Henry IV, Count of Bar

Henry IV of Bar (abt 1315–1344) was count of Bar from 1336 to 1344. His aunt, Joan of Bar, Countess of Surrey, governed Bar in his name during his minority. He was the son of Edward I of Bar and his wife Marie of Burgundy.[1] He married Yolande of Dampierre (died 1395),[1] a granddaughter of Robert III, Count of Flanders.

Henry and Yolande had two sons:

Henry IV, Count of Bar
Bornbetween 1315 and 1320
Died1344
Noble familyHouse of Montbéliard
Spouse(s)Yolande of Dampierre
FatherEdward I of Bar
MotherMarie of Burgundy

Notes

  1. ^ a b Bubenicek 2002, p. 54-55.
  2. ^ a b Bubenicek 2002, p. 67.

References

  • Bubenicek, Michelle (2002). Quand les femmes gouvernent: droit et politique au XIVe siècle:Yolande de Flandre, Droit et politique au XIV siecle. Ecole des Chartes.

Sources

  • (in French) Georges Poull, La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar, 1994
German nobility
Preceded by
Edward I
Count of Bar
1336 – 1344
Succeeded by
Edward II
Boniface III, Marquess of Montferrat

Boniface III Palaeologus (10 August 1426 – 1494) was marquess of Montferrat from 1483 until his death.

Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon

The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon (French: Transi de René de Chalon, also known as the Memorial to the Heart of René de Chalon or The Skeleton) is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. It consists of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.

The tomb dates from a period of societal anxiety over death, as plague, war and religious conflicts ravaged Europe. It was commissioned as the resting place of René of Chalon, Prince of Orange, son-in-law of Duke Antoine of Lorraine. René was killed aged 25 at the siege of St. Dizier on 15 July 1544, from a wound sustained the previous day. Richier presents him as an écorché, with his skin and muscles decayed, leaving him reduced to a skeleton. This apparently fulfilled his deathbed wish that his tomb depict his body as it would be three years after his death. His left arm is raised as if gesturing towards heaven. Supposedly, at one time his heart was held in a reliquary placed in the hand of the figure's raised arm. Unusually for contemporaneous objects of this type, his skeleton is standing, making it a "living corpse", an innovation that was to become highly influential. The tomb effigy is positioned above the carved marble and limestone altarpiece.

Designated a Monument historique on 18 June 1898, the tomb was moved for safekeeping to the Panthéon in Paris during the First World War, before being returned to Bar-le-Duc in 1920. Both the statue and altarpiece underwent extensive restoration between 1998 and 2003. Replicas of the statue are in the Musée Barrois in Bar-le-Duc and the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.

Château de Boursault

The Château de Boursault is a neo-Renaissance château in Boursault, Marne, France. It was built between 1843 and 1850 by Madame Clicquot Ponsardin, the Veuve Clicquot (Cliquot Widow) who owned the Veuve Clicquot champagne house. It was sold by her heir to the Berry family of Canada from 1913 to 1927 and was used as a military hospital in both the first and second world wars. Today the Château de Boursault brand of champagne is made from grapes grown in the vineyards around the château and is aged in its cellars.

Edward II, Count of Bar

Edward II of Bar (1339 – May 1352) was Henry IV of Bar's eldest son and successor as count of Bar (with Edward's mother Yolande of Flanders ruling as count during his minority, which ended on 10 October 1349). He had no male issue and was succeeded as count by his younger brother Robert I of Bar.

John IV, Marquess of Montferrat

John IV Palaeologus (Italian: Giovanni IV Paleologo) (June 24, 1413 – January 19, 1464) was the Margrave of Montferrat from 1445 until his death.

The eldest of four brothers and two sisters, he was born near Casale in the castle of Pontestura, to John Jacob of Montferrat and Joanna of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus VII (the Red Count of Savoy). During his father's unlucky war against Amadeus VIII of Savoy, he was imprisoned by the latter and used as hostage.

He fought as condottiere for the Republic of Venice in the war that ensued after the heirless death of Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan (see Wars in Lombardy). During his reign the Palaeologus family lost the throne of Constantinople, captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

He set his mind rather belatedly to ensuring future of the dynasty, marrying Margherita of Savoy, daughter of Louis of Savoy and Anne of Cyprus, in Casale in December 1458. She brought a dowry of 100,000 scudi, receiving Trino, Morano, Borgo San Martino and Mombaruzzo in return. However they only had one daughter Elena Margherita (1459 – 1496), who married Victor, Duke of Münsterberg.

He also had two illegitimate children :

Sara (1462–1503) and Scipione (1463–1485).John IV died, without legitimate heirs, in Casale on 19 January 1464; he was buried there alongside his father in the church of San Francesco. He was succeeded by his brother William VIII.

John Jacob, Marquess of Montferrat

John Jacob Palaeologus (Italian: Giovanni Giacomo Paleologo) (March 23, 1395 – March 12, 1445) was the Margrave of Montferrat from 1418 to 1445.

He was born in Trino, Piedmont, the son of Theodore II of Montferrat, with whom he collaborated in the government of the marquisate from 1404. In 1412 he married Joanna of Savoy, sister of Duke Amadeus VIII, who gave him numerous children.

After his father's death in 1418, John Jacob received the investiture as marquess by emperor Sigismund. He distinguished himself for some brilliant military campaign in the Apennines area; he also increased his prestige through the marriage between his sister Sofia and the second last Byzantine Emperor, John VIII Palaiologos.

John Jacob's expansion, however, spurred the reaction of the Dukes of Savoy and of Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan. In 1431 they signed an alliance aiming at the cancellation of the Montferrat state. John Jacob was therefore compelled to ask support to France. In 1432 he was defeated anyway and sued for peace, ceding several territories to Savoy but retaining the seigniory over Montferrat, although with the status of Savoy vassal.

However, when Amadeus VIII asked him the payment of the war expenses, John Jacob rebelled; but, after having besieged in Chivasso, he was forced to cease. His state and his prestige were shattered, and he had again to declare himself vassal of Savoy.

John Jacob died at Casale Monferrato in 1445, being succeeded by his son John IV.

Sophia of Montferrat

Sophia of Montferrat (or Sophia Palaiologina; died 21 August 1434) was a Byzantine Empress consort by marriage to John VIII Palaiologos.

William VIII, Marquess of Montferrat

William VIII Palaiologos (Italian: Guglielmo VIII Paleologo; 19 July 1420 – 27 February 1483) was the Marquess of Montferrat from 1464 until his death.

He was the second son of Marquess John Jacob, and inherited the Marquisate after the death of his elder brother John IV. He obtained by Emperor Frederick III the territories lost to Savoy from 1435. William served as condottiero for Francesco I Sforza of Milan and was later the tutor of the latter's son Galeazzo Maria. When the latter was assassinated, William acted as moderator in the Duchy of Milan.

William married firstly on 19 January 1465 Marie de Foix (d.1467) daughter of Gaston IV, Count of Foix; and secondly on 18 July 1469 Elizabetta Sforza (1456–1473) daughter of Francesco I Duke of Milan; and finally on 6 January 1474 Bernarde de Brosse (d.17 February 1485).

Although William was married thrice, but each time without a legitimate son. He thenceforth had his daughters by his second marriage:

Giovanna, married to Ludovico II del Vasto, Marquess of Saluzzo and

Blanche of Montferrat, married to Charles I, duke of Savoy.When he died in Casale Monferrato, he was succeeded by his brother Boniface III.

Yolande of Aragon

Yolande of Aragon (11 August 1384 – 14 November 1442) was a throne claimant and titular queen regnant of Aragon, titular queen consort of Naples, Duchess of Anjou, Countess of Provence, and regent of Provence during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar (daughter of Robert I, Duke of Bar, and Marie of Valois).

Yolande played a crucial role in the struggles between France and England, influencing events such as the financing of Joan of Arc's army in 1429 that helped tip the balance in favour of the French. She was also known as Yolanda de Aragón and Violant d'Aragó. Tradition holds that she commissioned the famous Rohan Hours.

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