Henry Scott Tuke RA RWS (12 June 1858 – 13 March 1929), was an English visual artist; primarily a painter, but also a photographer. His most notable work was in the Impressionist style, and he is probably best known for his paintings of nude boys and young men.
He was born into a Quaker family in Lawrence Street in York. He was the second son of Daniel Hack Tuke (1827–1895) and Maria Strickney (1826–1917). In 1859 the family moved to Falmouth, where Daniel Tuke, a physician, established a practice. Tuke's sister and biographer, Maria Tuke Sainsbury (1861–1947), was born there. Tuke was encouraged to draw and paint from an early age and some of his earliest drawings—from when he was four or five years old—were published in 1895. In 1870, Tuke joined his brother William at Irwin Sharps's Quaker school in Weston-super-Mare, and remained there until he was sixteen.
In 1875, Tuke enrolled in the Slade School of Art under Alphonse Legros and Sir Edward Poynter. Initially his father paid for his tuition but in 1877 Tuke won a scholarship, which allowed him to continue his training at the Slade and in Italy in 1880. From 1881 to 1883 he was in Paris where he met Jules Bastien-Lepage, who encouraged him to paint en plein air. While studying in France, Tuke decided to move to Newlyn Cornwall where many of his Slade and Parisian friends had already formed the Newlyn School of painters. He received several lucrative commissions there, after exhibiting his work at the Royal Academy of Art in London.
In 1885, Tuke returned to Falmouth where many of his major works were produced. Tuke became an established artist and was elected to full membership of the Royal Academy in 1914. Tuke suffered a heart attack in 1928 and died in March, 1929. Towards the end of his life Tuke knew that his work was no longer fashionable. In his will he left generous amounts of money to some of the men who, as boys, had been his models. Today he is remembered mainly for his oil paintings of young men, but in addition to his achievements as a figurative painter, he was an established maritime artist and produced as many portraits of sailing ships as he did human figures. Tuke was a prolific artist—over 1,300 works are listed and more are still being discovered.
Henry Scott Tuke
Tuke in the 1880s
|Born||12 June 1858|
|Died||13 March 1929 (aged 70)|
Falmouth, Cornwall, England
|Education||Slade School of Art|
Tuke was born at Lawrence Street, York, into the prominent Quaker Tuke family. His brother William Samuel Tuke was born two years earlier in 1856. His father, Daniel Hack Tuke, a well-known medical doctor specialising in psychiatry, was a campaigner for humane treatment of the insane. His great-great-grandfather William Tuke had founded the Retreat at York, one of the first modern insane asylums, in 1796. His great-grandfather Henry Tuke, grandfather Samuel Tuke and uncle James Hack Tuke were also well-known social activists. The Tuke family's ancestry can be traced back to Sir Brian Tuke, who served as an adviser to King Henry VIII of England (replacing Sir Thomas More).
In 1859 the family moved to Falmouth in Cornwall where it was hoped the warmer climate would benefit Tuke's father, Daniel, who had developed symptoms of tuberculosis. Daniel survived there and lived on until he was 68. He established a small doctor's practice in his house in Wood Lane. His sister, Maria Sainsbury Tuke (1861–1947)—who wrote a biography of her brother after his death—was born there. William went on to study medicine but Henry—or Harry as he was called by the family, showed no interest in the profession. Tuke was encouraged to draw and paint from an early age. Tuke and his siblings were taught by a governess at home. Maria described their childhood in Falmouth as "a very happy and healthy one"  and the long summer days spent on the beach and swimming in the sea had a lasting effect on Tuke; other enduring memories were the firm friendships the young Tuke formed.
In 1874 Tuke moved to London, where he enrolled in the Slade School of Art. It was in Falmouth that the young Tuke had been introduced to the pleasures of nude sea bathing, a habit he continued into old age. After graduating he travelled to Italy in 1880, and from 1881 to 1883 he lived in Paris, where he studied with the French history painter Jean-Paul Laurens and met the American painter John Singer Sargent (who was also a painter of male nudes, although this was little known in his lifetime).
During the 1880s Tuke also met Oscar Wilde and other prominent poets and writers such as John Addington Symonds, most of whom were homosexual (then usually called Uranian) and who celebrated the adolescent male. He wrote a "sonnet to youth" which was published anonymously in The Artist, and also contributed an essay to The Studio.
In 1883, Tuke returned to Britain and moved to Newlyn, Cornwall joining a small colony of artists including Walter Langley, Albert Chevallier Tayler and Thomas Cooper Gotch. These painters, and others, became known as the Newlyn School. He worked from Rose Cottage at Tregadgwith Farm, Cornwall at the head of the Lamorna valley.
In Newlyn, in 1884, Tuke completed his first painting of boys in boats. Called Summertime, it depicts two local boys, John Wesley Kitching and John Cotton, in a punt called Little Argo. Tuke's style was more impressionistic than that of the other Newlyn painters and he only stayed a short time. However, he remained close friends with many of the artists until his death.
Tuke painted oil studies of young male nudes during a tour of Italy in his early twenties in 1881, but the theme did not become central to his work until after 1885, when he had moved to Falmouth, then still a secluded part of Cornwall and a part of the country with a very mild climate that was more agreeable for nude bathing. There Tuke focused on maritime scenes and portraits, which showed boys and young men bathing, fishing and sunbathing on sunny beaches. He settled at Swanpool and bought a fishing boat for £40, 'Julie of Nantes', and converted it into a floating studio and living quarters. He rented two rooms in Pennance Cottage, situated between Pennance Point and Swanpool Beach.The cottage remained Tuke's permanent base until his death, although he often lived aboard boats. Here he could indulge his passion for painting boys. His early models were brought down from London but he soon befriended some of the local fishermen and swimmers in Falmouth who became his close friends and models. These included Edward John "Johnny" Jackett (1878–1935), Charlie Mitchell (1885–1957), who looked after Tuke's boats, Willie Sainsbury, Tuke's eldest nephew, Leo Marshall, Georgie and Richard Fouracre (sons of his housekeeper), George Williams – younger son of close neighbours, Maurice Clift – nephew of a family friend, Ainsley Marks, Jack Rolling (in some sources mispelt "Rowling") Freddy Hall, Bert White and Harry Cleave. Due to Tuke's habit of interchanging heads and bodies of his models in his paintings, it is often not possible to identify each figure exactly. All of Tuke's regular models were eventually called up during the First World War, and some did not return, including Maurice Clift (a model for August Blue) who was killed in France.
He would often commute to London as Falmouth was well served with a railway service and he was not therefore isolated from the London art scene. He produced numerous portraits of society figures, local officials and members of the Tuke family circle. He also painted many more saleable landscapes and was well regarded as a painter of ships in sail. Henry Scott Tuke was elected Associate of the Royal Academy in 1900 and Royal Academician in 1914.
Tuke favoured rough, visible brush strokes, at a time when a smooth, polished finish was favoured by fashionable painters and critics. He had a strong sense of colour and excelled in the depiction of natural light, particularly the soft, fragile sunlight of the English summer. Although Tuke often finished paintings in the studio, photographic evidence shows that he worked mainly in the open air, which accounts for their freshness of colour and the realistic effects of sunlight reflected by the sea and on the naked flesh of his models.
In his early paintings, Tuke placed his male nudes in mythological contexts, but the critics found these works to be rather formal, lifeless and flaccid. From the 1890s, Tuke abandoned mythological themes and began to paint local boys fishing, sailing, swimming and diving, and also began to paint in a more naturalistic style. His handling of paint became freer, and he began using bold, fresh colour. One of his best known paintings from this period is August Blue (1893–1894), a study of four mostly nude youths bathing from a boat. The Looe artist, Lindsay Symington (1872–1942), modelled for the blonde boy holding onto the boat in the water; though not a regular model, Symington was a good friend of Tuke, the latter often visiting the Symington family home, Pixies' Holt, at Dartmeet. Tuke painted some female nudes but these were not as successful as his male nude paintings.
Although Tuke's paintings of nude youths undoubtedly appealed to his gay friends and art-buyers, they are never explicitly sexual. The models' genitals are almost never shown, they are almost never in physical contact with each other, and there is never any suggestion of overt sexuality. Most of the paintings have the nude models standing or crouching on the beach facing out to sea, so only the back view is displayed.
Tuke is also regarded as an important maritime artist. Over the years, he painted many pictures of the majestic sailing ships, mainly in watercolour, that were common until the 1930s. Tuke was often fascinated with the beauty of a fully rigged ship, and since his childhood could draw them from memory. His decision to move to Falmouth in 1885 was, in part, influenced by the constant presence of the ships there.
Tuke enjoyed a considerable reputation, and he earned enough money from his paintings to enable him to travel abroad and he painted in France, Italy and the West Indies. In 1900 a banquet was held in his honour at the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. He was elected to the Royal Academy of Arts in 1914.
Major examples of his male nudes were purchased by major art galleries including The Bathers at Leeds Art Gallery in 1890 and August Blue at the Tate, London in 1894. But he was also well known as a portraitist, and maintained a London studio to work on his commissions. Among his best known portraits is that of soldier and writer T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia").
In later life he was in poor health for many years, and died in Falmouth in 1929 and was buried in a Falmouth cemetery close to his home. Tuke kept a detailed diary all his life but only two volumes survived after his death and have since been published. He also kept a detailed artist's Register which survives and has been published by the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society in Falmouth.
After his death, Tuke's reputation faded, and he was largely forgotten until the 1970s, when he was rediscovered by the first generation of openly gay artists and art collectors. He has since become something of a cult figure in gay cultural circles, with lavish editions of his paintings published and his works fetching high prices at auctions. Elton John is a keen collector of Tuke's works and in 2008 loaned eleven of his own pieces, including works in oil, pastel and watercolour, for an exhibition in Falmouth.
The student halls of residence at University College Falmouth are named after Tuke, a tribute to him as both an artist, and a famous resident of the town. At the time they were built and named, the school was known as the Falmouth College of Arts. Also in Falmouth is a collection of 279 of Tuke's works belonging to the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, the largest such collection in public ownership. The bulk were donated by a single collector in the 1960s, but the Society maintains a policy of adding to the collection.
During the 150th year after H.S. Tuke's birth, there were three exhibitions of his work:
H.S. Tuke's works are held in a number of galleries and museums including Tate, Hunterian Art Gallery, Grundy Art Gallery, Walker Art Gallery, Leamington Spa Art Gallery & Museum, Bodleian Libraries, Royal Academy of Arts, Guildhall Art Gallery.
The papers of H.S. Tuke and Thomas Cooper Gotch are also held in the Tate Archive collections (TGA 9019) The papers in the Tate Archive provide context in which Tuke worked, not just the locations of his paintings and the relationships with his models, but his artistic allegiances such as his deep friendship with the painter Thomas Cooper Gotch.
The year 1893 in art involved some significant events.1902 in art
The year 1902 in art involved some significant events and new works.1927 in art
The year 1927 in art involved some significant events and new works.All Hands to the Pumps
All Hands to the Pumps is an 1888-89 painting by British artist Henry Scott Tuke. At the time, the 21-year-old Tuke was living on an old French brig Julie of Nantes, which he anchored in Falmouth Harbour to use as a floating studio.The painting measures 73 × 55 inches (190 × 140 cm). It depicts several crewmen on the deck of a ship in a storm, manning the pump to remove water from the vessel. The ship has lost at least one of its sails, and the deck is awash. The red ensign hangs upside-down from the shrouds to indicate the ship's distress. One man shouts up towards the rigging, and another is up in the shrouds gesturing at the swell. The lively composition uses diagonal lines — arms, rigging, mast, pump handle, wind-blown flag — to draw the eye around the painting.University of Louisville professor Jongwoo Jeremy Kim detects a homoerotic subtext and speculates that the second figure from the left, with a white shirt under a grey waistcoat, wearing a cap, could be Tuke himself, looking across at Jack Rowling, one of Tuke's regular models, on the right in a red hat. Another of Tuke's regular models, Johnny Jackett, is in the rigging.The work was exhibited at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition in 1889; the same year, it became the first of Tuke's works to be purchased by the Chantrey Bequest Fund for the Tate Gallery. It is on loan to the Penlee House Gallery and Museum in Penzance.Anna Maria Fox
Anna Maria Fox (21 February 1816 – 18 November 1897) was a promoter of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society and the artistic and cultural development of Falmouth in Cornwall, UK.August Blue
August Blue is an oil-on-canvas painting by British artist Henry Scott Tuke. It depicts four naked youths in and around a boat, bathing in the sea. Tuke started the painting in 1893, probably en plein air on a boat in the harbour at Falmouth, Cornwall. The finished painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy summer exhibition in 1894, and immediately purchased for the Tate Gallery, where it remains. Unlike his earlier paintings, it has an Impressionistic style, influenced by his travels to Italy, Corfu and Albania in 1892.Bawley
A bawley was an English sailing vessel typified by a boomless cutter rig and probably named for having a boiler for cooking shrimp in amidships. "The majority were built by Aldous of Brightlingsea" but they were also built in Harwich, Erith, Southend, Leigh and on the Medway.Charles Kains Jackson
Charles Philip Castle Kains Jackson (1857-1933) was an English poet closely associated with the Uranian school.Daniel Hack Tuke
Daniel Hack Tuke (19 April 1827 – 5 March 1895) was an English physician and expert on mental illness.En plein air
En plein air (French pronunciation: [ɑ̃ plɛn ɛːʁ], French for outdoors, or plein air painting) is the act of painting outdoors. This method contrasts with studio painting or academic rules that might create a predetermined look.Falmouth University
Falmouth University (Cornish: Pennskol Aberfala) is a specialist University for the creative industries based in Falmouth and Penryn, Cornwall, England. Founded as the Falmouth School of Art in 1902, it has previously been known as Falmouth College of Art and Design and then Falmouth College of Arts before it received degree-awarding powers, and the right to use the title "University College", in March 2005. In April 2008, University College Falmouth merged with Dartington College of Arts, adding a range of Performance courses to its portfolio. On 27 November 2012, a communication was released to the staff and students and local press that 'University College Falmouth is to be granted full university status in a move that will further its ambition to become one of the top five arts universities in the world.' On 9 December 2012, the University College was officially granted full university status by the Privy Council.The university is located in Penryn and Falmouth. Penryn Campus, near the town of Penryn, is the larger of its two campuses, which it operates in partnership with the University of Exeter. Falmouth Campus is in Falmouth town centre.Henry Tuke
This article is about the Quaker mental health reformist. For his great-grandson, the painter, see Henry Scott Tuke. See also Tuke family.
Henry Tuke (1755–1814) co-operated with his father, William Tuke, in the reforms at the Retreat asylum in York, England.
He was the author of several moral and theological treatises which have been translated into German and French.
He was a subscriber to the African Institution, the body which set out to create a viable, civilized refuge for freed slaves in Sierra Leone, Africa.Hester Sainsbury
Hester Margaret Sainsbury (1890-1967) was a British artist, dancer, poet and illustrator.Philip Streatfeild
James Philip Sydney Streatfeild (5 November 1879 – 3 June 1915) was an English painter and bohemian descended from the historic Streatfeild family.
Streatfeild was born in Clapham, where his father was a bank clerk. His grandfather was the vicar of East Ham, Essex. He studied at art college. A successful artist, he had a studio off the Kings Road in London. It has been suggested he received training under Henry Scott Tuke. He painted portraits of industrialists, the occasional actress and young children. He was acquainted with London society and was a friend of Robbie Ross, patron of the arts and a former lover of Oscar Wilde.In 1914, Streatfeild became a mentor to the then-14-year-old actor and later famed author Noël Coward. Coward's social ascendancy began thanks to Streatfeild who, before his death, asked wealthy socialite Mrs Astley Cooper to take Coward under her wing. Mrs Astley Cooper continued to encourage her late friend's protégé, who remained a frequent guest at her estate, Hambleton Hall.Streatfeild enlisted in the army in November 1914 but contracted tuberculosis and was invalided out in the spring of 1915.Streatfeild died from tuberculosis in June 1915 at age 35.Ruby, Gold and Malachite
Ruby, Gold and Malachite is an oil-on-canvas painting by Henry Scott Tuke. It depicts six young men in and around a boat, bathing in the sea. It was painted near Falmouth and exhibited at the Royal Academy summer exhibition in 1902, along with two other works by Tuke, The Run Home and Portrait of Alfred de Pass. It was one of his greatest successes.
The painting measures 117 centimetres (46 in) by 159 centimetres (63 in). It was acquired by the City of London Corporation and is displayed at the Guildhall Art Gallery.The Back of Love
"The Back of Love" is a single which was released by Echo & the Bunnymen on 21 May 1982. It reached number nineteen on the UK Singles Chart the same month. It was subsequently added to the album Porcupine which was released on 4 February 1983.
The single was produced by Ian Broudie under the pseudonym Kingbird. The a-side of the single was recorded at Trident Studios in London, while the b-side was recorded at Square One Studios in Liverpool. The b-side to both the 7" and 12" versions of the single is "The Subject". The 12" has an extra track on the b-side, "Fuel".
The cover of both the 7" and 12" versions is painting by Henry Scott Tuke called "The Promise" which was on display at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool.
The song was covered by the American rock group Burning Airlines on the 1998 "Always Something There to Remind Me / Back of Love" single, a split release with Braid who performed "Always Something There to Remind Me".Tuke
Tuke may refer to:
The Tuke River, a river in New Zealand
Technical University of Košice, a college in Slovakia
Tuke is what the Dani people call KarukaTuke may also refer to the following people:
The Tuke family, a notable Quaker family from York, England; family members included:
Blair Tuke (born 1989), New Zealand Olympic sailor
Daniel Hack Tuke (1827–1895), a prominent campaigner for humane treatment of the insane
Henry Tuke (1755–1814)
Henry Scott Tuke (1858–1929), British painter and photographer
James Hack Tuke (1819–1896)
Dame Margaret Tuke (1862–1947), Principal of Bedford College, London University
Samuel Tuke (reformer) (1784–1857)
William Tuke III (1732–1822), founder of The Retreat at YorkOther people called Tuke include:
Benjamin Tuke (1870–1936), Ireland international rugby player
Bob Tuke (b. 1947), American politician
John Batty Tuke (1835–1913), Scottish psychiatrist
Sir Samuel Tuke, 1st Baronet (c.1615–1674), English Royalist officer, playwright and nobleman
Tuke, a character from Disney's Brother BearTuke family
The Tuke family of York were family of Quaker innovators involved in establishing:
Rowntree's Cocoa Works
The Retreat Mental Hospital
three Quaker schools - Ackworth, Bootham, and The MountThey included four generations. The main Tukes were:
William Tuke III (1732-1822), founder of The Retreat at York, one of the first modern insane asylums, in 1792
Henry Tuke (1755-1814)
Samuel Tuke (1784-1857)
James Hack Tuke (1819-1896)
Hannah Tuke (1811-1869)Others included:
John Tuke (cartographer and surveyor)
William Murray Tuke (1822-1903), who gained his second name from Lindley Murray
Dame Margaret Jansen Tuke, D.B.E., M.A. (1862-1947) Principal of Bedford College, London University
Henry Scott Tuke (12 June 1858 – 13 March 1929), British painter and photographer, is best remembered for his paintings of naked boys and young men, which have earned him a status as a pioneer of gay male culture
Daniel Hack Tuke (1827–1895), was a prominent campaigner for humane treatment of the insaneUranian
Uranian is a 19th-century term that referred to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men, and later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females, and a number of other sexual types. The term was first published by activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–95) in a series of five booklets (1864–65) collected under the title Forschungen über das Räthsel der mannmännlichen Liebe (Research into the Riddle of Man–Male Love). Ulrichs derived Uranian (Urning in German) from the Greek goddess Aphrodite Urania, who was created out of the god Uranus' testicles. Therefore, it represents the homosexual gender, while Dionian (Dioning), derived from Aphrodite Dionea, represents the heterosexual gender. Ulrichs developed his terminology before the first public use of the term homosexual, which appeared in 1869 in a pamphlet published anonymously by Karl-Maria Kertbeny (1824–82).
The term Uranian was quickly adopted by English-language advocates of homosexual emancipation in the Victorian era, such as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds, who used it to describe a comradely love that would bring about true democracy, uniting the "estranged ranks of society" and breaking down class and gender barriers. Oscar Wilde wrote to Robert Ross in an undated letter (?18 February 1898): "To have altered my life would have been to have admitted that Uranian love is ignoble. I hold it to be noble—more noble than other forms."
The term also gained currency among a group that studied Classics and dabbled in pederastic poetry from the 1870s to the 1930s. The writings of this group are now known by the phrase Uranian poetry. The art of Henry Scott Tuke and Wilhelm von Gloeden is also sometimes referred to as Uranian.