Hepburn romanization: Sekigahara no Tatakai) was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month), that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.

Tokugawa Ieyasu took three more years to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the various daimyō, but Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, the last shogunate to control Japan.

Fu (kana)

ふ, in hiragana, or フ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora. The hiragana is made in four strokes, while the katakana in one. It represents the phoneme /hu͍/, although for phonological reasons, the actual pronunciation is [ɸɯ] (listen), which is why it is romanized fu in Hepburn romanization instead of hu. Written with a dakuten (ぶ, ブ), they both represent a "bu" sound, and written with handakuten (ぷ, プ) they both represent a "pu" sound.

The katakana フ is frequently combined with other vowels to represent sounds in foreign words. For example, the word "file" is written in Japanese as ファイル (fairu), with ファ representing a non-native sound, fa.

In certain Okinawan writing systems, ふ/フ can be written as ふぁ, ふぃ, ふぇ to make both fa, fi, and fe sounds as well as representing the sounds hwa, hwi, and hwe. In the Ryukyu University system, fa/hwa is written using the wa kana instead, ふゎ/フヮ. In the Ainu language the katakana with a handakuten プ can be written as a small ㇷ゚ to represent a final p sound. In the Sakhalin dialect, フ without a handakuten can be written as small ㇷ to represent a final h sound after an u sound (ウㇷ uh).

Humiaki Huzita

Humiaki Huzita (Japanese: 藤田文章, Hepburn romanization: Fujita Fumiaki, 1924 – 26 March 2005) was a Japanese-Italian mathematician and origami artist. He was born in Japan, emigrating to Italy to study nuclear physics at the University of Padua. He is best known for formulating the first six Huzita–Hatori axioms, which described the mathematics of paper folding to solve geometric construction problems.

JSL romanization

JSL is a romanization system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Latin script. It was devised by Eleanor Jorden for (and named after) her 1987 book Japanese: The Spoken Language. The system is based on Kunrei-shiki romanization.

It is designed for teaching spoken Japanese, and so, it follows Japanese phonemes fairly closely. For example, different conjugations of a verb may be achieved by changing the final vowel (as in the chart on the right), thus "bear[ing] a direct relation to Japanese structure" (in Jorden's words), whereas the common Hepburn romanization may require exceptions in some cases, in order to more clearly illustrate pronunciation to native English speakers.

JSL differs from Hepburn particularly in that it uses doubled vowels, rather than macrons, to represent the long vowels /oː/ and /ɯː/. Tokyo (Tōkyō) and Osaka (Ōsaka), for instance, would be written (Tookyoo) and (Oosaka) in JSL. Also, JSL represents ん, the syllabic n, as an "n" with a macron over it, (n̄), to avoid the practice that other systems use of sometimes writing (n) and sometimes (n') depending on the presence of a following vowel or (y).

There is a close tie between Japanese pronunciation and JSL, where one consistent symbol is given for each Japanese phoneme. This means that it does depart from Japanese orthography somewhat, as おう is romanized as (oo) when it indicates a long /oː/, but as (ou) when it indicates two distinct vowel sounds, such as in (omou) for 思う (おもう). Similarly, (ei) is reserved for the pronunciation [ei] only, whereas other romanization systems (including Hepburn) follow the hiragana orthography, therefore making it impossible to tell whether [eː] or [ei] are represented. It also distinguishes between (g), which is used when only a /ɡ/ sound is possible, and (ḡ), which is used when a velar nasal sound [ŋ] (the "ng" in the English word "singer") is also possible. The particles は and へ are romanized (wa) and (e), in accordance with their pronunciation. However, like Kunrei-shiki and Nihon-shiki, JSL does not distinguish between allophones in Japanese which are close to different phonemes in English.

JSL indicates the pitch accent of each mora. A vowel with an acute accent (´) denotes the first high-pitch mora, a grave accent (`) marks the last high-pitch mora, and a circumflex (ˆ) marks the only high-pitch mora in a word. In this system 日本 'Japan' would be written (nihôn) and 二本 'two (sticks)' as (nîhon), 端です 'It's the edge' would be (hasí dèsu) (standing for /hasi desu/ [hàɕi des(ɯ̀ᵝ)]. (This is why doubled vowels must be used instead of macrons.)

James Curtis Hepburn

James Curtis Hepburn (March 13, 1815 – September 21, 1911) was an American physician, translator, educator, and lay Christian missionary. He is known for the Hepburn romanization system for transliteration of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet, which he popularized in his Japanese–English dictionary.

Ka (kana)

か, in hiragana, or カ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ka]. The shapes of these kana both originate from 加.

The character can be combined with a dakuten, to form が in hiragana, ガ in katakana, and ga in Hepburn romanization. The phonetic value of the modified character is [ɡa] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋa] and [ɣa] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ka in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋa].

か is the most commonly used interrogatory particle. It is also sometimes used to delimit choices.

が is used to denote the focus of attention in a sentence, especially to the grammatical subject.

Historical usage in Yōon くゎ Current usage in か .

Ke (kana)

け, in hiragana, or ケ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora. Both represent [ke]. The shape of these kana come from the kanji 計 and 介, respectively.

A dakuten may be added to this character; this changes it to げ in hiragana, ゲ in katakana, ge in Hepburn romanization, and the pronunciation shifts to [ɡe] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋe] and [ɣe] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ke in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋe].

Kenpō

Kenpō (拳法) is the name of several Japanese martial arts. The word kenpō is a Japanese translation of the Chinese word "quánfǎ". This term is often informally transliterated as "kempo", as a result of applying Traditional Hepburn romanization, but failing to use a macron to indicate the long vowel. The generic nature of the term combined with its widespread, cross-cultural adoption in the martial arts community has led to many divergent definitions. The word Kenpō translates thus: "Ken" meaning 'Fist' and "Po" meaning 'Method' or 'Law' as in 'Law of gravity', a correct interpretation of the word Kenpō would be 'Fist Method', the same meaning as 'Quanfa'. However, it is often times misinterpreted as 'the Law Of The Fist' , which appeals to those looking for a more 'imposing' or aggressive sounding name.

Ki (kana)

き, in hiragana, キ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ki] and are derived from a simplification of the 幾 kanji. The hiragana character き, like さ, is drawn with the lower line either connected or disconnected.

A dakuten may be added to the character; this transforms it into ぎ in hiragana, ギ in katakana, and gi in Hepburn romanization. The phonetic value also changes, to [ɡi] in initial, and varying between [ŋi] and [ɣi] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ki in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋi].

Kiyosi Itô

Kiyosi Itô (伊藤 清, Itō Kiyoshi, September 7, 1915 – 10 November 2008) was a Japanese mathematician. He pioneered the theory of stochastic integration and stochastic differential equations, now known as the Itô calculus. Its basic concept is the Itô integral, and among the most important results is a change of variable formula known as Itô's lemma. Itô calculus is a method used in the mathematical study of random events and is applied in various fields, and is perhaps best known for its use in mathematical finance. Ito also made contributions to the study of diffusion processes on manifolds, known as stochastic differential geometry.Although the standard Hepburn romanization of his name is Kiyoshi Itō, he used the spelling Kiyosi Itô (Kunrei-shiki romanization). The alternative spellings Itoh and Ito are also sometimes seen in the West.

Ko (kana)

こ, in hiragana, or コ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora. Both represent IPA: [ko]. The shape of these kana comes from the kanji 己.

This character may be supplemented by a dakuten; it becomes ご in hiragana, ゴ in katakana, and go in Hepburn romanization. Also, the pronunciation is affected, transforming into [ɡo] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋo] and [ɣo] in the middle of words.

A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ko in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋo].

Ku (kana)

く, in hiragana, or ク in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [ku͍], and their shapes come from the kanji 久.

This kana may have a dakuten added, transforming it into ぐ in hiragana, グ in katakana, and gu in Hepburn romanization. The dakuten's addition also changes the sound of the syllable represented, to [ɡu͍] in initial positions, and varying between [ŋu͍] and [ɣu͍] in the middle of words. A handakuten (゜) does not occur with ku in normal Japanese text, but it may be used by linguists to indicate a nasal pronunciation [ŋu͍].

In the Ainu language, the katakana ク can be written as small ㇰ, representing a final k sound as in アイヌイタㇰ Ainu itak (Ainu language). This was developed along with other extended katakana to represent sounds in Ainu that are not found in standard Japanese katakana.

Kunrei-shiki romanization

Kunrei-shiki rōmaji (訓令式ローマ字) is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet. It is abbreviated as Kunrei-shiki. Its name is rendered Kunreisiki using Kunrei-shiki itself.

Kunrei-shiki is sometimes known as the Monbushō system in English because it is taught in the Monbushō-approved elementary school curriculum. The ISO has standardized Kunrei-shiki, under ISO 3602.

Kunrei-shiki is based on the older Nihon-shiki romanization, which was modified for modern standard Japanese. For example, the word かなづかい, romanized kanadukai in Nihon-shiki, is pronounced kanazukai in standard modern Japanese and is romanized as such in Kunrei-shiki.

Kunrei-shiki competes with the older Hepburn romanization system, which was promoted by the authorities during the Allied occupation of Japan, after World War II.

Mooka, Tochigi

Mooka (真岡市, Mooka-shi) is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. As of January 2017, the city had an estimated population of 79,660, and a population density of 476 persons per km². Its total area is 167.34 km². Moka is known for the Mooka Railway, which operates steam locomotives. The train line stretches from Shimodate, Ibaraki Prefecture to Motegi, Tochigi Prefecture. The town produces 7,000 tons of strawberries annually. The name of the city is given as "Moka City" per the city's official website; however, the local train station is "Mōka Station", and the direct transliteration of the city name into Hepburn romanization is "Mooka".

Romanization of Japanese

The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji (ローマ字, literally, "Roman letters") ([ɾoːmaꜜʑi] (listen). There are several different romanization systems. The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization (ISO 3602 Strict). Variants of the Hepburn system are the most widely used.

Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, and in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language. It is also used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English (or other languages that use the Latin script) on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature, history, and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, and may also be used to display Japanese on devices that do not support the display of Japanese characters.

All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. Therefore, almost all Japanese are able to read and write Japanese using rōmaji, although it is extremely rare in Japan to use this method to write Japanese (except as an input tool on a computer or for special purposes like in some logo design), and most Japanese are more comfortable reading kanji and kana.

Sa (kana)

さ, in hiragana, or サ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent [sa]. The shapes of these kana originate from 左 and 散, respectively.

Like き, the hiragana character may be written with or without linking the lower line to the rest of the character.

The character may be combined with a dakuten, changing it into ざ in hiragana, ザ in katakana, and za in Hepburn romanization. The pronunciation is also changed, to [za].

Shi (kana)

し, in hiragana, or シ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora. Both represent the phonemes /si/ although for phonological reasons, the actual pronunciation is [ɕi] (listen). The shapes of these kana have origins in the character 之. The katakana form has become increasingly popular as an emoticon in the Western world due to its resemblance to a smiling face.

This character may be combined with a dakuten, forming じ in hiragana, ジ in katakana, and ji in Hepburn romanization; the pronunciation becomes /zi/ (phonetically [d͡ʑi] or [ʑi] in the middle of words).

The dakuten form of this character is used when transliterating "di" occasionally, as opposed to チ's dakuten form; for example, Aladdin is written as アラジン Arajin, and radio is written as ラジオ.

In the Ainu language, シ is used to represent the ʃi sound. It can also be written as a small ㇱ to represent a final s sound, pronounced ɕ.

Su (kana)

す, in hiragana, or ス in katakana is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora. Their shapes come from the kanji 寸 and 須, respectively. Both kana represent the sound [su͍]. In the Ainu language, the katakana ス can be written as small ㇲ to represent a final s, and is used to emphasize the pronunciation of [s] rather than the normal [ɕ] (represented in Ainu as ㇱ).

* スィ and ズィ are also used to present si and zi pronunciations respectively. For example, 'C' is presented as スィー /siː/. See also Hepburn romanization.

Earlier forms
Dialects
Japonic languages
Writing system
Grammar and
vocabulary
Phonology
Transliteration
Literature

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