Henry I, Duke of Guise

Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu (31 December 1550 – 23 December 1588), sometimes called Le Balafré (Scarface), was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, and Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI.

In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent the heir, King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, from succeeding to the French throne. A key figure in the French Wars of Religion, he was one of the namesakes of the War of the Three Henrys. A powerful opponent of the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, he was assassinated by the bodyguards of her son, King Henry III.

Henry I
Grand Master of France
Count of Eu
Duke of Guise
Reign24 February 1563 – 23 December 1588
PredecessorFrancis, Duke of Guise
SuccessorCharles, Duke of Guise
Born31 December 1550
Died23 December 1588 (aged 37)
Château de Blois, Blois, France
among others...
FatherFrancis, Duke of Guise
MotherAnna d'Este
Armoiries ducs de Guise
Coat of arms of the Duke of Guise

Catholic League

He succeeded his father in 1563 as Duke of Guise and Grand Maître de France. He fought the Turks in Hungary in 1565,[1] and on his return, he became one of the leaders of the Catholic faction in the French Wars of Religion. He fought at the Battle of Saint-Denis in 1567, Battle of Jarnac, successfully defended Poitiers during a siege[2] and fought at the Battle of Moncontour. His love affair with Margaret of Valois in 1570 offended her brother, Charles IX of France and the Queen Mother, Catherine de' Medici, but his marriage to Catherine of Cleves restored his fortunes. Considering the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny the architect of his father's assassination during the siege of Orléans in 1563, he is a suspect in the murder of the Admiral in August 1572. This was quickly followed by the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which took place on the occasion of Margaret's marriage to the Huguenot, Henry of Navarre.

Margaret of Valois
Catherine of Cleves

Henry was wounded at the Battle of Dormans on 10 October 1575, and was thereafter known, like his father, as "Le Balafré". With a charismatic and brilliant public reputation, he rose to heroic stature among the Catholic population of France as an opponent of the Huguenots.

In 1576 he formed the Catholic League. The talent and dash of Guise contrasted favorably with the vacillation and weakness of Henry III. He was said to have claimed a Carolingian descent and cast eyes on the throne. This led to the stage of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries (1584–1588).

Le duc de Guise lors de la journee des barricades by Paul Lehugeur 19th century
The Duke of Guise during the Day of the Barricades, by Paul Lehugeur, 19th century

However, at the death in 1584 of Francis, Duke of Anjou, the king's brother (which left Henry of Navarre, the Protestant champion, as heir-male), Guise concluded the Treaty of Joinville with Philip II of Spain. This compact declared that the Cardinal de Bourbon should succeed Henry III, in preference to Henry of Navarre. Henry III now sided with the Catholic League (1585), which made war with great success on the Protestants. Guise sent his cousin Charles, Duke of Aumale, to lead a rising in Picardy (which could also support the retreat of the Spanish Armada). Alarmed, Henry III ordered Guise to remain in Champagne; he defied the king and on 9 May 1588 Guise entered Paris, bringing to a head his ambiguous challenge to royal authority in the Day of the Barricades and forcing King Henry to flee.


Charlotte de Sauve
Durupt - Henri III poussant du pied le cadavre du duc de Guise
Assassination of Henry I, Duke of Guise, by Henry III, in 1588

The League now controlled France; the king was forced to accede to its demands and created Guise Lieutenant-General of France. But Henry III refused to be treated as a mere cipher by the League, and decided upon a bold stroke. On 22 December 1588, Guise spent the night with his current mistress Charlotte de Sauve, the most accomplished and notorious member of Catherine de' Medici's group of female spies known as the "Flying Squadron".[3] The following morning at the Château de Blois, Guise was summoned to attend the king, and was at once assassinated by "the Forty-five", the king's bodyguard, as Henry III looked on.[4] Guise's brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, was likewise assassinated the next day. The deed aroused such outrage among the remaining relatives and allies of Guise that Henry III was forced to take refuge with Henry of Navarre. Henry III was assassinated the following year by Jacques Clément, an agent of the Catholic League.

According to Baltasar Gracian in A Pocket Mirror for Heroes, it was once said of him to Henry III, "Sire, he does good wholeheartedly: those who do not receive his good influence directly receive it by reflection. When deeds fail him, he resorts to words. There is no wedding he does not enliven, no baptism at which he is not godfather, no funeral he does not attend. He is courteous, humane, generous, the honorer of all and the detractor of none. In a word, he is a king by affection, just as Your Majesty is by law."

In literature and the arts


The Duke of Guise appears as an archetypal Machiavellian schemer in Christopher Marlowe's The Massacre at Paris, which was written about 20 years[5] after the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. The death of the duke is also mentioned, by the ghost of Machiavelli himself, in the opening lines of The Jew of Malta. He appears (as The Guise) in George Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois and its sequel, The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois.

John Dryden and Nathaniel Lee wrote The Duke of Guise (1683),[6] based on events during the reign of Henry III of France.

He appears in the short novel The Princess of Montpensier, by Madame de La Fayette. He appears in Voltaire's epic poem "La Henriade" (1723). He is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas's novel La Reine Margot and its sequels, La Dame de Monsoreau and The Forty-Five Guardsmen.

Stanley Weyman's novel A Gentleman of France includes the Duke of Guise in its tale about the War of the Three Henries.

Ken Follett's novel A Column of Fire features Henry, Duke of Guise as a prominent character, and explores his involvement with the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.

Stage and film

The Duke is a leading character in the play The Massacre at Paris, by Christopher Marlowe.

George Onslow's 1837 opera Le duc de Guise deals with the duke's assassination.

L'Assassinat du Duc de Guise, Op. 128, first shown at the Salle Charras in Paris on 16 November 1908, was the first film to include a score written by a well-known classical composer, Camille Saint-Saëns.

The duke also has a role in D. W. Griffith's 1916 film Intolerance, part of which covers the lead-up to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

The Duke of Guise plays a significant role in the French movie The Princess of Montpensier. He also appears in both the 1954 version and 1994 version of La Reine Margot.


He married on 4 October 1570 in Paris to Catherine of Cleves (1548–1633), Countess of Eu,[7] by whom he had fourteen children:

  1. Charles, Duke of Guise (1571–1640), who succeeded him
  2. Henri (30 June 1572, Paris – 3 August 1574)
  3. Catherine (3 November 1573) (died at birth)
  4. Louis III, Cardinal of Guise (1575–1621), Archbishop of Reims
  5. Charles (1 January 1576, Paris) (died at birth)
  6. Marie (1 June 1577 – 1582)
  7. Claude, Duke of Chevreuse (1578–1657) married Marie de Rohan, daughter of Hercule de Rohan, duc de Montbazon
  8. Catherine (b. 29 May 1579), died young
  9. Christine (21 January 1580) (died at birth)
  10. François (14 May 1581 – 29 September 1582)
  11. Renée (1585 – 13 June 1626, Reims), Abbess of St. Pierre
  12. Jeanne (31 July 1586 – 8 October 1638, Jouarre), Abbess of Jouarre
  13. Louise Marguerite, (1588 – 30 April 1631, Château d'Eu), married at the Château de Meudon on 24 July 1605 François, Prince of Conti
  14. François Alexandre (7 February 1589 – 1 June 1614, Château des Baux), a Knight of the Order of Malta
French nobility
Preceded by
Count of Eu
with Catherine
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Duke of Guise
Prince of Joinville


See also


  1. ^ Stuart Carroll, Noble Power During French Wars of Religion: The Guise Affinity and the Catholic Cause in Normandy, (Cambridge University Press, 1998), 126.
  2. ^ Stuart Carroll, Martyrs and Murderers:The Guise Family and the Making of Europe, (Oxford University Press, 2011), 187.
  3. ^ Strage, Mark (1976). Women of Power: The Life and Times of Catherine de' Medici. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 277
  4. ^ Strage, pp. 277–278
  5. ^ OUP Complete Works of Christopher Marlowe 1998. pp. 294–295
  6. ^ Dryden, John. The works, vol 14: Plays, 1993. Los Angeles: University of California, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2010-02-21.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link).
  7. ^ Stuart Carroll, Noble Power During French Wars of Religion: The Guise Affinity and the Catholic Cause in Normandy, 27.

External links


The 1580s decade ran from January 1, 1580, to December 31, 1589.

== Events ==

=== 1580 ===

==== January–June ====

January 31 – Henry, King of Portugal dies with no direct heirs, precipitating a succession crisis.

March 1 – Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. They are published later this year.

March 25 – Iberian Union: King Philip II of Spain becomes King of Portugal under the name Philip I, following the death without heirs of King Henry of Portugal, in a personal union of the crowns, thus maintaining Portuguese independence (in Europe and throughout the Portuguese Empire). The Philippine Dynasty rule lasts until 1640.

April 6 – The Dover Straits earthquake occurs.

June – England signs a commercial treaty with the Ottoman Empire.

June 11 – Juan de Garay founds Buenos Aires.

June 25 – The Book of Concord, a collection of Lutheran confessional documents, is published.

==== July–December ====

July 12 – The Ostrog Bible, the first complete printed Bible translation into a Slavic language (Old Church Slavonic), is first printed at Ostroh in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (modern-day Ukraine) by Ivan Fyodorov.

August 25 – Battle of Alcântara: Spanish armies, led by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, defending the claim of King Philip II of Spain to the Portuguese throne, defeat the armies of Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato.

September 26 – Francis Drake returns to Plymouth, England from his voyage of circumnavigation (westabout) on the Golden Hind, the second completed in a continuous voyage, and the first under its original commander.

==== Date unknown ====

The Billy Mitchell volcano, on the island of Bougainville, undergoes a catastrophic eruption (VEI 6).

The first session of the Jewish Vaad (Council of Four Lands) is held in Lublin, Poland; 70 delegates of Jewish local qahals meet to discuss taxation, and other issues important to Jewish communities.

The Old City of Zamość is established in Poland, by Jan Zamoyski.

Jesuit missionaries arrive at the court of Akbar, ruler of the Mughal Empire.

=== 1581 ===

==== January–June ====

March 18 – The Parliament of England's Act against Reconciliation to Rome imposes heavy fines, for practising Roman Catholicism.

March 25 – Iberian Union: Philip II of Spain is crowned Philip I of Portugal.

April 4 – Following his circumnavigation of the world, Francis Drake is knighted by Elizabeth I of England.

==== July–December ====

July 26

The Northern Netherlands (Union of Utrecht) proclaim their independence from Spain in the Act of Abjuration, abjuring loyalty to Philip II of Spain as their sovereign, and appointing Francois, Duke of Anjou, as the new sovereign of the Netherlands; public practice of Roman Catholicism is forbidden.

Capture of Breda: Spanish troops take Breda by surprise.

A meteorite makes landfall in Thuringia, Holy Roman Empire.

August 28 – The army of King Stephen Báthory of Poland begins its siege of the Russian garrison of Pskov

Summer (probable) – Yermak begins the Russian conquest of the Khanate of Sibir, with a band of 1,636 men.

September – A mercenary army of Sweden, under Pontus De la Gardie, captures Narva from Russia.

October 15 – Ballet Comique de la Reine, the first narrative ballet, devised by Louise of Lorraine, wife of Henry III of France, and choreographed by Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx, opens in its first performance at the court of Catherine de' Medici, in the Louvre Palace in Paris, as part of the wedding celebrations for Marguerite of Lorraine.

November 4 – Jean de la Cassière is restored as Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller, by Pope Gregory XIII.

December 1 – Execution in England of the Jesuit priest Edmund Campion for treason.

==== Date unknown ====

The Knights Hospitaller depose Jean de la Cassière as Grandmaster, and appoint Mathurin Romegas.

The Ming Dynasty Chancellor of China, Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng, imposes the Single Whip Reform, by which taxes are assessed on properties recorded in the land census, and paid in silver, as the accepted medium of exchange.

Oda Nobunaga invades the Iga Province.

The Trier witch trials begin.

John Dee practices angel magic with Barnabas Saul, but with no success.

Guru Arjan Dev becomes the fifth Guru of Sikhs, succeeding his father Guru Ram Das.

The last Bishop of Meissen, John IX of Haugwitz, resigns his office in the wake of the Reformation.

=== 1582 ===

==== January–June ====

January 15 – Russia cedes Livonia and southern Estonia, to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

February 10 – François, Duke of Anjou, arrives in the Netherlands, where he is personally welcomed by William the Silent.

February 24 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar.

March 9 – Edward Kelley arrives at John Dee's house.

April 3 – Battle of Temmokuzan: Unable to reverse the collapse of Takeda clan, Takeda Katsuyori and his household commit suicide.

April 14 – King James VI of Scotland signs a charter creating the Tounis College, now the University of Edinburgh.

April 16 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta, Argentina.

April – Hashiba Hideyoshi begins the siege of Takamatsu Castle.

May–August – Robert Browne and his Brownist congregationalist companions are obliged to leave England, and go to Middelburg in the Netherlands.

June 21 – The Incident at Honnō-ji occurs in Kyoto, Japan.

==== July–December ====

July 2 – Battle of Yamazaki: Counterattacking forces led by Hashiba Hideyoshi decisively defeat Akechi Mitsuhide's smaller army; Akechi is killed while retreating to his domain.

July 26 – Battle of Ponta Delgada (War of the Portuguese Succession): Spanish admiral Santa Cruz decisively defeats a larger mercenary fleet from France, England, supporters of the Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato, and the Dutch Republic, under Filippo di Piero Strozzi (who is killed) off the Azores, the first engagement between large fleets of galleons, operating at any great distance from the mainland.

August 22 – Raid of Ruthven in Scotland: A political conspiracy of Presbyterian nobles abduct King James VI.

October 4 of Julian calendar (Thursday) – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.

October 4 – Saint Teresa of Ávila dies. She is buried the next day, October 15.

November 29 – Future English playwright William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway.

December 9 of Julian calendar (Sunday) – France makes the next day Monday, December 20 of the Gregorian Calendar.

==== Date unknown ====

Kumbum is founded in Tibet.

In Ming Dynasty China:

Jesuit Matteo Ricci is allowed to enter the country.

The earliest reference is made to the publishing of private newspapers in Beijing.

The sultanate of Morocco begins to press southward, in search of a greater share of the trans-Saharan trade.

The Cagayan Battles in the Philippines, the only recorded clashes between European regular soldiers against samurai warriors.

The Douai-Rheims Bible New Testament is published.

John Dee practices angelic magic with scryer Edward Kelley, and develops the Enochian language.

=== 1583 ===

==== January–June ====

January 18 – François, Duke of Anjou, attacks Antwerp.

February 4 – Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, newly converted to Calvinism, formally marries Agnes von Mansfeld-Eisleben, a former canoness of Gerresheim, while retaining his position as Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.

March 10 – The Queen Elizabeth's Men troupe of actors is ordered to be founded in England.

May – Battle of Shizugatake in Japan: Shibata Katsuie is defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who goes on to commence construction of Osaka Castle.

May 22 – Ernest of Bavaria is elected as Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cologne, in opposition to Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. The opposition rapidly turns into armed struggle, the Cologne War within the Electorate of Cologne, beginning with the Destruction of the Oberstift.

==== July–December ====

July 25 – Cuncolim Revolt: The first documented battle of India's independence against a European colonial ruler is fought by the Desais of Cuncolim in Goa, against the Portuguese.

August 5 – Sir Humphrey Gilbert, on the site of the modern-day city of St John's, Newfoundland, claims the island of Newfoundland on behalf of England, marking the beginning of the British Empire.

August 19 – Petru Cercel enters Bucharest, and becomes Prince of Wallachia.

December 17 – Cologne War: The Siege of Godesberg (begun on November 18) concludes, when Catholic forces under Prince-elector-archbishop Ernest of Bavaria capture the strategic position, from defenders of the Calvinist convert Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg.

==== Date unknown ====

The world's oldest, intact, still-surviving amusement park, Dyrehavsbakken, is founded north of Copenhagen.

The Bunch Of Grapes Pub is built on Narrow Street, London. Referred to by Charles Dickens in Our Mutual Friend as "The Six Jolly Fellowship Porters", it still stands in the 21st century, much rebuilt and renamed The Grapes.

=== 1584 ===

==== January–June ====

January–March – Archangelsk is founded as New Kholmogory in northern Russia, by Ivan the Terrible.

January 11 – Sir Walter Mildmay is given a royal licence to found Emmanuel College, Cambridge.

March 18 (N.S. March 28) – Ivan the Terrible, ruler of Russia since 1533, dies; he is succeeded as Tsar by his son, Feodor.

May 17 – The conflict between Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu culminates in the Battle of Nagakute.

June 1 – With the death of the Duc d'Anjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France.

June 4 – Walter Raleigh sends Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the Outer Banks of Virginia (now North Carolina), with a view to establishing an English colony; they locate Roanoke Island.

June 11 – Walk (modern-day Valka and Valga, towns in Latvia and Estonia respectively), receive city rights from Polish king Stefan Bathory.

==== July–December ====

July – The Siege of Antwerp begins.

July 5 – The Maronite College is established in Rome, Papal States.

July 10 – William I of Orange is assassinated.

September 17 – Ghent falls into the hands of Alexander Farnese, governor of the Spanish Netherlands.

December – The Treaty of Joinville is signed secretly between the French Catholic League and Spain.

==== Date unknown ====

Ratu Hijau becomes queen regnant of the once Malay Pattani Kingdom.

Belgian cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius features Ming Dynasty-era Chinese carriages with masts and sails, in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; concurrent and later Western writers also take note of this peculiar Chinese invention.

This year, according to Italian heretic Jacopo Brocardo, is regarded as an apocalyptic inauguration of a major new cycle.

=== 1585 ===

==== January–June ====

January 12 – The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar.

February – The Spanish seize Brussels.

April 24 – Pope Sixtus V succeeds Pope Gregory XIII, as the 227th pope.

May 19 – Spain seizes English ships in Spanish ports, precipitating the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604).

==== July–December ====

July 7 – The Treaty of Nemours forces King Henry III of France to capitulate to the demands of the Catholic League, triggering the Eighth War of Religion (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) in France.

August 8 – English explorer John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in Baffin Island, in his quest for the Northwest Passage.

August 14 – Queen Elizabeth I of England agrees to establish a protectorate over the Netherlands.

August 17

Antwerp is captured by Spanish forces under the Prince of Parma, who orders Protestants to leave the city. As a result, over half of the 100,000 inhabitants flee to the northern provinces. Furthermore, upon hearing of the capture of Antwerp, a relief fleet sent to raise the siege instead blockades the Scheldt River, preventing any and all ships from reaching Antwerp for two centuries. This effectively destroys Antwerp's position as an important trade city and de facto capital of the Dutch provinces. Its position is taken over by various northern cities, most prominently Amsterdam.

A first group of colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, under the charge of Ralph Lane, lands in the New World to create Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. This group will depart the following June.

August 20 – The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed, committing England to support the Dutch Revolt, thus entering the Eighty Years' War.

==== Date unknown ====

Invasion of Shikoku: Toyotomi Hideyoshi seizes the island Shikoku from Chōsokabe Motochika.

Chocolate is introduced to Europe commercially.

The Kingdom of Luba is founded.

=== 1586 ===

June 16 – Mary, Queen of Scots, recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir.

July 6 – The Treaty of Berwick is signed between Queen Elizabeth I of England and King James VI of Scotland.

July 21 – English explorer Thomas Cavendish begins the first deliberately planned circumnavigation of the globe.

September 20–21 – Execution of the Babington Plotters: The 14 men convicted of a plot (uncovered on July 17) to murder Queen Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, are hanged, drawn and quartered (the first seven being disembowelled before death) in St Giles Field, London.

September 22 – Battle of Zutphen: Spanish troops defeat the Dutch rebels and their English allies. English poet and courtier Sir Philip Sidney is mortally wounded.

October 15–25 – Mary, Queen of Scots, is placed on treason trial at Fotheringhay Castle in England for complicity in the Babington Plot and sentenced to death.

November 19 – English Separatist Puritan Henry Barrowe is imprisoned.

December 17 – The reign of Emperor Ōgimachi of Japan ends, and Emperor Go-Yōzei ascends to the throne.

==== Date unknown ====

Flemish mathematician Simon Stevin publishes a study showing that two objects of different weight fall with the same speed.

St. Augustine, Florida, and Santo Domingo (modern day Dominican Republic) are plundered and burned by English sea captain Sir Francis Drake.

Jacobus Gallus composes his motet O magnum mysterium.

English topographer William Harrison becomes canon of Windsor.

English ship Vanguard, the first Royal Navy vessel to bear this name, is launched at Woolwich.

The cities of Voronezh, Samara, and Tyumen in Russia are founded.

=== 1587 ===

==== January–June ====

February 1 – Queen Elizabeth I of England signs the death warrant of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, after Mary is implicated in a plot to murder Elizabeth. Seven days later, on the orders of Elizabeth's privy council, Mary is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.

April 29 – Singeing the King of Spain's Beard: On an expedition against Spain, English privateer Sir Francis Drake leads a raid in the Bay of Cádiz, sinking at least 23 ships of the Spanish fleet.

==== July–December ====

July 22 – Roanoke Colony: A group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina, to re-establish the deserted colony.

August 18 – According to legend, Saul Wahl is named king of Poland.

August 19

According to legend, Saul Wahl is deposed.

Polish and Lithuanian nobles elect Sigismund III Vasa as their king.

August 27 – Governor John White leaves the Roanoke Colony to get more supplies from England.

October 1 – Shāh ‘Abbās I "The Great" succeeds as Shahanshah of Iran.

October 18 – Landing of the first Filipinos: The first Filipinos in North America land in Morro Bay, near San Luis Obispo in modern-day California.

October 20 – Battle of Coutras: Huguenot forces under Henry of Navarre defeat Royalist forces under Anne de Joyeuse, favorite of King Henry; Joyeuse is killed.

October 31 – Leiden University Library opens its doors, after its founding in 1575.

==== Date unknown ====

Toyotomi Hideyoshi becomes Daijō-daijin of Japan and concludes the Kyūshū Campaign with the Siege of Kagoshima at which most of Kyushu is surrendered to him; he banishes European Christian missionaries from the province.

A severe famine breaks out in Ming dynasty China.

The Rose (theatre) is founded in London by Philip Henslowe.

The chapbook Historia von D. Johann Fausten, printed by Johann Spies in Frankfurt, is the first published version of the Faust story.

Everard Digby's De Arte Natandi, the first treatise on swimming in England, is published.

St. Dominic's Church, Macau is established.

=== 1588 ===

==== January–June ====

February – The Sinhalese abandon the siege of Colombo, capital of Portuguese Ceylon.

February 9 – The sudden death of Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, in the midst of preparations for the Spanish Armada, forces King Philip II of Spain to re-allocate the command of the fleet.

April 14 (April 4 Old Style) – Christian IV becomes king of Denmark–Norway, upon the death of his father, Frederick II.

May 12 – Day of the Barricades in Paris: Henry I, Duke of Guise seizes the city, forcing King Henry III to flee.

May 28 – The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, begins to set sail from the Tagus estuary, heading for the English Channel (it will take until May 30 for all of the ships to leave port).

==== July–December ====

July – King Henry III of France capitulates to the Duke of Guise, and returns to Paris.

July 31 – The first engagement between the English and Spanish fleets (off of Plymouth) results in a victory for the English, under command of Lord Howard of Effingham and Sir Francis Drake.

August 2 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet, off the Isle of Portland.

August 6 (July 29 Old Style) – Battle of Gravelines: The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English naval force off the coast of Gravelines, in the Spanish Netherlands (modern France).

August 7 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet off the coast of Flanders.

August 8–9 – The Spanish are unable to reach the coast of Flanders, to meet up with the army of the Duke of Parma. The Duke of Medina Sidonia decides to return to Spain.

August 12 – The fleeing Spanish fleet sails past the Firth of Forth, and the English call off their pursuit. Much of the Spanish fleet is destroyed by storms, as it sails for home around Scotland and Ireland.

October 7 – The first biography of Nicolaus Copernicus (d.1543) is completed by Bernardino Baldi.

December 5 – The Order of Augustinian Recollects is formally recognised as a separate province from the Order of Saint Augustine, an event later known as the Día de la Recolección or Day of Recollection.

December 23 – Henry III of France strikes his ultra-Catholic enemies, having the Duke of Guise and his brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, killed, and holding the Cardinal de Bourbon a prisoner. As a result, large parts of France reject Henry III as their king, forcing him to side with Henry of Navarre.

==== Date unknown ====

William Morgan's Welsh translation of the Bible is published.

The Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I of England is created, to celebrate the English defeat of the Spanish Armada, and to assert the strength of Elizabeth herself.

=== 1589 ===

==== January–June ====

War of the Three Henrys: In France, the Catholic League is in rebellion against King Henry III, in revenge for his murder of Henry I, Duke of Guise in December 1588. The King makes peace with his old rival, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre, his designated successor, and together they besiege Paris.

January 26 – Job is elected as the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.

February 26 – Valkendorfs Kollegium is founded in Copenhagen, Denmark.

April 13 – An English Armada, led by Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norreys, and largely financed by private investors, sets sail to attack the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic coast, but fails to achieve any naval advantage.

==== July–December ====

August 1 – King Henry III of France is stabbed by the fanatical Dominican friar Jacques Clément (who is immediately killed).

August 2 – Henry III of France dies. His army is thrown into confusion and an intended attack to retake Paris is abandoned. Henry of Navarre succeeds to the throne as King Henry IV of France, but is not recognized by the Catholic League, who acclaim the imprisoned Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, as the rightful King of France, Charles X.

August 20 – King James VI of Scotland, the future James I of England, contracts a proxy marriage with the 14-year-old Anne of Denmark at Kronborg. The formal ceremony takes place on November 23 at the Old Bishop's Palace in Oslo.

September 21 – Battle of Arques: King Henry IV of France's forces defeat those of the Catholic League, under Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (younger brother of Henry I, Duke of Guise).

November 1 – Henry IV of France is repulsed in an attempt to capture Paris from the Catholic League.

December 25 (Christmas Day) – The monks of the Pechenga Monastery, the northernmost in the world, are massacred by Swedes, led by a Finnish peasant chief, in the course of the Russo-Swedish War.

==== Date unknown ====

San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, is completed by Domenico Fontana.

Hiroshima is founded, by the Japanese warlord Mōri Terumoto.

The Hofbräuhaus is founded, by William V, Duke of Bavaria, in Munich.



was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1588th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 588th year of the 2nd millennium, the 88th year of the 16th century, and the 9th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1588, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.



was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1589th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 589th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 16th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1589, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

5th Parliament of Queen Elizabeth I

The 5th Parliament of Queen Elizabeth I was summoned by Queen Elizabeth I of England on 12 October 1584 and assembled on 23 November 1584. The size of the House of Commons had by now increased further to 460 members, compared with only 402 in her first Parliament of 1558/9.

Like the 4th Parliament of 1572, Elizabeth's 5th Parliament was called in response to a Catholic conspiracy aimed at putting Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots on to the English throne. The Throckmorton plot, as it came to be known, was a foiled conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth and free Mary Stuart from house arrest. The plan envisaged coordinating the assassination with an invasion of England led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, financed by Spain and the Pope, and a simultaneous revolt of English Roman Catholics, involving both the Jesuits and the English Cardinal Allen. Fears for the safety of Queen and country were amplified by the recent assassination of William of Orange, leader of the Dutch Protestants. John Puckering, a sergeant-at-law, was appointed Speaker of the House of Commons and as in previous Parliaments Elizabeth attempted to prevent the House of Commons from engaging in debate on religious matters.

After two weeks' discussion of national security issues the debate turned inexorably to a proposal to control Jesuits and seminary priests, which was challenged by Dr William Parry, MP for Queenborough. Parry was an inconsistent Government spy, a double agent who had secretly converted to Roman Catholicism. He was interrogated about his motives and released, but denounced by a colleague a short time later. Confessing under further interrogation to plans to kill the Queen, he was himself hanged, drawn and quartered on 2 March 1585.

Further debate on religious matters such as better observance of the Sabbath and clerical abuses was interrupted by a warning from the Queen, although the Sabbath observance bill and several other religion orientated bills passed the third reading, only to be vetoed by Elizabeth at the end of the Parliament.

The usual question of supply (funds voted to the crown for the administration of the realm) was not settled until February 1585. During the session a total of 31 Statutes and 18 private measures received royal assent, including an Act to preserve timber supplies by regulating iron mills. The Parliament was then prorogued (suspended) until 14 November 1586, but dissolved in the prior September to allow a new Parliament to be urgently summoned.

Battle of Dormans

The Battle of Dormans was fought on 10 October 1575, during the 5th War of Religion in France, between the armies of Henry I, Duke of Guise (i.e. Catholics) and the Huguenot-recruited German army of John Casimir of the Palatinate-Simmern (i.e. Protestants).At Dormans, the Duke of Guise was wounded in his face, which gave him the nickname "Le Balafré". According to Penny Richards: "This scar and this name, with which he was thereafter frequently depicted, contributed to his legendary reputation".Though the Duke of Guise achieved a victory at Dormans, in its aftermath, he was unable to break through the defences of François de Montmorency. The 5th war concluded with the Edict of Beaulieu in May 1576.

Bernardino de Mendoza

For the naval commander of the same name, see Bernardino de Mendoza (Captain General)Bernardino de Mendoza (c. 1540 – 3 August 1604) was a Spanish military commander, a diplomat and a writer on military history and politics.

Bernardino de Mendoza was born in Guadalajara, Spain around 1540, as the son of Don Alonso Suarez de Mendoza, third Count of Coruña and Vicecount of Torija, and Doña Juana Jimenez de Cisneros.

In 1560, he joined the army of Philip II and for more than 15 years fought, he in the Low Countries under the command of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba. During that period, he participated in the Spanish military actions at (among others) Haarlem, Mookerheyde and Gembloux. In 1576, he was appointed a member of the military Order of St. James (Orden militar de Santiago) in recognition of those military achievements.

In 1578, Philip II sent Mendoza as his ambassador to London. There, he acted not only as diplomat but also as a spy, using a variety of secret codes in the reports that he returned to Spain. He was expelled from England in 1584, after his involvement in Francis Throckmorton's plot against Elizabeth I was revealed. Crucial to that plot was his correspondence with Phillip II, using a code known only to himself and the king that they had learnt years earlier.

For the next six years, Bernardino de Mendoza served as Spanish ambassador to the King of France. As the effective agent of Philip's interventionist foreign policy, Mendoza acted in concert with the Catholic League for which he acted as paymaster by funnelling to the Guise faction Habsburg funds; he encouraged it to try, by popular riots, assassinations and military campaigns, to undercut any moderate Catholic party that offered a policy of rapprochement with the Huguenots. The militant Mendoza and his master considered them as nothing more than heretics who needed to be crushed and rooted out like an infection. His role in backing the extremist Catholic House of Guise became so public that King Henry III demanded his recall.

In 1591, with the Catholic League in disarray after the assassination of Henry I, Duke of Guise, he resigned for ill health. His eyesight had been deteriorating for years, and by the time of his return to Spain, he had become completely blind. His last years were spent in his house in Madrid.

Many of his dispatches to Madrid were first deciphered only in the Simancas archives by De Lamar Jensen; they revealed, for the first time, Mendoza's role in organising and co-ordinating the Paris riots led by the Duke of Guise, known as the Day of the Barricades (12 May 1588), which had been presented as a spontaneous rising of the people and timed to coincide with the sailing of the Spanish Armada. Among Mendoza's public writings is a famous account of the war in the Low Countries that is entitled Comentario de lo sucecido en los Paises Bajos desde el año 1567 hasta el de 1577. Bernardino also published a book on the art of warfare, under the title Theórica y práctica de la guerra and a Spanish translation of the Politicorum sive civilis doctrinae libri sex of the Flemish philosopher Justus Lipsius.

Cardinal of Guise

Cardinal of Guise can refer to these members of the French ducal family de Guise who became cardinals:

Louis I, Cardinal of Guise (1527-1578), Bishop of Troyes, 1545, created cardinal by Pope Julius III on 22 December 1553. He received the Archbishopric of Sens on 9 May 1561, but resigned it in 1562 to Cardinal de Pellevée. On 5 October 1568, he was made Bishop of Metz. He crowned Henry III of France at Reims, (13 February 1575).

Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, (1555-1588), nephew of Louis I, Probably the more common usage.

Louis III, Cardinal of Guise, (1575–1621), the third son of Henry I, Duke of Guise, and Catherine of Cleves.

Catholic League (French)

The Catholic League of France (French: Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion. Formed by Henry I, Duke of Guise, in 1576, the League intended the eradication of Protestants—mainly Calvinists or Huguenots—out of Catholic France during the Protestant Reformation, as well as the replacement of King Henry III.

Pope Sixtus V, Philip II of Spain, and the Jesuits were all supporters of this Catholic party.

Charles, Duke of Guise

Charles de Lorraine, 4th Duke of Guise (2 August 1571 – 30 September 1640) was the son of Henry I, Duke of Guise and Catherine of Cleves.

Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Nemours

Charles Emmanuel de Savoie, 3rd Duc de Nemours (12 February 1567 – 13 August 1595) was the son of Jacques of Savoy and Anne of Este, the widow of Francis, Duke of Guise. As a child he was known as the prince of Genevois. He was the Duke of Nemours from 1585 to his death in 1595, during the French Wars of Religion.

Charles Emmanuel was duke at a volatile time, and subsequently was involved in many political intrigues, mostly by his relationship on his mothers side with the House of Guise. The Duke of Guise was one of the leaders of the Catholic League opposing the Huguenots, and Charles Emmanuel sympathised with their cause. However, after the assassination of Henry I, Duke of Guise and his brother the Cardinal of Guise, Charles Emmanuel was imprisoned by the Huguenots in 1588, but was able to escape.He was to fight the Huguenot forces for some years; he fought at the Battle of Arques in 1589. That same year, Charles Emmanuel was the governor of Paris, as the Huguenot forces, led by Henry of Navarre besieged Paris. During the siege, King Henry III of France perished, and Henry of Navarre soon declared himself King Henry IV of France. Charles Emmanuel escaped, and fought the newly proclaimed King at the Ivry in 1590, which was a decisive loss for the Catholic League. The same year he commanded Catholic forces during the Siege of Paris, successfully defending the city.

After the defeat, Charles Emmanuel strongly disagreed with his half-brother and long-time ally Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (also of the House of Guise), who advocated conciliation with Henry IV. Charles Emmanuel withdrew to his government in Lyonnais, where he endeavoured to make himself independent from the French crown. He was imprisoned, however, in the chateau of Pierre-Encise by the archbishop of Lyon. Again, he successfully escaped, and decided to attack Lyon. The intervention of the Constable de Montmorency thwarted his attack however, and his attempt at independence failed.He died at Annecy in 1595, leaving the Duchy of Nemour to his brother Henri de Savoie.

Château d'Eu

The Château d'Eu is a former royal residence in the town of Eu, in the Seine-Maritime department of France, in Normandy.

The château d'Eu stands at the centre of the town and was built in the 16th century to replace an earlier one purposely demolished in 1475 to prevent its capture by the English. The chapel contains the tombs of Henry I, Duke of Guise, and his wife, Catherine de Clèves, who embarked on the construction of the château in 1578. The building was completed almost a century later by the Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, la Grande Mademoiselle.

Between 1830 and 1848, the château, which had been the property of the Orléans family since its acquisition by La Grande Mademoiselle in October 1657, served as King Louis-Philippe's summer residence.

Louis-Philippe twice entertained Queen Victoria at the château, from 3 to 7 September 1843 and from 8 to 10 September 1845.The Château became residence of the Brazilian Imperial Family during the exile.

Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, who brought slavery to an end in Brazil in 1888, died at the Château in 1921. Her husband was Prince Gaston, Count of Eu, a grandson of King Louis Philippe I. Their eldest son, Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará, sold the Château to the Brazilian entrepreneur Assis Chateaubriand.

In 1964, the city of Eu acquired the château, in which, in 1973, it installed its City Hall and created the Musée Louis-Philippe.

In 1987, the castle, its dependencies and park were classified a Monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.

Edward Stafford (diplomat)

Sir Edward Stafford (1552 – 5 February 1605) was an English Member of Parliament, courtier and diplomat to France during the time of Queen Elizabeth I.

He was involved in abortive negotiations for a proposed marriage between Elizabeth and Francis, Duke of Anjou.

After he was appointed ambassador to Paris in 1583, he took money from Henry I, Duke of Guise, in return for access to diplomatic correspondence. He also received money from a Spanish agent, Bernardino de Mendoza, and there is strong evidence that has convinced most historians that Stafford in return for the money passed on secrets to Spain. Further it was his duty to report to London intelligence he possessed on the formation of the Spanish Armada, but did not do so. The English counterspy Francis Walsingham was deeply suspicious but was unable to prove anything, and could not act as long as Stafford was protected by Lord Burghley. No action was taken against him by Elizabeth, although he was not given any posts of consequence after his recall in 1590. McDermott concludes, "The evidence of Stafford's treachery, though substantial, remains circumstantial, and the precise degree of his culpability is difficult to establish". Leimon and Parker are convinced of his guilt and add, " Equally damning is the misinformation about the nonexistence and false destinations of the Armada Stafford forwarded to England".

Francis I, Duke of Nevers

Francis I of Cleves, (2 September 1516 – 13 February 1561) was a commander in the French Royal Army and the first Duke of Nevers. He participated in the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy.

The only son of Charles II of Nevers (died in the Louvre in 1521) and Marie d'Albret, Countess of Rethel, Francis succeeded his father as Count of Nevers and Eu. In 1539 he became Duke of Nevers. When his mother died in 1549, he also inherited the title of Count of Rethel.

In 1538, Francis married Marguerite of Bourbon-La Marche (1516–1589), daughter of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Françoise of Alençon.They had five children:

Francis II, Duke of Nevers (1540–1562), 2nd Duke; married Anne de Bourbon, daughter of Louis, Duke of Montpensier, no issue.

Henriette of Cleves (1542–1601); married Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, and became 4th Duchess of Nevers after the death of her brothers.

James, Duke of Nevers (1544–1564), 3rd Duke, no issue.

Catherine of Cleves (1548–1633); married Antoine III of Croy and Henry I, Duke of Guise.

Marie of Cleves (1553–1574); married Henri I de Bourbon, prince de Condé.

Henry III of France

Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Polish: Henryk Walezy, Lithuanian: Henrikas Valua) was King of France from 1574 until his death and also King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575. Henry was the thirteenth king from the House of Valois, the sixth from the Valois-Orléans branch, the fifth from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch, and the last male of his dynasty.

As the fourth son of King Henry II of France, he was not expected to inherit the French throne and thus was a good candidate for the vacant throne of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was elected King/Grand Duke in 1573. During his brief rule, he signed the Henrician Articles into law, recognizing the Polish nobility's right to freely elect their monarch. Aged 22, Henry abandoned Poland-Lithuania upon inheriting the French throne when his brother, Charles IX, died without issue.

France was at the time plagued by the Wars of Religion, and Henry's authority was undermined by violent political parties funded by foreign powers: the Catholic League (supported by Spain and the Pope), the Protestant Huguenots (supported by England and the Dutch) and the Malcontents, led by Henry's own brother, the Duke of Alençon, which was a party of Catholic and Protestant aristocrats who jointly opposed the absolutist ambitions of the king. Henry III was himself a politique, arguing that a strong and religiously tolerant monarchy would save France from collapse.

After the death of Henry's younger brother Francis, Duke of Anjou, and when it became apparent that Henry would not produce an heir, the Wars of Religion developed into a succession crisis, the War of the Three Henrys. Henry III's legitimate heir was his distant cousin, King Henry III of Navarre, a Protestant. The Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, sought to exclude Protestants from the succession and championed the Catholic Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, as Henry III's heir.

In 1589, Jacques Clément, a Catholic fanatic, murdered Henry III. He was succeeded by the King of Navarre who, as Henry IV, assumed the throne of France after converting to Catholicism, as the first French king of the House of Bourbon.

Jean de Poltrot

Jean de Poltrot (c. 1537 – 1563), sieur de Méré or Mérey, was a nobleman of Angoumois, who murdered Francis, Duke of Guise.

He had lived some time in Spain, and his knowledge of Spanish, together with his swarthy complexion, which earned him the nickname of the Espagnolet, procured him employment as a spy in the wars against Spain.

Having been converted to the Huguenot cause, he determined to kill Francis, Duke of Guise. Pretending to be a deserter, he gained admission to the camp of the Catholic army that was besieging Orléans. In the evening of 18 February 1563, he hid by the side of a road along which he knew the Duke would pass, fired a pistol at him, and fled.

He was captured the next day, and following torture and a trial, he was sentenced to be drawn and quartered. The punishment, carried out on 18 March 1563, was botched; the horses having failed to rend his limbs, swords were used to finish the job.

During his torture, he had made several contradictory statements, some of which implicated Admiral Coligny. Coligny protested emphatically against the accusation, but nevertheless the assassination led to a vendetta between Coligny and Francis's sons, Henry I, Duke of Guise and Louis II, Cardinal of Guise. This vendetta not only prolonged the Wars of Religion but contributed to the attempted assassination of Coligny during the celebrations of the marriage of Henri of Navarre with Margaret of Valois, and therefore to the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.

Louis III, Cardinal of Guise

Louis de Lorraine known as the Cardinal de Guise (22 January 1575 – 21 June 1621, Saintes) was the third son of Henry I, Duke of Guise and Catherine of Cleves.

Marie of Cleves, Princess of Condé

Marie of Cleves or of Nevers (Marie de Clèves, Marie de Nevers; 1553–1574), by marriage the Princess of Condé, was the wife of Henry, Prince of Condé, and an early love interest of King Henry III of France. She was the last child of Francis I of Cleves, Duke of Nevers, and Margaret of Bourbon-Vendôme, elder sister of Antoine of Navarre.

Her older sisters were Henriette of Cleves and Catherine of Cleves. King Henry IV of France was her maternal first cousin, and Anne of Cleves, the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England, was her second cousin once removed. Her brothers-in-law were Henry I, Duke of Guise and Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers.

She was brought up by her aunt Queen Joan III of Navarre, who raised her as a Calvinist. In 1572 she married in a Calvinist ceremony her first cousin, Henri I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, duc d'Enghien. A few months later, after the St. Bartholomew's day massacre, the couple had forcibly been converted to Roman Catholicism and remarried according to Catholic rites. When her husband fled the court and rejoined the Protestant cause, she refused and stayed behind at court remaining a Catholic the rest of her life.

Known for her beauty, Marie caught the eye of the young Henry, Duke of Anjou, the future Henry III of France, sometime before 1574. Upon ascending the throne later that year, Henry intended to procure Marie a divorce from her husband and marry her himself; however, Marie died before he could implement his plan. The Princess of Conde's cause of death has been historically recorded to have been lung infection from ongoing pneumonia (Ñuomonia).

Henry, Prince of Condé would go on to remarry Charlotte Catherine de La Trémoille (1568−1629), while the now King Henry III would mourn for several months and eventually marry Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont, who greatly resembled Marie.

Simon Bélyard

Simon Bélyard was a French playwright of the second half of the 16th century associated with the city of Troyes.

In 1592, he wrote a tragedy, Le Guysien, whose subject was the execution of Henry I, Duke of Guise. In 1589, Pierre Matthieu had already written a play, La Guisiade, showing hostility towards Henry III of France.

The forty-five guards

The Forty-five guards were recruited by the Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, Duke of Épernon to provide Henry III of France with trusted protection in the midst of the War of the Three Henrys.The Forty-five were noblemen of lesser nobility (many from Gascony) with little more than a horse, a sword, and a few acres to live on. In the king's service, they were paid a lavish wage (by their standards). In return, 15 of them were to be on duty, day or night, ready at the king's call.

After the Catholic League revolt in Paris, King Henry III was forced to flee to Blois, there, he staged a coup, regaining control of the Estates-General by employing the Forty-five to kill Henry I, Duke of Guise when he came to meet the king at the Château de Blois on 23 December 1588, and his brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, the following day.After the king was assassinated by Jacques Clément, the crown of France passed to Henry IV of Navarre; the Forty-five also passed to him and served him faithfully until his death, which was also by assassination – ironically in a conspiracy in which Épernon seems to have been involved.The exploits of Henry III and the Forty-five are the subject of The Forty-five Guardsmen by Alexandre Dumas.

Ancestors of Henry I, Duke of Guise
16. Frederick II, Count of Vaudémont
8. René II, Duke of Lorraine
17. Yolande of Anjou
4. Claude, Duke of Guise
18. Adolf, Duke of Guelders
9. Philippa of Guelders
19. Catharine of Bourbon
2. Francis, Duke of Guise
20. John VIII, Count of Vendôme
10. Francis, Count of Vendôme
21. Isabelle of Beauveau
5. Antoinette of Bourbon
22. Peter II, Count of Saint-Pol
11. Marie of Luxembourg
23. Margaret of Savoy
1. Henry I, Duke of Guise
24. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
12. Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
25. Eleanor of Naples
6. Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
26. Pope Alexander VI
13. Lucrezia Borgia
27. Vannozza dei Cattanei
3. Anna d'Este
28. Charles, Duke of Orléans
14. Louis XII of France
29. Marie of Cleves
7. Renée of France
30. Francis II, Duke of Brittany
15. Anne, Duchess of Brittany
31. Margaret of Foix

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