Henry Cabot Lodge

Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American Republican Senator and historian from Massachusetts. A member of the prominent Lodge family, he received his PhD in history from Harvard University. As an undergraduate at Harvard, he joined Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles. The failure of that treaty ensured that the United States never joined the League of Nations.

Born in Beverly, Massachusetts, Lodge won election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives after graduating from Harvard. He and his close friend, Theodore Roosevelt, opposed James G. Blaine's nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention, but supported Blaine in the general election against Grover Cleveland. Lodge was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1886 before joining the United States Senate in 1893.

In the Senate, he sponsored the unsuccessful Lodge Bill, which sought to protect the voting rights of African Americans. He supported the Spanish–American War and called for the annexation of the Philippines after the war. He also supported immigration restrictions, becoming a member of the Immigration Restriction League and influencing the Immigration Act of 1917. Lodge served as Chairman of the 1900 and 1908 Republican National Conventions. A member of the conservative wing of the Republican Party, Lodge opposed Roosevelt's third party bid for president in 1912, but the two remained close friends.

During the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, Lodge advocated entrance into World War I on the side of the Allied Powers. He became Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference and Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, emerging as the leader of the Senate Republicans. He led the opposition to Wilson's Treaty of Versailles, proposing twelve reservations to the treaty. He most strongly objected to the provision of the treaty that required all nations to repel aggression, fearing that this would erode Congressional powers and commit the U.S. to burdensome obligations. Lodge prevailed in the treaty battle and Lodge's objections would influence the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations. After the war, Lodge participated in the creation of the Washington Naval Treaty, which sought to prevent a naval arms race. He remained in the Senate until his death in 1924.

Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge c1916
Senate Majority Leader
In office
August 17, 1918 – November 9, 1924
DeputyCharles Curtis
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byCharles Curtis
Chair of the Senate Republican Conference
In office
August 17, 1918 – November 9, 1924
DeputyJames Wolcott Wadsworth Jr.
Preceded byJacob Harold Gallinger
Succeeded byCharles Curtis
Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
In office
March 4, 1919 – November 9, 1924
Preceded byGilbert Hitchcock
Succeeded byWilliam Borah
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
May 25, 1912 – May 30, 1912
Preceded byAugustus Octavius Bacon
Succeeded byAugustus Octavius Bacon
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
In office
March 4, 1893 – November 9, 1924
Preceded byHenry L. Dawes
Succeeded byWilliam M. Butler
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 6th district
In office
March 4, 1887 – March 3, 1893
Preceded byHenry B. Lovering
Succeeded byWilliam Cogswell
Chair of the Massachusetts Republican Party
In office
1883–1884
Preceded byCharles A. Stott
Succeeded byEdward Avery
Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
In office
1880-1882
Personal details
BornMay 12, 1850
Beverly, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedNovember 9, 1924 (aged 74)
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
Anna "Nannie" Cabot Mills Davis
(m. 1871; his death 1924)
Children3, including George
RelativesJohn Davis Lodge (grandson)
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (grandson)
George Cabot (great-grandfather)
EducationHarvard University (BA, LLB, MA, PhD)

Early life

Lodge was born in Beverly, Massachusetts. His father was John Ellerton Lodge. His mother was Anna Cabot,[1] through whom he was a great-grandson of George Cabot. Lodge grew up on Boston's Beacon Hill and spent part of his childhood in Nahant, Massachusetts where he witnessed the 1860 kidnapping of a classmate and gave testimony leading to the arrest and conviction of the kidnappers.[2] He was cousin to the American polymath Charles Peirce.

In 1872, he graduated from Harvard College, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the Porcellian Club, and the Hasty Pudding Club. In 1874, he graduated from Harvard Law School, and was admitted to the bar in 1875, practicing at the Boston firm now known as Ropes & Gray.[3]

Historian

After traveling through Europe, Lodge returned to Harvard, and in 1876, became one of the first recipients of a Ph.D. in history and government from Harvard.[4] His dissertation dealt with the Germanic origins of Anglo-Saxon land law. His teacher and mentor during his graduate studies was Henry Adams; Lodge maintained a lifelong friendship with Adams.[5]

Lodge was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1878.[6] In 1881, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society.[7]

Political career

Henry Cabot Lodge cph.3a38855
Lodge in 1901

In 1880–1882, Lodge served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Lodge represented his home state in the United States House of Representatives from 1887 to 1893 and in the Senate from 1893 to 1924.

Along with his close friend Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge was sympathetic to the concerns of the Mugwump faction of the Republican Party. Nonetheless, both reluctantly supported James Blaine and protectionism in the 1884 election. Blaine lost narrowly.[8] Lodge was a staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the Populists and the silverites, who were led by the populist Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896.

Lodge was easily reelected time and again but his greatest challenge came in his reelection bid in January 1911. The Democrats had made significant gains in Massachusetts and the Republicans were split between the progressive and conservative wings, with Lodge trying to mollify both sides. In a major speech before the legislature voted, Lodge took pride in his long selfless service to the state. He emphasized that he had never engaged in corruption or self-dealing. He rarely campaigned on his own behalf but now he made his case, explaining his important roles in civil service reform, maintaining the gold standard, expanding the Navy, developing policies for the Philippine Islands, and trying to restrict immigration by illiterate Europeans, as well as his support for some progressive reforms. Most of all he appealed to party loyalty. Lodge was reelected by five votes.[9]

Lodge was very close to Theodore Roosevelt for both of their entire careers. However, Lodge was too conservative to accept Roosevelt's attacks on the judiciary in 1910, and his call for the initiative, referendum, and recall. Lodge stood silent when Roosevelt broke with the party and ran as a third-party candidate in 1912. Lodge voted for Taft instead of Roosevelt; after Woodrow Wilson won the election the Lodge-Roosevelt friendship resumed.[10]

Civil rights

In 1890, Lodge co-authored the Federal Elections Bill, along with Sen. George Frisbie Hoar, that guaranteed federal protection for African American voting rights. Although the proposed legislation was supported by President Benjamin Harrison, the bill was blocked by filibustering Democrats in the Senate.[11]

In 1891, he became a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was assigned national membership number 4,901.

That same year, following the lynching of eleven Italian Americans in New Orleans, Lodge published an article blaming the victims and proposing new restrictions on Italian immigration.[12][13]

Spanish–American War

Lodge was a strong backer of U.S. intervention in Cuba in 1898, arguing that it was the moral responsibility of the United States to do so:

Of the sympathies of the American people, generous, liberty-loving, I have no question. They are with the Cubans in their struggle for freedom. I believe our people would welcome any action on the part of the United States to put an end to the terrible state of things existing there. We can stop it. We can stop it peacefully. We can stop it, in my judgment, by pursuing a proper diplomacy and offering our good offices. Let it once be understood that we mean to stop the horrible state of things in Cuba and it will be stopped. The great power of the United States, if it is once invoked and uplifted, is capable of greater things than that.

Following American victory in the Spanish–American War, Lodge came to represent the imperialist faction of the Senate, those who called for the annexation of the Philippines. Lodge maintained that the United States needed to have a strong navy and be more involved in foreign affairs.

Immigration

Cabotlodgebritannica
Lodge in 1909

Lodge was a vocal proponent of immigration restrictions, for a number of reasons. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, large numbers of immigrants, primarily from Eastern and Southern Europe, were flooding into industrial centers. Lodge feared that unskilled foreign labor was undermining the standard of living for American workers, and that a mass influx of uneducated immigrants would result in social conflict and national decline.

His position was also influenced by his beliefs about race. In a May 1891 article on Italian immigration, Lodge expressed his concern that immigration by "the races who have peopled the United States" was declining, while "the immigration of people removed from us in race and blood" was on the rise.[14] He considered northern Italians superior to southern Italians, not only because they tended to be better educated, but because they were more "Teutonic" than their southern counterparts, whose immigration he sought to restrict.[15][16]

Lodge was a supporter of "100% Americanism," a common theme in the nativist movement of the era. In an address to the New England Society of Brooklyn in 1888, Lodge stated:

Let every man honor and love the land of his birth and the race from which he springs and keep their memory green. It is a pious and honorable duty. But let us have done with British-Americans and Irish-Americans and German-Americans, and so on, and all be Americans ... If a man is going to be an American at all let him be so without any qualifying adjectives; and if he is going to be something else, let him drop the word American from his personal description.[17]

He did not believe, however, that all races were equally capable or worthy of being assimilated. In "The Great Peril of Unrestricted Immigration" he wrote that "you can take a Hindoo and give him the highest education the world can afford ... but you cannot make him an Englishman", and cautioned against the mixing of "higher" and "lower" races:

On the moral qualities of the English-speaking race, therefore, rest our history, our victories, and all our future. There is only one way in which you can lower those qualities or weaken those characteristics, and that is by breeding them out. If a lower race mixes with a higher in sufficient numbers, history teaches us that the lower race will prevail.[18]

As the public voice of the Immigration Restriction League, Lodge argued in support of literacy tests for incoming immigrants. The tests would be designed to exclude members of those races he deemed "most alien to the body of the American people."[19] He proposed that the United States should temporarily shut out all further entries, particularly persons of low education or skill, the more efficiently to assimilate the millions who had come. From 1907 to 1911, he served on the Dillingham Commission, a joint congressional committee established to study the era's immigration patterns and make recommendations to Congress based on its findings. The Commission's recommendations led to the Immigration Act of 1917.

World War I

Lodge was a staunch advocate of entering World War I on the side of the Allied Powers, attacking President Woodrow Wilson for poor military preparedness and accusing pacifists of undermining American patriotism. After the United States entered the war, Lodge continued to attack Wilson as hopelessly idealistic, assailing Wilson's Fourteen Points as unrealistic and weak. He contended that Germany needed to be militarily and economically crushed and saddled with harsh penalties so that it could never again be a threat to the stability of Europe. However, apart from policy differences, even before the end of Wilson's first term and well before America's entry into the Great War, Lodge confided to Teddy Roosevelt, "I never expected to hate anyone in politics with the hatred I feel toward Wilson."[20]

He served as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1919–1924). He also served as chairman of the Senate Republican Conference from 1918 to 1924. His leadership of the Senate Republicans has led some to retrospectively call him the de facto Senate Majority Leader.[21] During his term in office, he and another powerful senator, Albert J. Beveridge, pushed for the construction of a new navy.

League of Nations

The summit of Lodge's Senate career came in 1919, when as the unofficial Senate majority leader, he dealt with the Treaty of Versailles. He wanted to join the League of Nations with reservations. The Democrats in the Senate, following Wilson's direction, rejected Lodge's proposal to join the League with reservations. Republicans opposed joining under Wilson's terms of no reservations which meant the League could force the U.S. to enter a war without approval of Congress. In the end the U.S. never joined the League of Nations.[22] Lodge won in the long run—his reservations were incorporated into the United Nations in 1945, where the U.S. was given a veto.[23]

Lodge's key objection to the League of Nations was Article X. It required all signatory nations to repel aggression of any kind if ordered to do so by the League. Lodge rejected an open-ended commitment regardless of relevance to the national security interests of the United States. He especially insisted that Congress must approve. Lodge was also motivated by political concerns; he strongly disliked President Wilson[24] and was eager to find an issue for the Republican Party to run on in the presidential election of 1920.

Senator Lodge argued for a powerful American role in world affairs:

The United States is the world's best hope, but if you fetter her in the interests and quarrels of other nations, if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very existence. Leave her to march freely through the centuries to come, as in the years that have gone. Strong, generous, and confident, she has nobly served mankind. Beware how you trifle with your marvelous inheritance; this great land of ordered liberty. For if we stumble and fall, freedom and civilization everywhere will go down in ruin.[25]

Lodge appealed to the patriotism of American citizens by objecting to what he saw as the weakening of national sovereignty: "I have loved but one flag and I can not share that devotion and give affection to the mongrel banner invented for a league."

The Senate was divided into a "crazy-quilt" of positions on the Versailles question.[26] It proved possible to build a majority coalition, but impossible to build a two thirds coalition that was needed to pass a treaty.[27] One block of Democrats strongly supported the Versailles Treaty. A second group of Democrats supported the Treaty but followed Wilson in opposing any amendments or reservations. The largest bloc, led by Lodge, comprised a majority of the Republicans. They wanted a Treaty with reservations, especially on Article X, which involved the power of the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the United States Congress. Finally, a bi-partisan group of 13 "irreconcilables" opposed a treaty in any form. The closest the Treaty came to passage was in mid-November 1919, when Lodge and his Republicans formed a coalition with the pro-Treaty Democrats, and were close to a two-thirds majority for a Treaty with reservations, but Wilson rejected this compromise. Cooper and Bailey suggest that Wilson's stroke on September 25, 1919, had so altered his personality that he was unable to effectively negotiate with Lodge. Cooper says the psychological effects of a stroke were profound: "Wilson's emotions were unbalanced, and his judgment was warped. ... Worse, his denial of illness and limitations was starting to border on delusion."[28]

The Treaty of Versailles went into effect but the United States did not sign it, and made separate peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary. The League of Nations went into operation, but the United States never joined. Historians agree that the League was ineffective in dealing with major issues, but they debate whether American membership would have made much difference.[29] In 1945 it was replaced by the United Nations, which assumed many of the League's procedures and peacekeeping functions, although Article X of the League of Nations was notably absent from the UN mandate. That is, the UN was structured in accordance with Lodge's plan, with the United States having a veto power in the UN which it did not have in the old League of Nations. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., Lodge's grandson, served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1953 to 1960.

Washington Naval Conference

In 1922, President Warren G. Harding appointed Lodge as a delegate to the Washington Naval Conference (International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments), led by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, and included Elihu Root and Oscar Underwood. This was the first disarmament conference in history and had a goal of world peace through arms reduction. Attended by nine nations, the United States, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal, the conference resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty (more commonly known as the Washington Naval Treaty) and the Nine-Power Treaty, as well as a number of smaller agreements.[30]

Lodge-Fish Resolution

In June 1922, he introduced the Lodge-Fish Resolution, to illustrate American support for the British policy in Palestine per the 1917 Balfour Declaration.

Legacy

John Singer Sargent - Henry Cabot Lodge - Google Art Project
1890 portrait by John Singer Sargent

Historian George E. Mowry argues that:

Henry Cabot Lodge was one of the best informed statesmen of his time, he was an excellent parliamentarian, and he brought to bear on foreign questions a mind that was at once razor sharp and devoid of much of the moral cant that was so typical of the age. ... [Yet] Lodge never made the contributions he should have made, largely because of Lodge the person. He was opportunistic, selfish, jealous, condescending, supercilious, and could never resist calling his opponent's spade a dirty shovel. Small wonder that except for Roosevelt and Root, most of his colleagues of both parties disliked him, and many distrusted him.[31]

Lodge served on the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for many years. His first appointment was in 1890, as a Member of the House of Representatives, and he served until his election as a senator in 1893. He was reappointed to the Board in 1905 and served until he died in 1924. The other Regents considered Lodge to be a "distinguished colleague, whose keen, constructive interest in the affairs of the Institution led him to place his broad knowledge and large experience at its service at all times."[32]

Mount Lodge, also named Boundary Peak 166, located on the Canada–United States border in the Saint Elias Mountains was named in 1908 after him in recognition of his service as U.S. Boundary Commissioner in 1903.[33]

Personal life

In 1871, he married Anna "Nannie" Cabot Mills Davis,[34] daughter of Admiral Charles Henry Davis. They had three children:

On November 5, 1924, Lodge suffered a severe stroke while recovering in the hospital from surgery for gallstones.[37] He died four days later at the age of 74.[38] He was interred in the Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[39]

Publications

  • 1877. Life and letters of George Cabot. Little, Brown.
  • 1880. Ballads and Lyrics, Selected and Arranged by Henry Cabot Lodge. Houghton Mifflin (1882 reissue contains a Preface by Lodge)
  • 1882. Alexander Hamilton. Houghton Mifflin
  • 1883. Daniel Webster. Houghton Mifflin.
  • 1887. Alexander Hamilton. Houghton Mifflin.
  • 1889. George Washington. (2 volumes). Houghton Mifflin.
  • 1891. Boston (Historic Towns series). Longmans, Green, and Co.
  • 1891. "Lynch Law and Unrestricted Immigration". The North American Review. 152 (414): 602–612. May 1891.
  • 1892. Speeches. Houghton Mifflin.
  • 1895. Hero tales from American history. With Theodore Roosevelt. Century.
  • 1898. The story of the Revolution. (2 volumes). Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • 1898. "The Great Peril of Unrestricted Immigration". The New Century Speaker for School and College. Ginn. 1898. pp. 177–179.
  • 1902. A Fighting Frigate, and Other Essays and Addresses. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • 1906. A Frontier Town and Other Essays. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • 1909. Speeches and Addresses: 1884–1909. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • 1909. The Best of the World's Classics, Restricted to Prose. (10 volumes). With Francis Whiting Halsey. Funk & Wagnalls.
  • 1910. The History of Nations. H. W. Snow.
  • 1913. Early Memories. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • 1915. The Democracy of the Constitution, and Other Addresses and Essays. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • 1919. Theodore Roosevelt. Houghton Mifflin.
  • 1921. The Senate of the United States and other essays and addresses, historical and literary. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • 1925. The Senate and the League of Nations. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore, and Henry Cabot Lodge. Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge, 1884–1918 (2 vol. 1925)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Henry Cabot Lodge Photographs ca. 1860–1945: Guide to the Photograph Collection". Massachusetts Historical Society Library. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
  2. ^ "How Henry Cabot Lodge earned his gold watch by John Mason". Yankee Magazine. August 1965. Archived from the original on 2010-08-23.
  3. ^ Carl M. Brauer, Ropes & Gray 1865–1992, (Boston: Thomas Todd Company, 1991.)
  4. ^ "U.S. Senate: Featured Bio Lodge". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  5. ^ John A. Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge (1953)
  6. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter L" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  7. ^ "MemberListL".
  8. ^ David M. Tucker, Mugwumps: Public Moralists of the Gilded Age (1991).
  9. ^ John A. Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography (1953) 280-83
  10. ^ Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography (1953) 287-91, 323
  11. ^ Wilson, Kirt H. (2005). "1". The Politics of Place and Presidential Rhetoric in the United States, 1875–1901. pp. 32, 33. ISBN 978-1-58544-440-3. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
  12. ^ Leach, Eugene E. (1992). "Mental Epidemics: Crowd Psychology and American Culture, 1890–1940". American Studies. Mid-America American Studies Association. 33 (1). JSTOR 40644255.
  13. ^ Lodge, Henry Cabot (May 1891). "Lynch Law and Unrestricted Immigration". The North American Review. 152 (414): 602–612. JSTOR 25102181.
  14. ^ Lodge (1891), p. 611
  15. ^ Puleo, Stephen (2007). The Boston Italians. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN 9780807050361.
  16. ^ Puleo, Stephen (2010). Dark Tide: The Great Molasses Flood of 1919. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780807096673.
  17. ^ Lodge, Henry Cabot (1892). Speeches. Houghton Mifflin. p. 46.
  18. ^ Lodge, Henry Cabot (1898). "The Great Peril of Unrestricted Immigration". In Frink, Henry Allyn. The New Century Speaker for School and College. Ginn. pp. 177–179.
  19. ^ O'Connor, Thomas H. (1995). The Boston Irish: A Political History. Back Bay Books. p. 156. ISBN 0-316-62661-9.
  20. ^ Berg, A. Scott (2013). Wilson. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 612. ISBN 978-0-399-15921- -3.
  21. ^ "Henry Cabot Lodge Senate Leader, Presidential Foe". United States Senate. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  22. ^ David Mervin, "Henry Cabot Lodge and the League of Nations." Journal of American Studies 4#2 (1971): 201-214.
  23. ^ Leo Gross, "The Charter of the United Nations and the Lodge Reservations." American Journal of International Law 41.3 (1947): 531-554. in JSTOR
  24. ^ Brands 2008, part 3 at 0:00.
  25. ^ Lodge 1919.
  26. ^ John Milton Cooper, Woodrow Wilson (2009) 507–560
  27. ^ Thomas A. Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal (1945)
  28. ^ Cooper, Woodrow Wilson, 544, 557–560; Bailey calls Wilson's rejection, "The Supreme Infanticide," Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal (1945) p. 271
  29. ^ Edward C. Luck (1999). Mixed Messages: American Politics and International Organization, 1919–1999. Brookings Institution Press. p. 23.
  30. ^ Raymond Leslie Buell, The Washington Conference (D. Appleton, 1922)
  31. ^ George E. Mowry, "Politicking in Acid," The Saturday Review October 3, 1953, p. 30
  32. ^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION AT A SPECIAL MEETING HELD JUNE 3, 1924., Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, June 3, 1924, p. 632
  33. ^ "Mount Lodge". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2018-05-16.
  34. ^ Zimmermann 2002, p. 157.
  35. ^ "LODGE, John Davis - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov.
  36. ^ Rand 1890, p. 381.
  37. ^ "Senator Lodge Suffers Shock in Hospital; Death May Come at Any Moment". The New York Times. November 6, 1924. p. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  38. ^ "Senator Lodge Dies, Victim of Stroke, in his 75th Year". The New York Times. November 10, 1924. p. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  39. ^ "Final Rites Said for Senator Lodge". The New York Times. November 13, 1924. p. 21. Retrieved January 31, 2010.

Further reading

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
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Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 6th congressional district

1887–1893
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U.S. Senate
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1913–1919
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1919–1924
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New office Senate Majority Leader
1920–1924
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Political offices
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1912
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Party political offices
First Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(Class 1)

1916, 1922
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1918–1924
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1918–1924
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1920
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Honorary titles
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1918–1924
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Awards and achievements
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Cover of Time
January 21, 1924
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Herbert B. Swope
1922 United States Senate election in Massachusetts

The United States Senate election of 1922 in Massachusetts was held on November 7, 1922, with Republican Incumbent Henry Cabot Lodge defeating Democrat William A. Gaston.

1926 United States Senate special election in Massachusetts

The United States Senate special election of 1926 in Massachusetts was held on November 2, 1926, with Democratic David I. Walsh defeating Incumbent Republican U.S Senator William Morgan Butler who was appointed after the death of Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Walsh returned to the U.S Senate for a 2-year term.

1942 United States Senate election in Massachusetts

The United States Senate election of 1942 in Massachusetts was held on November 3, 1942, with Republican incumbent Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. defeating his challengers.

1944 United States Senate special election in Massachusetts

The 1944 United States Senate special election in Massachusetts was held on November 7, 1944. Republican Governor Leverett Saltonstall was elected to finish the term of Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., who had resigned from the Senate to serve in World War II.

1946 United States Senate election in Massachusetts

The United States Senate election of 1946 in Massachusetts was held on November 5, 1946. Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. defeated incumbent David I. Walsh.

1960 United States presidential election in Colorado

The 1960 United States presidential election in Colorado took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election. Colorado voters chose six representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Colorado was won by incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon (R–California), running with United States Ambassador to the United Nations Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., with 54.63% of the popular vote, against Senator John F. Kennedy (D–Massachusetts), running with Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, with 44.91% of the popular vote.

1960 United States presidential election in Kentucky

The 1960 United States presidential election in Kentucky took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election. Kentucky voters chose ten representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Kentucky was won by incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon (R–California), running with United States Ambassador to the United Nations Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., with 53.59% of the popular vote, against Senator John F. Kennedy (D–Massachusetts), running with Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, with 46.41% of the popular vote.

1960 United States presidential election in Missouri

The 1960 United States presidential election in Missouri took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election. Missouri voters chose thirteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

In the nation's third-closest race, Missouri was won by Senator John F. Kennedy (D–Massachusetts), running with Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, with 50.26% of the popular vote against incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon (R–California), running with United States Ambassador to the United Nations Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., with 49.74% of the popular vote. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Osage County voted for the Democratic candidate.

1960 United States presidential election in North Carolina

The 1960 United States presidential election in North Carolina took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election. North Carolina voters chose fourteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

North Carolina was won by Senator John F. Kennedy (D–Massachusetts), running with Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, with 52.11% of the popular vote against incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon (R–California), running with United States Ambassador to the United Nations Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., with 47.89% of the popular vote.

1960 United States presidential election in North Dakota

The 1960 United States presidential election in North Dakota took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election. North Dakota voters chose four representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

North Dakota was won by incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon (R–California), running with United States Ambassador to the United Nations Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., with 55.42% of the popular vote, against Senator John F. Kennedy (D–Massachusetts), running with Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, with 44.52% of the popular vote.

1960 United States presidential election in West Virginia

The 1960 United States presidential election in West Virginia took place on November 8, 1960, as part of the 1960 United States presidential election. West Virginia voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

West Virginia was won by Senator John F. Kennedy (D–Massachusetts), running with Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, with 52.73% of the popular vote against incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon (R–California), running with United States Ambassador to the United Nations Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., with 47.27% of the popular vote.

East Point Military Reservation

East Point Military Reservation was a World War I and World War II coastal defense site located in Nahant, Massachusetts. In 1955–62 it was a Nike missile launch site. As of 2016 most of the site is the Marine Science Center of Northeastern University.

Henry Cabot Lodge Bohler

Henry Cabot Lodge Bohler (June 8, 1925, Augusta, Georgia – August 10, 2007) was a member of the prestigious Tuskegee Airmen during World War II who would later aid the advancement of Civil rights for African-Americans living in the rural Southern United States.

Henry Cabot Lodge House

The Henry Cabot Lodge House is a National Historic Landmark at 5 Cliff Street in Nahant, Massachusetts. It was designated as the only known residential building associated with United States Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (1850–1924). Lodge was a leading Republican politician who was a longtime associate of President Theodore Roosevelt, and an influential figure who led the successful opposition to the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I.It is unclear exactly when and for whom the Henry Cabot Lodge House was built. It was known to be owned by Lodge's grandfather Henry in 1850, although local historians believe it was built c. 1820 by Lodge's father John. Stylistically the house is unusual for New England, and is based on a type of plantation house popular in the West Indies in the late 19th century. The house was used by the Lodge family as a summer house after the main Lodge residence (since torn down) was built at Nahant's East Point, and both Lodge and his like-named grandson reported spending childhood years at the house. The house was sold out of the Lodge family after the elder Lodge's death.The house is a two-story brick structure measuring about 50 feet (15 m) by 48 feet (15 m), resting on a brick foundation that is set in a low artificial earthen mound. The exterior walls have been stuccoed, and the roof is a low pitch hip roof pierced by four slender chimneys. The building is encircled by a two-story veranda, which is sheltered by the roof and supported by twelve latticework pillars (four at the corners and two additional ones on each side). On the western corner of the first floor the veranda has been closed in to provide a sun room.The house was designated a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (July 5, 1902 – February 27, 1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II, was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador. He was the Republican nominee for Vice President in the 1960 presidential election alongside incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon. The Republican ticket lost to Democrats John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.

Born in Nahant, Massachusetts, Lodge was the grandson of Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and the great-grandson of Secretary of State Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen. After graduating from Harvard University, Lodge won election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He defeated Democratic Governor James Michael Curley in 1936 to represent Massachusetts in the United States Senate. He resigned from the Senate in 1944 to serve in Italy and France during World War II. Lodge remained in the Army Reserve after the war and eventually rose to the rank of major general. In 1946, Lodge defeated incumbent Democratic Senator David I. Walsh to return to the Senate.

He led the Draft Eisenhower movement before the 1952 election and served as Eisenhower's campaign manager, ensuring that his candidate triumphed at the 1952 Republican National Convention. Eisenhower defeated Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson II in the general election, but Lodge lost his own re-election campaign to John F. Kennedy. Lodge was named as ambassador to the United Nations in 1953 and became a member of Eisenhower's Cabinet. Vice President Richard Nixon chose Lodge as his running mate in the 1960 presidential election, but the Republican ticket lost the election.

In 1963, President Kennedy appointed Lodge to the position of Ambassador to South Vietnam, where Lodge supported the 1963 South Vietnamese coup. He continued to represent the United States in various countries under President Lyndon B. Johnson, President Nixon, and President Gerald Ford. Lodge led the U.S. delegation that signed the Paris Peace Accords with North Vietnam, leading to the end of the Vietnam War. He died in Beverly, Massachusetts in 1985.

Henry Lodge

Henry Lodge may refer to:

Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924), Republican U.S. Representative and Senator who argued against the League of Nations in 1919

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (1902–1985), grandson of Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. senator from Massachusetts, and candidate for vice president of the United States

John A. Garraty

John Arthur Garraty (July 4, 1920 – December 19, 2007) was an American historian and biographer. He specialized largely in American political and economic history.Garraty earned an undergraduate degree at Brooklyn College in 1941 and completed his doctorate at Columbia University in 1948. During World War II, he served in the United States Merchant Marine as a swimming instructor. His 1953 biography, Henry Cabot Lodge (Knopf, 1953), was the first scholarly and authoritative life of the Massachusetts politician Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924); a notable feature of that book was the set of footnotes written at Garraty's invitation by Lodge's grandson, Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (1902-1985), expressing disagreement with some of Garraty's interpretations and findings. He taught at Michigan State University for 12 years before joining the Columbia University History Department in 1959. Garraty also served as the president of the Society of American Historians. He retired from teaching at Columbia in 1990.An author of many textbooks, Garraty's works include the college and high school history textbook The American Nation, later editions of which were co-written with Mark C. Carnes. Among Garraty's other works were many biographies, and a study of the craft of biography, The Art of Biography (Knopf, 1960). In the 1970s and 1960 Garraty was a historical consultant on various film and media projects, most prominently the School House Rock children's television shorts. Garraty co-edited The Columbia History of the World (1972). and was one of the general editors of the American National Biography, a project which he completed in his retirement.

List of Republican National Conventions

This is a list of Republican National Conventions. The quadrennial convention is the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States.

Lodge Corollary

The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind from acquiring sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control". As Lodge argued, the corollary reaffirmed the basic right of nations to provide for their safety, extending the principles behind the Monroe Doctrine beyond colonialism to include corporate territorial acquisitions as well.

The proposal was a reaction to negotiations between a Japanese syndicate and Mexico for the purchase of a considerable portion of Baja California including a harbor considered to be of strategic value, Magdalena Bay. After the ratification of the Lodge Corollary, Japan disavowed any connection to the syndicate and the deal was never completed.

Ancestors of Henry Cabot Lodge
16. John Mathew Lodge (1707–1792)
8. Mathew Francis Lodge (1737–1789)
17. Margaret Coldwell (1709–1792)
4. Giles Lodge (1770–1852)
9. Elizabeth Ellerton
2. John Ellerton Lodge (1820–1901)
5. Abigail Langton (1776–1846)
1. Henry Cabot Lodge
24. Joseph Cabot (1720–1767)
12. George Cabot, U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
25. Elizabeth Higginson (1722–1781)
6. Henry Cabot (1783–1864)
26. Stephen H. Higginson (1716–1761)
13. Elizabeth Higginson (1756–1826)
27. Elizabeth Mary Cabot (1715–1797)
3. Anna Sophia Cabot (1821–1900)
28. Joseph Blake (1739–1818)
14. John Welland Blake (1761–1818)
29. Deborah Smith (1737–1781)
7. Anna Sophia Blake (1796–1845)
15. Abigail Jones (1763–1808)
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