Henry IV of England

Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke (/ˈbɒlɪŋbrʊk/), was King of England from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III (himself a maternal grandson of Philip IV of France), to the Kingdom of France.

Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire. His father, John of Gaunt (1340-1399) (created 1st Duke of Lancaster in right of his wife), was the fourth son (third to survive to adulthood) of King Edward III and enjoyed a position of considerable influence during much of the reign of his nephew King Richard II (1377-1399) whom Henry eventually deposed.

Henry's mother was Blanche of Lancaster, heiress to the great Lancashire estates of her father Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster (a descendant in the male line of King Henry III). Henry, having succeeded his father as 2nd Duke of Lancaster, when he became king thus founded the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenet English monarchy. He was also the first King of England since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English rather than French.[3]

Henry IV
Portrait of Henry IV
Illuminated miniature of Henry IV, c. 1402[1]
King of England
Reign30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413
Coronation13 October 1399
PredecessorRichard II
SuccessorHenry V
Born15 April 1367[2]
Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire, England
Died20 March 1413 (aged 45)
Westminster, London, England
Burial
Spouse
Mary de Bohun
(m. 1381; died 1394)

Joan of Navarre (m. 1403)
Issue
more...
HouseHouse of Lancaster
FatherJohn of Gaunt
MotherBlanche of Lancaster

Siblings

One of Henry's elder sisters, Philippa of Lancaster, married King John I of Portugal, and the other, Elizabeth of Lancaster, was the mother of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter. His younger half-sister Katherine of Lancaster, the daughter of his father's second wife, Constance of Castile, was queen consort of the King of Castile. He also had four natural half-siblings born of Katherine Swynford, originally his sisters' governess, then his father's longstanding mistress and later third wife. These four illegitimate children were given the surname Beaufort from their birthplace at the Château de Beaufort in Champagne, France.[4]

Henry's relationship with his stepmother, Katherine Swynford, was a positive one, but his relationship with the Beauforts varied. In youth he seems to have been close to all of them, but rivalries with Henry and Thomas Beaufort proved problematic after 1406. Ralph Neville, who had married Henry's half-sister Joan Beaufort, remained one of his strongest supporters, and so did his eldest half-brother John Beaufort, even though Henry revoked Richard II's grant to John of a marquessate. Thomas Swynford, a son from Katherine's first marriage to Sir Hugh Swynford, was another loyal companion. Thomas was Constable of Pontefract Castle, where King Richard II is said to have died.

Henry's half-sister Joan Beaufort was the grandmother of Edward IV and Richard III. Joan's daughter Cecily married Richard, Duke of York and had several offspring, including Edward IV and Richard III, making Joan the grandmother of two Yorkist kings of England.

Relationship with Richard II

HenryBolingbrokeClaimsThrone
Henry of Bolingbroke, flanked by the lords spiritual and temporal, claims the throne in 1399. From a contemporary manuscript, British Library, Harleian Collection

Henry experienced a rather more inconsistent relationship with King Richard II than his father had. First cousins and childhood playmates, they were admitted together to the Order of the Garter in 1377, but Henry participated in the Lords Appellants' rebellion against the king in 1387.[5] After regaining power, Richard did not punish Henry, although he did execute or exile many of the other rebellious barons. In fact, Richard elevated Henry from Earl of Derby to Duke of Hereford.

Henry spent the full year of 1390 supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius (capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) by Teutonic Knights with 70 to 80 household knights.[6] During this campaign he bought captured Lithuanian women and children and took them back to Königsberg to be converted.[7] Henry's second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits to the Order of these guest crusaders. His small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Despite the efforts of Henry and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless. In 1392–93 Henry undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he made offerings at the Holy Sepulchre and at the Mount of Olives.[8] Later he vowed to lead a crusade to 'free Jerusalem from the infidel,' but he died before this could be accomplished.[9]

The relationship between Henry Bolingbroke and the king met with a second crisis. In 1398, a remark by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk regarding Richard II's rule was interpreted as treason by Henry and Henry reported it to the king.[10] The two dukes agreed to undergo a duel of honour (called by Richard II) at Gosford Green near Caludon Castle, Mowbray's home in Coventry. Yet before the duel could take place, Richard II decided to banish Henry from the kingdom (with the approval of Henry's father, John of Gaunt) to avoid further bloodshed. Mowbray himself was exiled for life.[11]

John of Gaunt died in February 1399.[11] Without explanation, Richard cancelled the legal documents that would have allowed Henry to inherit Gaunt's land automatically. Instead, Henry would be required to ask for the lands from Richard.[12] After some hesitation, Henry met with the exiled Thomas Arundel, former Archbishop of Canterbury, who had lost his position because of his involvement with the Lords Appellant.[12] Henry and Arundel returned to England while Richard was on a military campaign in Ireland. With Arundel as his advisor, Henry began a military campaign, confiscating land from those who opposed him and ordering his soldiers to destroy much of Cheshire. Henry initially announced that his intention was to reclaim his rights as Duke of Lancaster, though he quickly gained enough power and support to have himself declared King Henry IV, imprison King Richard (who died in prison under mysterious circumstances) and bypass Richard's 7-year-old heir-presumptive, Edmund de Mortimer.[13] Henry's coronation, on 13 October 1399 at Westminster Abbey,[14] may have marked the first time since the Norman Conquest when the monarch made an address in English.

Henry consulted with Parliament frequently, but was sometimes at odds with the members, especially over ecclesiastical matters. On Arundel's advice, Henry obtained from Parliament the enactment of De heretico comburendo in 1401, which prescribed the burning of heretics, an act done mainly to suppress the Lollard movement.[15][16] In 1410, Parliament suggested confiscating church land. Henry refused to attack the Church that had helped him to power, and the House of Commons had to beg for the bill to be struck off the record.[17]

Reign

Henry IV Coronation
The Coronation of Henry IV of England. From a 15th-century manuscript of Jean Froissart's Chronicles.

The previous ruler

Henry's first major problem as monarch was what to do with the deposed Richard. After an early assassination plot (the Epiphany Rising) was foiled in January 1400, Richard died in prison, probably of starvation. He was 33 years old. Though Henry is often suspected of having his predecessor murdered, there is no substantial evidence to prove that claim. Some chroniclers claimed that the despondent Richard had starved himself,[18] which would not have been out of place with what is known of Richard's character. Though council records indicate that provisions were made for the transportation of the deposed king's body as early as 17 February, there is no reason to believe that he did not die on 14 February, as several chronicles stated. It can be positively said that he did not suffer a violent death, for his skeleton, upon examination, bore no signs of violence; whether he did indeed starve himself or whether that starvation was forced upon him are matters for lively historical speculation.[18]

Silver half groat of Henry IV (YORYM 1994 151 102) obverse
Silver half groat of Henry IV, York Museums Trust

After his death, Richard's body was put on public display in the old St Paul's Cathedral, both to prove to his supporters that he was truly dead and also to prove that he had not suffered a violent death. This did not stop rumours from circulating for years after that he was still alive and waiting to take back his throne. Henry had Richard discreetly buried in the Dominican Priory at King's Langley, Hertfordshire, where he remained until King Henry V brought his body back to London and buried him in the tomb that Richard had commissioned for himself in Westminster Abbey.[19]

Rebellions

Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts.

Rebellions continued throughout the first 10 years of Henry's reign, including the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr, who declared himself Prince of Wales in 1400, and the rebellions led by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, from 1402. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth, who later became king (though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in 1410).

In the last year of Henry's reign, the rebellions picked up speed. "The old fable of a living Richard was revived", notes one account, "and emissaries from Scotland traversed the villages of England, in the last year of Henry's reign, declaring that Richard was residing at the Scottish Court, awaiting only a signal from his friends to repair to London and recover his throne."

A suitable-looking impostor was found and King Richard's old groom circulated word in the city that his master was alive in Scotland. "Southwark was incited to insurrection" by Sir Elias Lyvet (Levett) and his associate Thomas Clark, who promised Scottish aid in carrying out the insurrection. Ultimately, the rebellion came to naught. The knight Lyvet was released and his follower thrown into the Tower.[20]

Foreign relations

Early in his reign, Henry hosted the visit of Manuel II Palaiologos, the only Byzantine emperor ever to visit England, from December 1400 to January 1401 at Eltham Palace, with a joust being given in his honour. Henry also sent monetary support with Manuel II upon his departure to aid him against the Ottoman Empire.[21]

In 1406, English pirates captured the future James I of Scotland off the coast of Flamborough Head as he was going to France.[22] James was delivered to the English king and remained a prisoner for the rest of Henry's reign.

Final illness and death

The later years of Henry's reign were marked by serious health problems. He had a disfiguring skin disease and, more seriously, suffered acute attacks of some grave illness in June 1405; April 1406; June 1408; during the winter of 1408–09; December 1412; and finally a fatal bout in March 1413. Medical historians have long debated the nature of this affliction or afflictions. The skin disease might have been leprosy (which did not necessarily mean precisely the same thing in the 15th century as it does to modern medicine), perhaps psoriasis, or some other disease. The acute attacks have been given a wide range of explanations, from epilepsy to some form of cardiovascular disease.[23] Some medieval writers felt that he was struck with leprosy as a punishment for his treatment of Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York, who was executed in June 1405 on Henry's orders after a failed coup.[24]

According to Holinshed, it was predicted that Henry would die in Jerusalem, and Shakespeare's play repeats this prophecy. Henry took this to mean that he would die on crusade. In reality, he died in the Jerusalem Chamber in the abbot's house of Westminster Abbey, on 20 March 1413 during a convocation of Parliament.[25] His executor, Thomas Langley, was at his side.

Burial

King Henry IV from NPG (2)
16th-century imaginary painting of Henry IV, National Portrait Gallery, London

Despite the example set by most of his recent predecessors, Henry and his second wife, Joan of Navarre, Queen of England, were buried not at Westminster Abbey but at Canterbury Cathedral, on the north side of Trinity Chapel and directly adjacent to the shrine of St Thomas Becket. Becket's cult was then still thriving, as evidenced in the monastic accounts and in literary works such as The Canterbury Tales, and Henry seemed particularly devoted to it, or at least keen to be associated with it. Reasons for his interment in Canterbury are debatable, but it is highly likely that Henry deliberately associated himself with the martyr saint for reasons of political expediency, namely, the legitimisation of his dynasty after seizing the throne from Richard II.[26] Significantly, at his coronation, he was anointed with holy oil that had reportedly been given to Becket by the Virgin Mary shortly before his death in 1170;[27][28] this oil was placed inside a distinct eagle-shaped container of gold. According to one version of the tale, the oil had then passed to Henry's maternal grandfather, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster.[29]

Proof of Henry's deliberate connection to St Thomas lies partially in the structure of the tomb itself. The wooden panel at the western end of his tomb bears a painting of the martyrdom of Becket, and the tester, or wooden canopy, above the tomb is painted with Henry's personal motto, 'Soverayne', alternated by crowned golden eagles. Likewise, the three large coats of arms that dominate the tester painting are surrounded by collars of SS, a golden eagle enclosed in each tiret.[30] The presence of such eagle motifs points directly to Henry's coronation oil and his ideological association with St Thomas. Sometime after the King's death, an imposing tomb was built for him and his queen, probably commissioned and paid for by Queen Joan herself.[31] Atop the tomb chest lie detailed alabaster effigies of the King and Queen, crowned and dressed in their ceremonial robes. Henry's body was evidently well embalmed, as an exhumation in 1832 established, allowing historians to state with reasonable certainty that the effigies do represent accurate portraiture.[32][33]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Arms

Before his father's death in 1399, Henry bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label of five points ermine. After his father's death, the difference changed to a label of five points per pale ermine and France.[35] Upon his accession as king, Henry updated the arms of the kingdom to match an update in those of royal France – from a field of fleur-de-lys to just three.

Arms of Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford

Coat of arms as Duke of Hereford

Arms of Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford and Lancaster

Coat of arms as Duke of Hereford and Lancaster

Coat of Arms of Henry IV of England (1399-1413)

Henry's achievement as king with the old arms of France

Coat of Arms of Henry IV & V of England (1413-1422)

Royal achievement as king

Seniority in line from Edward III

When Richard II was forced to abdicate the throne in 1399, Henry was next in line to the throne according to Edward III's entailment of 1376. That entailment clearly reflects the operation of agnatic primogeniture, also known as the Salic law. At this time, it was by no means a settled custom for the daughter of a king to supersede the brothers of that king in the line of succession to the throne. Indeed, it was not an established belief that women could inherit the throne at all by right: the only previous instance of succession passing through a woman had been that which involved the Empress Matilda, and this had involved protracted civil war, with the other protagonist being the son of Matilda's father's sister (not his brother). Yet, the heir of the royal estate according to common law (by which the houses and tenancies of common people like peasants and tradesmen passed) was Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, who descended from the daughter of Edward III's third son (second to survive to adulthood), Lionel of Antwerp. Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt, was Edward's fourth son and the third to survive to adulthood. The problem was solved by emphasising Henry's descent in a direct male line, whereas March's descent was through his grandmother.

The official account of events claims that Richard voluntarily agreed to resign his crown to Henry on 29 September. The country had rallied behind Henry and supported his claim in parliament. However, the question of the succession never went away. The problem lay in the fact that Henry was only the most prominent male heir, but not the most senior in terms of agnatic descent from Edward III. Although he was heir to the throne according to Edward III's entail to the crown of 1376,[36] Dr. Ian Mortimer has pointed out in his 2008 biography of Henry IV that this entail had probably been supplanted by an entail made by Richard II in 1399 (see Ian Mortimer, The Fears of Henry IV, appendix two, pp. 366–9). Henry thus had to overcome the superior claim of the Mortimers in order to maintain his inheritance. This difficulty compounded when the Mortimer claim was merged with the Yorkist claim in the person of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York. The Duke of York was the heir-general of Edward III, and the heir presumptive (due to agnatic descent, the same principle by which Henry IV claimed the throne in 1399) of Henry's grandson Henry VI (since Henry IV's other sons did not have male heirs, and the legitimated Beauforts were excluded from the throne). The House of Lancaster was finally deposed by Edward IV, son of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, during the Wars of the Roses.

Marriages and issue

First marriage: Mary de Bohun

The date and venue of Henry's first marriage to Mary de Bohun (died 1394) are uncertain, but her marriage licence, purchased by Henry's father John of Gaunt in June 1380 is preserved at the National Archives. The accepted date of the ceremony is 5 February 1381, at Mary's family home of Rochford Hall, Essex.[38] Alternately, the near-contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart reports a rumour that Mary's sister Eleanor de Bohun kidnapped Mary from Pleshey Castle and held her at Arundel Castle, where she was kept as a novice nun; Eleanor's intention was to control Mary's half of the Bohun inheritance (or to allow her husband, Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, to control it).[39][40] There Mary was persuaded to marry Henry. They had six children:[41]

Name Arms Blazon
Henry V of England (1386–1422), 1st son Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Arms of King Henry IV: France modern quartering Plantagenet
Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence (1387–1421), 2nd son, who married Margaret Holland, widow of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent. Without progeny. Arms of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg Arms of King Henry IV with a label of three points argent each charged with three ermine spots and a canton gules for difference
John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford (1389–1435), 3rd son, who married twice: firstly to Anne of Burgundy (d.1432), daughter of John the Fearless, without progeny. Secondly to Jacquetta of Luxembourg, without progeny. Arms of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford.svg Arms of King Henry IV with a label of five points per pale ermine and France for difference
Humphrey of Lancaster, Duke of Gloucester (1390–1447), 4th son, who married twice but left no surviving legitimate progeny: firstly to Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland (d.1436), daughter of William VI, Count of Hainaut. Through this marriage Gloucester assumed the title "Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault". Secondly to Eleanor Cobham, his mistress. Arms of Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester.svg Arms of King Henry IV with bordure argent for difference
Blanche of England (1392–1409) married in 1402 Louis III, Elector Palatine[42]
Philippa of England (1394–1430) married in 1406 Eric of Pomerania, king of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Henry had four sons from his first marriage, which was undoubtedly a clinching factor in his acceptability for the throne. By contrast, Richard II had no children and Richard's heir-presumptive Edmund Mortimer was only seven years old. The only two of Henry's six children who produced children to survive to adulthood were Henry V and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. Henry IV's male Lancaster line ended in 1471 during the War of the Roses, between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists, with the deaths of his grandson Henry VI and Henry VI's son Edward, Prince of Wales. The descendants of Henry IV's son Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, include Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, queen consort of George VI and mother of Elizabeth II,[43] and the Queen's current daughters-in-law Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex.[44]

Second marriage: Joanna of Navarre

Mary de Bohun died in 1394, and on 7 February 1403 Henry married Joanna of Navarre, the daughter of Charles d'Évreux, King of Navarre, at Winchester. She was the widow of John IV, Duke of Brittany (known in traditional English sources as John V),[45] with whom she had had four daughters and four sons; however, her marriage to the King of England was childless.

Mistresses

By an unknown mistress, Henry IV had one illegitimate child:

  • Edmund Le Boorde (1401 – shortly before 19 December 1419)[46][47]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mortimer 2007, p. 176.
  2. ^ Mortimer, I. (2006-12-06). "Henry IV's date of birth and the royal Maundy". Historical Research. 80 (210): 567–576. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00403.x. ISSN 0950-3471.
  3. ^ Janvrin, Isabelle; Rawlinson, Catherine (2016-06-06). The French in London: From William the Conqueror to Charles de Gaulle. Translated by Emily Read. Wilmington Square Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-908524-65-2.
  4. ^ Armitage-Smith, Sydney (1905). John of Gaunt. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 318.
  5. ^ B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, pp. 6, 13.
  6. ^ Given-Wilson 2016, p. 66–68.
  7. ^ Given-Wilson 2016, p. 69.
  8. ^ Bevan, Bryan (1994). Henry IV. London: Macmillan. p. 32. ISBN 0-948695-35-8.
  9. ^ B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 1.
  10. ^ A. Lyon, Constitutional History of the UK, London – Sydney – Portland, 2003, p. 122
  11. ^ a b H. Barr, Signes and Sothe: Language in the Piers Plowman Tradition, Cambridge, 1994, p. 146.
  12. ^ a b B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 51.
  13. ^ B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 66.
  14. ^ B. Bevan, Henry IV, New York, 1994, p. 67.
  15. ^ Fiona Somerset; Jill C. Havens; Derrick G. Pitard (2003). Lollards and Their Influence in Late Medieval England. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-0-85115-995-9.
  16. ^ Gwilym Dodd; Douglas Biggs (2008). The Reign of Henry IV: Rebellion and Survival, 1403-1413. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-903153-23-9.
  17. ^ T. Jones – A. Ereira, Terry Jones' Medieval Lives, London, 2004, p. 112.
  18. ^ a b Anthony Tuck, 'Richard II (1367–1400)', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  19. ^ Joel Burden, 'How Do You Bury a Deposed King?', in Henry IV: The Establishment of the Regime, 1399–1406, ed. Gwilym Dodd and Douglas Biggs (York: York Medieval Press, 2003), pp. 35–53.
  20. ^ The Book of the Princes of Wales, Heirs to the Crown of England, Dr. John Doran, London, Richard Bentley, New Burlington Street, Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty, 1860. 1860. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  21. ^ G. Dennis, The Letters of Manuel II Palaeologus (Washington DC, 1977) Letter 38.
  22. ^ E W M Balfour-Melville, James I King of Scots, London 1936
  23. ^ Peter McNiven, "The Problem of Henry IV's Health, 1405–1413", English Historical Review, 100 (1985), pp. 747–772
  24. ^ Swanson Religion and Devotion p. 298
  25. ^ Brown & Summerson 2010.
  26. ^ Christopher Wilson, 'The Tomb of Henry IV and the Holy Oil of St Thomas of Canterbury', in Medieval Architecture and its Intellectual Context, ed. Eric Fernie and Paul Crossley (London: The Hambledon Press, 1990), pp. 181–190.
  27. ^ Thomas Walsingham, The St Albans Chronicle: The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham, Volume II, 1394–1422, ed. and trans. John Taylor et al. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2011), p. 237.
  28. ^ 'Pope John XXII to King Edward II of England, 2 June 1318', English Coronation Records, ed. L.G.W. Legg (London: Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., 1901), pp. 73–75.
  29. ^ Thomas Walsingham, The St Albans Chronicle: The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham, Volume II, 1394–1422, ed. and trans. John Taylor et al. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2011), pp. 237–241.
  30. ^ Christopher Wilson, 'The Tomb of Henry IV and the Holy Oil of St Thomas of Canterbury', in Medieval Architecture and its Intellectual Context, ed. Eric Fernie and Paul Crossley (London: The Hambledon Press, 1990), pp.186–189.
  31. ^ Christopher Wilson, 'The Medieval Monuments', in A History of Canterbury Cathedral, ed. Patrick Collinson et al. (Oxford: OUP, 1995), pp. 451–510
  32. ^ C. Eveleigh Woodruff and William Danks, Memorials of the Cathedral and Priory of Christ in Canterbury (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1912), pp. 192–194.
  33. ^ Antiquary (1902-05-10). "Exhumation of Henry IV". Notes and Queries. 9th series. 9 (228): 369. doi:10.1093/nq/s9-IX.228.369c.
  34. ^ a b c d Complete Peerage 1926, p. 477.
  35. ^ Francois R. Velde. "Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  36. ^ Given-Wilson, Chris (2004). Alfonso Antón, Isabel, ed. Building Legitimacy: Political Discourses and Forms of Legitimacy in Medieval Societies. Boston, MA: Brill. pp. &nbsp, 90. ISBN 90-04-13305-4.
  37. ^ Watson 1896, p. 114.
  38. ^ Brown & Summerson 2008.
  39. ^ Johnes, Thomas; Froissart, Jean (1806). Chronicles of England, France and Spain. 5. London: Longman. p. 242. OCLC 465942209.
  40. ^ Strickland, Agnes (1840). Lives of the queens of England from the Norman conquest with anecdotes of their courts. 3. London: Henry Colborn. p. 144. OCLC 459108616.
  41. ^ The idea that he and Mary had a child in 1382 (Edward) (born and died April 1382) is based on a misreading of an account which was published in an erroneous form by JH Wylie in the 19th century. It missed a line which made clear that the boy in question was the son of Thomas of Woodstock. The attribution of the name Edward to this boy is conjecture based on the fact that Henry was the grandson of Edward III and idolised his uncle Edward of Woodstock yet did not call any of his sons Edward. However, there is no evidence that there was any child at this time (when Mary de Bohun was 12), let alone that he was called Edward. See appendix 2 in Ian Mortimer's book The Fears of Henry IV.
  42. ^ Panton 2011, p. 74.
  43. ^ Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland Volume 4. p. 134.
  44. ^ Charles Mosley, editor. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 2, p. 2720.
  45. ^ Jones, Michael (1988). The Creation of Brittany. London: Hambledon Press. p. 123. ISBN 090762880X.
  46. ^ Richardson, D. (2011). Kimball G. Everingham, ed. Magna Carta Ancestry. 2 (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. p. 554. ISBN 978-1-4499-6638-6.
  47. ^ Mortimer 2007, p. 372.

References

External links

  • Henry IV at the official website of the British monarchy
  • Henry IV at BBC History
Henry IV of England
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: 15 April 1367 Died: 20 March 1413
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Richard II
King of England
1399–1413
Succeeded by
Henry V
Duke of Aquitaine
1399–1400
Peerage of England
Preceded by
John of Gaunt
Duke of Lancaster
1399
Succeeded by
Henry of Monmouth
In abeyance
Title last held by
Humphrey de Bohun
Earl of Northampton
1384–1399
Succeeded by
Anne of Gloucester
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Lancaster
Lord High Steward
1399
Succeeded by
The Duke of Clarence
1400s (decade)

The 1400s ran from January 1, 1400, to December 31, 1409.

== Events ==

=== 1400 ===

==== January–December ====

January – Henry IV of England quells the Epiphany Rising and executes the Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury, and the Baron le Despencer, for their attempt to have Richard II restored as king.

February – Henry Percy (Hotspur) leads English incursions into Scotland.

February 14 – The deposed Richard II of England dies by means unknown in Pontefract Castle. It is likely that King Henry IV ordered his death by starvation, to prevent further uprisings.

March 23 – Five-year-old Trần Thiếu Đế is forced to abdicate as ruler of Đại Việt (modern-day Vietnam), in favour of his maternal grandfather and court official Hồ Quý Ly, ending the Trần Dynasty after 175 years and starting the Hồ Dynasty. Hồ Quý Ly subsequently changes the country's name to Đại Ngu.

May – Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg is declared as a rival to Wenceslaus, King of the Romans. However, Frederick is murdered shortly after.

August

The English occupy Edinburgh in Scotland, but fail to capture Edinburgh Castle.

The princes of the German states vote to depose Wenceslaus as King of the Romans, due to his weak leadership and mental illnesses.

August 21 – Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, is elected as King of the Romans.

September 16 – Owain Glyndŵr is proclaimed Prince of Wales by his followers, and begins attacking English strongholds in north-east Wales.

December – Manuel II Palaiologos becomes the only Byzantine Emperor ever to visit England.

==== Date unknown ====

Timur defeats both the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, to capture the city of Damascus in present-day Syria. Much of the city's inhabitants are subsequently massacred by Timur's troops.

Timur conquers the Empire of The Black Sheep Turkomans, in present-day Azerbaijan, and the Jalayirid Dynasty in present-day Iraq. Black Sheep ruler Qara Yusuf and Jalayirid Sultan Ahmad flee, and take refuge with the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I.

In modern-day Korea, King Jeongjong of Joseon abdicates in fear of an attack by his ambitious younger brother, Taejong. Taejong succeeds to the throne.

Prince Parameswara establishes the Malacca Sultanate, in present-day western Malaysia and northern Sumatra.

Hananchi succeeds Min as King of Hokuzan, in modern-day north Okinawa, Japan.

Wallachia (modern-day southern Romania) resists an invasion by the Ottomans.

A Wallachian army captures Iuga, and makes Alexandru cel Bun the Prince of Moldavia.

The Kingdom of Kongo begins.

The Haast's eagle and Moa are both driven to extinction by Māori hunters.

The Mississippian culture starts to decline.

Europe is reported to have around 52 million inhabitants.

The House of Medici becomes powerful in Florence.

Newcastle upon Tyne is created a county corporate, by Henry IV of England.

Jean Froissart completes his Chronicles, detailing the events of the 14th Century in France.

=== 1401 ===

January 6 – Rupert, King of Germany, is crowned King of the Romans at Cologne.

March 2 – William Sawtrey, a Lollard, is the first person to be burned at the stake at Smithfield, London.

March 13 – The Samogitians, supported by Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania, rebel against the Teutonic knights and burn two castles. Vytautas is granted increased autonomy by King Jogaila of the Poland–Lithuania union.

March 24 – Turko-Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus.

June

The English Pale in Ireland reduced to Dublin, County Kildare, County Louth, and County Meath.

Timur raids the city of Baghdad, in the Jalayirid Empire.

October 14 – Sultan Mahmud II of Delhi is restored to power.

==== Date unknown ====

The De heretico comburendo Act is passed in England, as the Archbishop of Canterbury pressures King Henry IV of England into outlawing as heretics the Lollards, followers of John Wycliffe. Evidence of being a Lollard is having a copy of Wycliffe's translation of the Bible.

Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India.

Emperor Hồ Quý Ly of Dai Ngu (now Vietnam) passes the throne to his son, Hồ Hán Thương.

A civil war, lasting four years, breaks out in the Majapahit Empire in present-day Indonesia.

The Joseon Dynasty in present-day Korea officially enters into a tributary relationship with Ming Dynasty China.

Japan re-enters into a tributary relationship with China.

=== 1402 ===

==== By place ====

====== Asia ======

The Malacca Sultanate is established at Melaka Darul Azim (now known as Melaka Darul Azim, Malaysia).

==== January–December ====

January 29 – King Jogaila of the Poland–Lithuania Union answers the rumblings against his rule of Poland, by marrying Anna of Celje, a granddaughter of Casimir III of Poland.

March 26 – David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, heir to the throne of Scotland, dies while being held captive by his uncle, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany.

May 21 – Following the death of Queen Maria of Sicily, her husband Martin I of Sicily, now sole ruler, marries Blanche of Navarre.

June 22

Battle of Nesbit Moor: An English force decisively defeats a returning Scottish raiding party.

Battle of Bryn Glas: Welsh rebels defeat the English on the England/Wales border..

June 26 – Battle of Casalecchio: Gian Galeazzo Visconti, the Duke of Milan, crushes the forces of Bologna and Florence, but he dies from a fever later this year, and is succeeded by his son, Gian Maria Visconti.

July 12 – The Ming Dynasty prince Zhu Di and his army occupies the Ming capital, Nanjing. The Jianwen Emperor is either lost or killed, and Zhu Di takes over the throne as the Yongle Emperor (this marks the end of the Jingnan Campaign).

July 20 – Battle of Ankara: An invading Timurid Dynasty force defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, who is captured. A period of interregnum begins in the Ottoman Empire, with the future Mehmed I as one of the leading claimants to the throne. After Serbia is freed from Ottoman rule, Stefan Lazarević is crowned Despot of Serbia.

September – Penal Laws against Wales The English Parliament passes the Penal Laws against Wales. The Laws stop the Welsh from gathering together, obtaining office, carrying arms and living in English towns. Any Englishman who marries a Welsh woman also comes under the laws.

September 14 – Battle of Homildon Hill: Northern English nobles, led by Sir Henry "Hotspur" Percy, and using longbows, decisively defeat a Scottish raiding army and capture their leader, the Earl of Douglas.

==== Date unknown ====

After the Christian Knights of Saint John, who are ruling Smyrna, refuse to convert to Islam or pay tribute, Timur has the entire population massacred. The Knights of Saint John subsequently begin building Bodrum Castle in Bodrum, to defend against future attacks.

Conquest of the Canary Islands: King Henry III of Castile sends French explorer Jean de Béthencourt to colonize the Canary Islands. Béthencourt receives the title King of the Canary Islands, but recognizes Henry as his overlord. This marks the beginning of the Spanish Empire.

The Genoese regain control of Monaco.

The White Sheep Turkmen Empire, in present-day northern Iraq and Iran, moves its capital from Amida to Diyarbakır.

Moldavia becomes a vassal of Poland, in order to protect itself from an invasion by Hungary.

Maria II Zaccaria succeeds her husband, Peter of Saint Superan, as ruler of the Principality of Achaea (now southern Greece).

Conchobar an Abaidh mac Maelsechlainn O Cellaigh succeeds Maelsechlainn mac William Buidhe O Cellaigh, as King of Uí Maine in present-day County Galway and County Roscommon, in Ireland.

The University of Würzburg is founded.

The Kangnido map of the world is completed in Joseon Dynasty Korea.

The Great Comet of 1402 is sighted.

A big fire in the city of Utrecht starts near the Jacobus Church.

=== 1403 ===

==== January–December ====

January/February – In the Treaty of Gallipoli, Süleyman Çelebi makes wide-ranging concessions to the Byzantine Empire and other Christian powers in the southern Balkans.

February 7 – King Henry IV of England marries as his second wife Joan of Navarre, the daughter of King Charles II of Navarre and widow of John IV, Duke of Brittany, at Winchester Cathedral.

March 12 – As King Martin I of Aragon helps to end the siege by the French of the papal palace in Avignon, Antipope Benedict XIII flees to Aragon.

April – Balša III succeeds his father Đurađ II as ruler of the Principality of Zeta (now the Republic of Montenegro).

May 21 – Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, an ambassador from the king of Castile to Timur, leaves Cadiz; he arrives in Samarkand over a year later.

Before July 21 – Henry 'Hotspur' Percy forms an alliance with Welsh rebel Owain Glyndŵr.

July 21 – Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats a rebel army led by "Hotspur" Percy, who is killed in the battle.

October 7 – Battle of Modon: The Genoese fleet under Jean Le Maingre (Marshal Boucicaut) is defeated by the Republic of Venice, at Modon in the Peloponnese.

==== Date unknown ====

Jan Hus begins preaching Wycliffite ideas in Bohemia.

In China, the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty

moves the capital from Nanjing to Beijing.

commissions the Yongle Encyclopedia, one of the world's earliest and largest known general encyclopedias.

orders his coastal provinces to build a vast fleet of ships, with construction centered at Longjiang near Nanjing; the inland provinces are to provide wood and float it down the Yangtze River.

The Temple of a City God is constructed in Shanghai.

The Gur-e Amir Mausoleum is built in Samarkand by Timur, after the death of his grandson Muhammad Sultan, and eventually becomes the family mausoleum of the Timurid Dynasty.

Georgia makes peace with Timur, but has to recognise him as a suzerain and pay him tribute.

The world's first quarantine station is built in Venice, to protect against the Black Death.

Grand Duke Vytautas ends his alliance with Muscovy, and captures Vyazma and Smolensk.

Stefan Lazarević establishes Belgrade, as the capital of the Serbian Despotate.

A guild of stationers is founded in the City of London. As the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers (the "Stationers' Company"), it continues to be a Livery Company in the 21st Century.

In Ireland

Tadgh Ruadh mac Maelsechlainn O Cellaigh succeeds Conchobar an Abaidh mac Maelsechlainn O Cellaigh, as King of Hy-Many, in present-day Galway and Roscommon.

Maolmhordha mac Con Connacht succeeds Giolla Iosa mac Pilib, as King of East Breifne, in present-day Leitrim and Cavan.

probable – Ououso becomes King of Nanzan, in present-day south Okinawa, Japan.

=== 1404 ===

==== January–December ====

June 14 – Rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr, having declared himself Prince of Wales, allies with the French against the English. He later begins holding parliamentary assemblies.

October 17 – Pope Innocent VII succeeds Pope Boniface IX, as the 204th pope.

November 19 – St. Elizabeth's flood: A flood of the North Sea devastates parts of Flanders, Zeeland and Holland.

==== Date unknown ====

Jean de Béthencourt becomes the first ruler of the Kingdom of the Canary Islands.

Stephan Tvrtko II succeeds Stefan Ostoja as King of Bosnia.

Peace is declared between Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights, after they agree to exchange land and form an alliance against Muscovy.

Wallachia reaches its maximum extent under Mircea cel Bătrân.

The University of Turin is founded.

Timur is hit by a fever, while preparing to invade China.

Centurione II Zaccaria succeeds Maria II Zaccaria, as ruler of the Principality of Achaea.

Virupaksha Raya succeeds Harihara Raya II, as ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire in present-day southern India.

Narayana Ramadhipati succeeds Ponthea Yat, as King of Cambodia.

Ruaidri Caech MacDermot succeeds Conchobair Óg MacDermot, as King of Magh Luirg, in present-day north-east Connacht, Ireland.

The city of Vicenza comes under the rule of the Venetians.

=== 1405 ===

==== January–December ====

May 29 – In England, Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, meets Archbishop Richard le Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home, and then imprisons them.

June 8 – Archbishop Richard le Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, are executed in York on Henry IV's orders.

July 11 – Ming Dynasty fleet commander Zheng He sets sail from Suzhou, to explore the world for the first time.

October 5 – Early feminist Christine de Pizan writes a letter to Queen Isabeau, urging her to intervene in the political struggle between the dukes of Burgundy and Orléans.

November 17 – The Sultanate of Sulu is established on the Sulu Archipelago, off the coast of Mindanao in the Philippines.

==== Date unknown ====

Bath Abbey is built in England.

The first record is written of whiskey being consumed in Ireland, where it is distilled by Catholic monks.

Bellifortis, a book on military technology, is published by Konrad Kyeser.

Christine de Pizan writes The Book of the City of Ladies.

=== 1406 ===

==== January–December ====

April 4 – James I becomes King of Scotland, after having been captured by Henry IV of England.

October 7 – French troops comprising 1,000 men at arms land on Jersey, and fight a battle against 3,000 defenders.

October 13 – Richard Whittington is elected Lord Mayor of London for a second full term. He holds this office simultaneously, with that of Mayor of the Calais Staple.

October 26 – Eric of Pomerania marries Philippa, daughter of Henry IV of England.

November 30 – Pope Gregory XII succeeds Pope Innocent VII, as the 205th pope.

December 25 – John II becomes King of Castile.

==== Date unknown ====

Construction of the Forbidden City begins in Beijing during the Chinese Ming Dynasty.

Pisa is subjugated by Florence.

=== 1407 ===

==== January–December ====

April 10 – After several invitations by the Yongle Emperor of China since 1403, the fifth Karmapa of the Karma Kagyu sect of Tibetan Buddhism, the lama Deshin Shekpa, finally visits the Ming Dynasty capital, then at Nanjing. In his twenty-two-day visit, he thrills the Ming court with alleged miracles that are recorded in a gigantic scroll, translated into five different languages. In a show of mystical prowess, Deshin Shekpa adds legitimacy to a questionable succession to the throne by Yongle, who had killed his nephew the Jianwen Emperor in the culmination of a civil war. For his services to the Ming court, including his handling of the ceremonial rites of Yongle's deceased parents, Deshin Shekpa is awarded the title Great Treasure Prince of Dharma (大寶法王).

June 16 – Ming–Hồ War: The Ming Dynasty of China under the Yongle Emperor conquers Vietnam, capturing Hồ Quý Ly and his sons, ending the Vietnamese Hồ Dynasty.

November 20 – A solemn truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis I, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry.

November 23 – The Duke of Orleans is assassinated; war breaks out again between the Burgundians and his followers.

==== Date unknown ====

Rudolfo Belenzani leads a revolt against Bishop Georg von Liechtenstein in Trento, Bishopric of Trent.

David Holbache founds Oswestry School, in the Welsh Marches.

Mateu Texidor finishes the Puente de la Trinidad bridge in Valencia, Spain.

=== 1408 ===

==== January–December ====

February 19 – Battle of Bramham Moor: A royalist army defeats the last remnants of the Percy Rebellion.

September – Henry, Prince of Wales (later Henry V of England) retakes Aberystwyth from Owain Glyndŵr.

September 16 – Thorstein Olafssøn marries Sigrid Bjørnsdatter in Hvalsey Church, in the last recorded event of the Norse history of Greenland.

December 5 – Emir Edigu of Golden Horde reaches Moscow.

December 13 – The Order of the Dragon is founded under King Sigismund of Hungary.

==== Date unknown ====

The Moldavian town of Iaşi is first mentioned.

The Yongle Encyclopedia is completed.

Gotland passes under Danish rule.

Zheng He delivers 300 virgins from Korea to the Chinese emperor.

Mihail I becomes co-ruler of Wallachia, with his father Mircea cel Bătrân.

=== 1409 ===

==== January–December ====

January 1 – The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English.

March 25 – The Council of Pisa opens. On June 5 it deposes Pope Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII, and on June 26 crowns Petros Philargos as Pope Alexander V; he is subsequently regarded as an antipope.

July – Martin I of Aragon succeeds his own son, as King of Sicily.

August 7 – The Council of Pisa closes.

December 2 – The University of Leipzig opens.

December 9 – Louis II of Anjou founds the University of Aix.

==== Date unknown ====

Ulugh Beg becomes governor of Samarkand.

The Republic of Venice purchases the port of Zadar from Hungary.

Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guarantees peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia, by selling the Baltic Sea island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

Cheng Ho (or Zheng He), admiral of the Ming empire fleet, deposes the king of Sri Lanka.

Mircea cel Bătrân successfully defends Silistra against the Ottomans.

Battle of Shrewsbury

The Battle of Shrewsbury was a battle fought on 21 July 1403, waged between an army led by the Lancastrian King Henry IV and a rebel army led by Henry "Harry Hotspur" Percy from Northumberland. The battle, the first in which English archers fought each other on English soil, reaffirmed

the effectiveness of the longbow and ended the Percy challenge to King Henry IV of England.Part of the fighting is believed to have taken place at what is now Battlefield, Shropshire, England, three miles north of the centre of Shrewsbury. It is marked today by Battlefield Church and Battlefield Heritage Park.

Blanche of England

Blanche of England, LG (spring 1392 – 22 May 1409), also known as Blanche of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Lancaster, the daughter of King Henry IV of England by his first wife Mary de Bohun.

Crown of Princess Blanche

The Crown of Princess Blanche, also called the Palatine Crown or Bohemian Crown, is the oldest surviving royal crown known to have been in England, and probably dates to 1370–80.

It is made of gold with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, enamel and pearls. Its height and diameter are both 18 centimetres (7.1 in). The crown has been a property of the House of Wittelsbach since 1402, when it came with Princess Blanche of England, daughter of King Henry IV of England, on her marriage to Louis III, Elector Palatine.After the junior Bavarian branch of the house became extinct in the male line in 1777, the senior Palatinian branch replaced the former as the country's rulers. Today, the crown is displayed in the treasury of the Munich Residenz, where it has been kept since 1782. It has been described as "one of the finest achievements of the Gothic goldsmith".

Cultural depictions of Henry IV of England

Henry IV of England has been depicted in popular culture a number of times.

De heretico comburendo

De heretico comburendo (2 Hen.4 c.15) was a law passed by Parliament under King Henry IV of England in 1401, punishing heretics with burning at the stake. This law was one of the strictest religious censorship statutes ever enacted in England. In March 1401 William Sawtrey became the first Lollard to be burned.

The statute declared there were "divers false and perverse people of a certain new sect ... they make and write books, they do wickedly instruct and inform people ... and commit subversion of the said catholic faith". The sect alluded to is the Lollards, followers of John Wycliffe.

De heretico comburendo urged "that this wicked sect, preachings, doctrines, and opinions, should from henceforth cease and be utterly destroyed", and declared "that all and singular having such books or any writings of such wicked doctrine and opinions, shall really with effect deliver or cause to be delivered all such books and writings to the diocesan of the same place within forty days from the time of the proclamation of this ordinance and statute"."And if any person ... such books in the form aforesaid do not deliver, then the diocesan of the same place in his diocese such person or persons in this behalf defamed or evidently suspected and every of them may by the authority of the said ordinance and statute cause to be arrested". If they failed to abjure their heretical beliefs, or relapsed after an initial abjuration, they

would "be burnt, that such punishment may strike fear into the minds of others".Section 6 of the Act of Supremacy 1558 (1 Eliz.1 c.1) (1559) repealed the statutes but it was not until March 1677 that a bill to take away the Crown's right to the writ was introduced in the House of Commons. It passed in that session.

Epiphany Rising

The Epiphany Rising was a failed rebellion against Henry IV of England in late December 1399 and early January 1400.

Henry IV, Part 1

Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1 depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403. From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.

Henry IV, Part 2

Henry IV, Part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written between 1596 and 1599. It is the third part of a tetralogy, preceded by Richard II and Henry IV, Part 1 and succeeded by Henry V.

The play is often seen as an extension of aspects of Henry IV, Part 1, rather than a straightforward continuation of the historical narrative, placing more emphasis on the highly popular character of Falstaff and introducing other comic figures as part of his entourage, including Ancient Pistol, Doll Tearsheet, and Justice Robert Shallow. Several scenes specifically parallel episodes in Part 1.

Jerusalem Chamber

The Jerusalem Chamber is a room in what was formerly the abbot's house of Westminster Abbey. It was added in the fourteenth century. The abbot's house was made the deanery when the monastery was dissolved in 1540.

Henry IV of England died in the Jerusalem Chamber on 20 March 1413 and the Committee to write the Authorized Version of the Bible met there in 1611. The Upper House of Convocation often met there, and the Westminster Assembly met there from the Winter of 1643 until its dissolution.The Jerusalem Chamber appeared in act IV of William Shakespare's Play Henry IV, Part 2.

Joan of Navarre, Queen of England

Joan of Navarre, also known as Joanna (c. 1370 – 10 June 1437) was Duchess of Brittany by marriage to Duke John IV, and later Queen of England by marriage to King Henry IV. She served as regent of Brittany from 1399 until 1403 during the minority of her son. She also served as regent of England during the absence of her stepson, Henry V, in 1415. Four years later he imprisoned her and confiscated her money and land. Joan was released in 1422, shortly before Henry V's death.

Joan was a daughter of King Charles II of Navarre and Joan of France.

Mary de Bohun

Mary de Bohun (c. 1369/70 – 4 June 1394) was the first wife of King Henry IV of England and the mother of King Henry V. Mary was never queen, as she died before her husband came to the throne.

Myosotis

Myosotis (; from the Greek: μυοσωτίς "mouse's ear", which the foliage is thought to resemble) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae. In the northern hemisphere they are colloquially denominated forget-me-nots or Scorpion grasses. The colloquial name "Forget-me-not" was calqued from the German Vergissmeinnicht and first used in English in AD 1398 through King Henry IV of England. Similar names and variations are found in many languages. Myosotis alpestris is the official flower of Alaska and Dalsland, Sweden. Plants of the genus are commonly confused with Chatham Islands Forget-me-nots which belong to the related genus Myosotidium.

Ormiston Bolingbroke Academy

Ormiston Bolingbroke Academy is a coeducational secondary school and sixth form with academy status in Runcorn, Cheshire.The school is named after Henry Bolingbroke, who became King Henry IV of England. The school is sponsored by the Ormiston Academies Trust and the University of Chester.Brookvale Comprehensive School merged with Norton Priory School and was renamed Halton High School. Halton was converted to academy status in September 2010 and was renamed Ormiston Bolingbroke Academy. Though it is no longer a community school directly administered by Halton Borough Council, Ormiston Bolingbroke Academy continues to coordinate with Halton Borough Council for admissions.In 2017, the school caused controversy when it banned a student, who had successfully battled cancer, from attending prom due to her lack of school attendance.

Red Rose of Lancaster

The Red Rose of Lancaster (a rose gules) is the county flower of Lancashire.

The exact species or cultivar which the red rose relates to is uncertain, but it is thought to be Rosa gallica officinalis.

The rose was first adopted as an heraldic device by the first Earl of Lancaster. It was one of the badges of Henry IV of England, the first king of the House of Lancaster. Following the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, it became the emblem of Lancashire.

Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence

Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence (autumn 1387 – 22 March 1421) was a medieval English prince and soldier, the second son of King Henry IV of England and brother of Henry V. He acted as councillor and aide to both. After the death of his father he participated in the military campaigns of his brother in France during the Hundred Years' War.

Heir to the throne in the event of his brother's death, he was left in charge of English forces in France when Henry returned temporarily to England after his marriage to Catherine of Valois. He led the English in their disastrous defeat at the hands of a mainly Scottish force coming to the aid of the French, at the Battle of Baugé. In a rash attack he and his leading knights were surrounded and Thomas was killed.

Walter Skirlaw

Walter Skirlaw (born Swine parish, Holderness, brought up at Skirlaugh; died 1406) was an English bishop and diplomat. He was Bishop of Durham from 1388 to 1406. He was an important adviser to Richard II of England and Henry IV of England.

Woodbury Hill

Woodbury Hill is an Iron Age hill fort located near Worcester in England. In 1405 it was the site of a standoff between the Welsh/French army of Owain Glyn Dwr and the army of King Henry IV of England. The armies took up battle positions daily and viewed each other from a mile without any major action for eight days. The armies never engaged in battle and with their supply routes blocked, the Welsh began to starve. The Welsh headed home and Henry stood down his army.During the English civil war local peasants met here to form a clubmen society to protect themselves from the ravages of both the Royalist and Roundhead troops.

Ancestors of Henry IV of England[37]
8. Edward II of England
4. Edward III of England
9. Isabella of France
2. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
10. William I, Count of Hainaut
5. Philippa of Hainault
11. Joan of Valois
1. Henry IV of England
12. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
6. Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster
13. Maud Chaworth
3. Blanche of Lancaster
14. Henry de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan
7. Isabel of Beaumont
15. Alice Comyn
EnglishScottish and British monarchs

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