Henry Cavendish FRS (/ˈkævəndɪʃ/; 10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was an English natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. He is noted for his discovery of hydrogen, which he termed "inflammable air". He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper, On Factitious Airs. Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name.
A notoriously shy man (it has been postulated that he had what is now called childhood autism in the ICD-10), Cavendish was nonetheless distinguished for great accuracy and precision in his researches into the composition of atmospheric air, the properties of different gases, the synthesis of water, the law governing electrical attraction and repulsion, a mechanical theory of heat, and calculations of the density (and hence the mass) of the Earth. His experiment to measure the density of the Earth has come to be known as the Cavendish experiment.
|Born||10 October 1731|
|Died||24 February 1810 (aged 78)|
London, England, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
|Alma mater||Peterhouse, Cambridge|
|Known for||Discovery of hydrogen|
Measuring the Earth's density (Cavendish experiment)
Henry Cavendish was born on 10 October 1731 in Nice, where his family was living at the time. His mother was Lady Anne de Grey, fourth daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Kent, and his father was Lord Charles Cavendish, the third son of William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire. The family traced its lineage across eight centuries to Norman times, and was closely connected to many aristocratic families of Great Britain. Henry's mother died in 1733, three months after the birth of her second son, Frederick, and shortly before Henry's second birthday, leaving Lord Charles Cavendish to bring up his two sons.
From the age of 11 Henry attended Newcome's School, a private school near London. At the age of 18 (on 24 November 1748) he entered the University of Cambridge in St Peter's College, now known as Peterhouse, but left three years later on 23 February 1751 without taking a degree (at the time, a common practice). He then lived with his father in London, where he soon had his own laboratory.
Lord Charles Cavendish spent his life firstly in politics and then increasingly in science, especially in the Royal Society of London. In 1758, he took Henry to meetings of the Royal Society and also to dinners of the Royal Society Club. In 1760, Henry Cavendish was elected to both these groups, and he was assiduous in his attendance after that. He took virtually no part in politics, but followed his father into science, through his researches and his participation in scientific organisations. He was active in the Council of the Royal Society of London (to which he was elected in 1765).
His interest and expertise in the use of scientific instruments led him to head a committee to review the Royal Society's meteorological instruments and to help assess the instruments of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. His first paper, Factitious Airs, appeared in 1766. Other committees on which he served included the committee of papers, which chose the papers for publication in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, and the committees for the transit of Venus (1769), for the gravitational attraction of mountains (1774), and for the scientific instructions for Constantine Phipps's expedition (1773) in search of the North Pole and the Northwest Passage. In 1773, Henry joined his father as an elected trustee of the British Museum, to which he devoted a good deal of time and effort. Soon after the Royal Institution of Great Britain was established, Cavendish became a manager (1800) and took an active interest, especially in the laboratory, where he observed and helped in Humphry Davy's chemical experiments.
About the time of his father's death, Cavendish began to work closely with Charles Blagden, an association that helped Blagden enter fully into London's scientific society. In return, Blagden helped to keep the world at a distance from Cavendish. Cavendish published no books and few papers, but he achieved much. Several areas of research, including mechanics, optics, and magnetism, feature extensively in his manuscripts, but they scarcely feature in his published work. Cavendish is considered to be one of the so-called pneumatic chemists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, along with, for example, Joseph Priestley, Joseph Black, and Daniel Rutherford. Cavendish found that a definite, peculiar, and highly inflammable gas, which he referred to as "Inflammable Air", was produced by the action of certain acid on certain metals. This gas was, in fact, hydrogen, which Cavendish correctly guessed was proportioned to two in one water.
Although others, such as Robert Boyle, had prepared hydrogen gas earlier, Cavendish is usually given the credit for recognising its elemental nature. Also, by dissolving alkalis in acids, Cavendish made "fixed air" (carbon dioxide), which he collected, along with other gases, in bottles inverted over water or mercury. He then measured their solubility in water and their specific gravity, and noted their combustibility. Cavendish was awarded the Royal Society's Copley Medal for this paper. Gas chemistry was of increasing importance in the latter half of the 18th century, and became crucial for Frenchman Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's reform of chemistry, generally known as the chemical revolution.
In 1783, Cavendish published a paper on eudiometry (the measurement of the goodness of gases for breathing). He described a new eudiometer of his invention, with which he achieved the best results to date, using what in other hands had been the inexact method of measuring gases by weighing them. He next published a paper on the production of water by burning inflammable air (that is, hydrogen) in "dephlogisticated air" (now known to be oxygen), the latter a constituent of atmospheric air (phlogiston theory).
Cavendish concluded that dephlogisticated air was dephlogisticated water and that hydrogen was either pure phlogiston or phlogisticated water. He reported these findings to Joseph Priestley, an English clergyman and scientist, no later than March 1783, but did not publish them until the following year. The Scottish inventor James Watt published a paper on the composition of water in 1783; Cavendish had performed the experiments first, but published second. Controversy about priority ensued.
In 1785, Cavendish investigated the composition of common (i.e. atmospheric) air, obtaining impressively accurate results. He conducted experiments in which hydrogen and ordinary air were combined in known ratios and then exploded with a spark of electricity. Furthermore, he also described an experiment in which he was able to remove, in modern terminology, both the oxygen and nitrogen gases from a sample of atmospheric air until only a small bubble of unreacted gas was left in the original sample. Using his observations, Cavendish observed that, when he had determined the amounts of phlogisticated air (nitrogen) and dephlogisticated air (oxygen), there remained a volume of gas amounting to 1/120 of the original volume of nitrogen.
In the 1890s (around 100 years later) two British physicists, William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh, realised that their newly discovered inert gas, argon, was responsible for Cavendish's problematic residue; he had not made an error. What he had done was perform rigorous quantitative experiments, using standardised instruments and methods, aimed at reproducible results; taken the mean of the result of several experiments; and identified and allowed for sources of error. The balance that he used, made by a craftsman named Harrison, was the first of the precision balances of the 18th century, and as accurate as Lavoisier's (which has been estimated to measure one part in 400,000). Cavendish worked with his instrument makers, generally improving existing instruments rather than inventing wholly new ones.
Cavendish, as indicated above, used the language of the old phlogiston theory in chemistry. In 1787, he became one of the earliest outside France to convert to the new antiphlogistic theory of Lavoisier, though he remained sceptical about the nomenclature of the new theory. He also objected to Lavoisier's identification of heat as having a material or elementary basis. Working within the framework of Newtonian mechanism, Cavendish had tackled the problem of the nature of heat in the 1760s, explaining heat as the result of the motion of matter.
In 1783, he published a paper on the temperature at which mercury freezes and in that paper made use of the idea of latent heat, although he did not use the term because he believed that it implied acceptance of a material theory of heat. He made his objections explicit in his 1784 paper on air. He went on to develop a general theory of heat, and the manuscript of that theory has been persuasively dated to the late 1780s. His theory was at once mathematical and mechanical: it contained the principle of the conservation of heat (later understood as an instance of conservation of energy) and even included the concept (although not the label) of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Following his father's death, Henry bought another house in town and also a house in Clapham Common, at that time to the south of London. The London house contained the bulk of his library, while he kept most of his instruments at Clapham Common, where he carried out most of his experiments. The most famous of those experiments, published in 1798, was to determine the density of the Earth and became known as the Cavendish experiment. The apparatus Cavendish used for weighing the Earth was a modification of the torsion balance built by Englishman and geologist John Michell, who died before he could begin the experiment. The apparatus was sent in crates to Cavendish, who completed the experiment in 1797–1798 and published the results.
The experimental apparatus consisted of a torsion balance with a pair of 2-inch 1.61-pound lead spheres suspended from the arm of a torsion balance and two much larger stationary lead balls (350 pounds). Cavendish intended to measure the force of gravitational attraction between the two. He noticed that Michell's apparatus would be sensitive to temperature differences and induced air currents, so he made modifications by isolating the apparatus in a separate room with external controls and telescopes for making observations.
Using this equipment, Cavendish calculated the attraction between the balls from the period of oscillation of the torsion balance, and then he used this value to calculate the density of the Earth. Cavendish found that the Earth's average density is 5.48 times greater than that of water. John Henry Poynting later noted that the data should have led to a value of 5.448, and indeed that is the average value of the twenty-nine determinations Cavendish included in his paper. What was extraordinary about Cavendish’s experiment was its elimination of every source of error and every factor that could disturb the experiment, and its precision in measuring an astonishingly small attraction, a mere 1/50,000,000 of the weight of the lead balls. The result that Cavendish obtained for the density of the Earth is within 1 percent of the currently accepted figure.
Cavendish's work led others to accurate values for the gravitational constant (G) and Earth's mass. Based on his results, one can calculate a value for G of 6.754 × 10−11N-m2/kg2, which compares favourably with the modern value of 6.67428 × 10−11N-m2/kg2.
Books often describe Cavendish's work as a measurement of either G or the Earth's mass. Since these are related to the Earth's density by a trivial web of algebraic relations, none of these sources are wrong, but they do not match the exact word choice of Cavendish, and this mistake has been pointed out by several authors. Cavendish's stated goal was to measure the Earth's density, although his result obviously calculates G to do so.
The first time that the constant got this name was in 1873, almost 100 years after the Cavendish experiment, but the constant was in use since the time of Newton. Cavendish's results also give the Earth's mass.
Cavendish's electrical and chemical experiments, like those on heat, had begun while he lived with his father in a laboratory in their London house. Lord Charles Cavendish died in 1783, leaving almost all of his very substantial estate to Henry. Like his theory of heat, Cavendish's comprehensive theory of electricity was mathematical in form and was based on precise quantitative experiments. He published an early version of his theory in 1771, based on an expansive electrical fluid that exerted pressure. He demonstrated that if the intensity of electric force were inversely proportional to distance, then the electric fluid more than that needed for electrical neutrality would lie on the outer surface of an electrified sphere; then he confirmed this experimentally. Cavendish continued to work on electricity after this initial paper, but he published no more on the subject.
Cavendish wrote papers on electrical topics for the Royal Society but the bulk of his electrical experiments did not become known until they were collected and published by James Clerk Maxwell a century later, in 1879, long after other scientists had been credited with the same results. Cavendish's electrical papers from the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London have been reprinted, together with most of his electrical manuscripts, in The Scientific Papers of the Honourable Henry Cavendish, F.R.S. (1921). According to the 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, among Cavendish's discoveries were the concept of electric potential (which he called the "degree of electrification"), an early unit of capacitance (that of a sphere one inch in diameter), the formula for the capacitance of a plate capacitor, the concept of the dielectric constant of a material, the relationship between electric potential and current (now called Ohm's Law) (1781), laws for the division of current in parallel circuits (now attributed to Charles Wheatstone), and the inverse square law of variation of electric force with distance, now called Coulomb's Law.
Cavendish died in 1810 (as one of the wealthiest men in Britain) and was buried, along with many of his ancestors, in the church that is now Derby Cathedral. The road he used to live on in Derby has been named after him. The University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory was endowed by one of Cavendish's later relatives, William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire (Chancellor of the University from 1861 to 1891).
Cavendish inherited two fortunes that were so large that Jean Baptiste Biot called him "the richest of all the savants and the most knowledgeable of the rich." At his death, Cavendish was the largest depositor in the Bank of England. He was a shy man who was uncomfortable in society and avoided it when he could. He could only speak to one person at a time, and only if the person were known to him and male. He conversed little, always dressed in an old-fashioned suit, and developed no known deep personal attachments outside his family. Cavendish was taciturn and solitary and regarded by many as eccentric. He only communicated with his female servants by notes. By one account, Cavendish had a back staircase added to his house to avoid encountering his housekeeper, because he was especially shy of women. The contemporary accounts of his personality have led some modern commentators, such as Oliver Sacks, to speculate that he had Asperger syndrome, a form of autism.
His only social outlet was the Royal Society Club, whose members dined together before weekly meetings. Cavendish seldom missed these meetings, and was profoundly respected by his contemporaries. However, his shyness made those who "sought his views... speak as if into vacancy. If their remarks were...worthy, they might receive a mumbled reply, but more often than not they would hear a peeved squeak (his voice appears to have been high-pitched) and turn to find an actual vacancy and the sight of Cavendish fleeing to find a more peaceful corner". Cavendish's religious views were also considered eccentric for his time. He was considered to be agnostic. As his biographer, George Wilson, comments, "As to Cavendish's religion, he was nothing at all." He also enjoyed collecting fine furniture, exemplified by his purchase of a set of "ten inlaid satinwood chairs with matching cabriole legged sofa".
Because of his asocial and secretive behaviour, Cavendish often avoided publishing his work, and much of his findings were not even told to his fellow scientists. In the late nineteenth century, long after his death, James Clerk Maxwell looked through Cavendish's papers and found things for which others had been given credit. Examples of what was included in Cavendish's discoveries or anticipations were Richter's law of reciprocal proportions, Ohm's law, Dalton's law of partial pressures, principles of electrical conductivity (including Coulomb's law), and Charles's Law of gases. A manuscript "Heat", tentatively dated between 1783 and 1790, describes a "mechanical theory of heat". Hitherto unknown, the manuscript was analysed in the early 21st century. Historian of science Russell McCormmach proposed that "Heat" is the only 18th-century work prefiguring thermodynamics. Theoretical physicist Dietrich Belitz concluded that in this work Cavendish "got the nature of heat essentially right."
As Cavendish performed his famous density of the Earth experiment in an outbuilding in the garden of his Clapham Common estate, his neighbours would point out the building and tell their children that it was where the world was weighed. In honour of Henry Cavendish's achievements and due to an endowment granted by Henry's relative William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, the University of Cambridge's physics laboratory was named the Cavendish Laboratory by James Clerk Maxwell, the first Cavendish Professor of Physics and an admirer of Cavendish's work.
He did not attend church and was considered an agnostic. "As to Cavendish's religion, he was nothing at all", writes his biographer Dr. G. Wilson.
A Fellow of the Royal Society, who had good means of judging, states that, "As to Cavendish's religion, he was nothing at all. The only subjects in which he appeared to take any interest, were scientific. ..." ...From what has been stated, it will appear that is would be vain to assert that we know with any certainty what doctrine Cavendish held concerning Spiritual things; but we may with some confidence affirm, that the World to come did not engross his thoughts; that he gave no outward demonstration of interest in religion, and did join his fellow men in worshipping God. ...He died and have no sign, rejecting human sympathy, and leaving us no means of determining whether he anticipated annihilation, or looked forward to an endless life. ...He did not love; he did not hate; he did not hope; he did not fear; he did not worship as others do. He separated himself from his fellow men, and apparently from God.
Baron Waterpark of Waterpark, County Cork, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1792 for Sarah, Lady Cavendish, in honour of her husband, Sir Henry Cavendish, 2nd Baronet. Sir Henry Cavendish was a politician who represented Lismore and Killybegs in the Irish House of Commons and served as Vice-Treasurer of Ireland and as Receiver-General of Ireland. From 1768 to 1774 he sat in the British House of Commons for Lostwithiel. Cavendish and Lady Waterpark were both succeeded by their son Richard, the second Baron and third Baronet. His eldest son, the third Baron, represented Knaresborough, Derbyshire South and Lichfield in the House of Commons as a Liberal and served as a Lord-in-waiting (government whip) under Lord John Russell, Lord Aberdeen and Lord Palmerston. This line of the family failed on the death of his grandson, the fifth Baron, in 1932. The late Baron was succeeded by his second cousin, the sixth Baron. He was the grandson of a younger son of the second Baron. As of 2019, the titles are held by the latter's great-nephew, the eighth Baron, who succeeded in 2013. The Cavendish baronetcy, of Doveridge Hall, was created in the Baronetage of Great Britain in 1755 for Henry Cavendish. He notably represented Lismore in the Irish House of Commons. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned Sir Henry Cavendish, 2nd Baronet.The Cavendishes of Doveridge were descended from Henry Cavendish, illegitimate son of another Henry Cavendish, of Tutbury Priory. This Henry was the eldest son of Sir William Cavendish by his wife Bess of Hardwick, and thus elder brother of William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire. The family seat of Doveridge Hall was demolished about 1938. There were other illegitimate sons sired in Derbyshire by Henry Cavendish. One son Robert Cavendish was allegedly the result of a lifelong relationship with a mistress whom he kept at Ufton Manor in Oakerthorpe.Cavendish experiment
The Cavendish experiment, performed in 1797–1798 by British scientist Henry Cavendish, was the first experiment to measure the force of gravity between masses in the laboratory and the first to yield accurate values for the gravitational constant. Because of the unit conventions then in use, the gravitational constant does not appear explicitly in Cavendish's work. Instead, the result was originally expressed as the specific gravity of the Earth, or equivalently the mass of the Earth. His experiment gave the first accurate values for these geophysical constants.
The experiment was devised sometime before 1783 by geologist John Michell, who constructed a torsion balance apparatus for it. However, Michell died in 1793 without completing the work. After his death the apparatus passed to Francis John Hyde Wollaston and then to Henry Cavendish, who rebuilt the apparatus but kept close to Michell's original plan. Cavendish then carried out a series of measurements with the equipment and reported his results in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1798.Custos Rotulorum of Derbyshire
This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Derbyshire.
Sir John Vernon bef. 1544 – aft. 1544
Sir Francis Leke bef. 1547 – bef. 1580
Sir John Manners 1580–1611
George Manners bef. 1617–1617
William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire 1617–1628
Edward Sackville, 4th Earl of Dorset 1628–1646
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle 1660–1676
Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle 1677–1689
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire 1689–1707For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire.Custos Rotulorum of Northumberland
This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Northumberland.
Robert Horsley bef. 1547–?
Sir Robert Brandling bef. 1558–1568
Sir John Forster bef. 1573 – aft. 1594
Ralph Eure, 3rd Baron Eure 1596–1598
Sir Robert Carey 1598 – bef. 1605
Edward Talbot, 8th Earl of Shrewsbury bef. 1605–1618
Sir Ralph Delaval 1618–1628
William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Newcastle 1628–1632
Sir William Widdrington 1632–1646
William Widdrington, 2nd Baron Widdrington 1660–1675
Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle 1675–1688
Richard Lumley, 1st Earl of Scarbrough 1689–1721
Richard Lumley, 2nd Earl of Scarbrough 1722–1740
Charles Bennet, 2nd Earl of Tankerville 1740–1753
Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland 1753–1786
Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland 1786–1800
William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 1800–1802
Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland 1802–1817For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland.Custos Rotulorum of Nottinghamshire
This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Nottinghamshire.
Michael Stanhope bef. 1544–1552
Sir John Byron, Sr. by 1562–1567.
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland bef. 1573–1587
John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland 1587–1588
Sir Thomas Stanhope bef. 1594–1596
William Sutton 1597–1600
William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter 1600–1640
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1640–1646
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1660–1676
Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1677–1688
William Pierrepont, 4th Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull 1689–1690
John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1694–1711For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire.Earl of Portland
Earl of Portland is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of England, first in 1633 and again in 1689. The title Duke of Portland was created in 1716 but became extinct in 1990 upon the death of the ninth Duke, when the Earldom was inherited by a distant cousin.George Cavendish, 1st Earl of Burlington
George Augustus Henry Cavendish, 1st Earl of Burlington MP (31 March 1754 – 9 May 1834), styled Lord George Cavendish before 1831, was a British nobleman and politician. He built Burlington Arcade.Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle
Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, KG, PC (24 June 1630 – 26 July 1691), styled Viscount Mansfield until 1676, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1676, and then inherited the dukedom.
Cavendish was the only son of William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle and his first wife, Elizabeth Basset. His maternal grandparents were William Basset and Judith Austen, daughter of Thomas Austen.
In April 1660, Lord Mansfield was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Derbyshire in the Convention Parliament. He was elected MP for Northumberland in 1661 for the Cavalier Parliament. In 1676 inherited the title as Duke of Newcastle.Henry Cavendish, 3rd Baron Waterpark
Henry Manners Cavendish, 3rd Baron Waterpark (8 November 1793 – 31 March 1863), was a British nobleman and Whig politician.
Waterpark was the son of Richard Cavendish, 2nd Baron Waterpark, and his wife Juliana (née Cooper). He succeeded his father in the barony in 1830 but as this was an Irish peerage it did not entitle him to an automatic seat in the House of Lords. The same year he was instead elected to the House of Commons as one of two representatives for Knaresborough, a seat he held until 1832, and then sat for Derbyshire South from 1832 to 1835. He served as a Lord-in-waiting between 1846 and 1852, and again from 1853 to 1858. He returned to the House of Commons in 1854 when he was elected for Lichfield, and sat for this constituency until 1856. Between 1859 and 1861 he was a Lord of the Bedchamber to Albert, Prince Consort. Waterpark was also a Colonel in the Derbyshire Militia. He was the lieutenant-colonel of the King's Own Staffordshire Militia until he resigned in June 1832.Lord Waterpark married the Hon. Eliza Jane, daughter of Thomas Anson, 1st Viscount Anson, in 1837. He died in March 1863, aged 69, and was succeeded in the barony by his son, Henry. Lady Waterpark, who was invested as a member of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, died in September 1894.Henry Cavendish (British Army officer)
General Henry Frederick Compton Cavendish (5 November 1789 – 5 April 1873) was a British Army officer, politician and courtier.House of Cavendish
The House of Cavendish () is a British noble house. The Cavendish family has been one of the richest and most influential aristocratic families in England since the 16th century, and has been rivalled in political influence perhaps only by the Marquesses of Salisbury and the Earls of Derby. They are descended from Sir John Cavendish of Cavendish in the county of Suffolk (c. 1346–1381), and their numerous peerages included the Dukedom of Devonshire, the Dukedom of Newcastle, the Barony of Waterpark. and the Barony of Chesham. The head of the family is Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire, whose seat is Chatsworth House, one of the grandest private homes in the world.Lord George Cavendish (1810–1880)
Lord George Henry Cavendish (19 August 1810 – 23 September 1880, Ashford Hall, Derbyshire) was a British nobleman and politician. He was the second son of Hon. William Cavendish and Louisa O'Callaghan. He was known as George Henry Cavendish until 1858, when his brother succeeded as Duke of Devonshire and he was given precedence as the son of a duke by Royal Warrant of Precedence.
He replaced his older brother, William, as Member of Parliament (MP) for North Derbyshire when the latter succeeded their grandfather as Earl of Burlington. Cavendish would retain the seat until his death in 1880.
He married Louisa Lascelles, daughter of Henry Lascelles, 2nd Earl of Harewood on 4 July 1835 and had six children:
Henry George Cavendish (24 May 1836 – 9 November 1865)
Alice Louisa Cavendish (London, 18 July 1837 – 28 March 1905), married Algernon Fulke Egerton and had issue
James Charles Cavendish (London, 15 November 1838 – 12 July 1918)
Arthur Cavendish (12 December 1841 – 13 March 1858)
Walter Frederick Cavendish (6 November 1844 – 26 November 1866)
Susan Henrietta Cavendish (London, 29 July 1846 – 16 October 1909, Cromer), married Henry Brand, 2nd Viscount Hampden and had issueHe raised the 9th (High Peak Rifles of Bakewell) Derbyshire Rifle Volunteer Corps on 28 February 1860 during the enthusiasm for the Volunteer movement. This later became part of the 3rd Administrative Battalion of Derbyshire Volunteers under his command. He retired and became Honorary Colonel of the unit in 1867. It was later commanded by his son, James Charles Cavendish.Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck
Lord Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (28 May 1863 – 6 October 1931), known as Henry Cavendish-Bentinck until 1880, was a British Conservative politician.Nottingham South (UK Parliament constituency)
Nottingham South is a constituency.Sir Henry Cavendish, 2nd Baronet
Sir Henry Cavendish, 2nd Baronet PC (29 September 1732 – 3 August 1804) was an Anglo-Irish politician noted for his extensive recording of parliamentary debates in the late 1760s and early 1770s.William Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland
William Henry Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland PC DCL (24 June 1768 – 27 March 1854), styled Marquess of Titchfield until 1809, was a British politician who served in various positions in the governments of George Canning and Lord Goderich.William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland
William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, (14 April 1738 – 30 October 1809) was a British Whig and Tory politician during the late Georgian era. He served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1792–1809) and twice as British prime minister, of Great Britain (1783) and then of the United Kingdom (1807–09). The twenty-four years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any British prime minister.
Portland was known before 1762 by the courtesy title Marquess of Titchfield. He held a title of every degree of British nobility: Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. He is also a great-great-great-grandfather of Elizabeth II through her maternal grandmother.William Cavendish-Bentinck, 7th Duke of Portland
William Arthur Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 7th Duke of Portland (16 March 1893 – 21 March 1977), styled Marquess of Titchfield until 1943, was a British peer and Conservative Party politician.William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck
William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck may refer to:
William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1738–1809), British Whig and Tory statesman and Prime Minister
Lord William Bentinck (1774–1839), British statesman and governor of India
William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, Marquess of Titchfield (1796–1824), British Member of Parliamen
Copley Medallists (1751–1800)