There are three related types of Neolithic earthwork that are all sometimes loosely called henges. The essential characteristic of all three is that they feature a ring-shaped bank and ditch, with the ditch inside the bank. Because the internal ditches would have served defensive purposes poorly, henges are not considered to have been defensive constructions (cf. circular rampart). The three henge types are as follows, with the figure in brackets being the approximate diameter of the central flat area:

  1. Henge (> 20 m).[1] The word henge refers to a particular type of earthwork of the Neolithic period, typically consisting of a roughly circular or oval-shaped bank with an internal ditch surrounding a central flat area of more than 20 m (66 ft) in diameter. There is typically little if any evidence of occupation in a henge, although they may contain ritual structures such as stone circles, timber circles and coves. Henge monument is sometimes used as a synonym for henge. Henges sometimes, but by no means always, featured stone or timber circles, and circle henge is sometimes used to describe these structures. The three largest stone circles in Britain (Avebury, the Great Circle at Stanton Drew stone circles and the Ring of Brodgar) are each in a henge. Examples of henges without significant internal monuments are the three henges of Thornborough Henges. Although having given its name to the word henge, Stonehenge is atypical in that the ditch is outside the main earthwork bank.
  2. Hengiform monument (5 – 20 m).[2] Like an ordinary henge except the central flat area is between 5 and 20 m (16–66 ft) in diameter, they comprise a modest earthwork with a fairly wide outer bank. Mini henge or Dorchester henge are sometimes used as synonyms for hengiform monument. An example is the Neolithic site at Wormy Hillock Henge.
  3. Henge enclosure (> 300 m).[3] A Neolithic ring earthwork with the ditch inside the bank, with the central flat area having abundant evidence of occupation and usually being more than 300 m (980 ft) in diameter. Some true henges are as large as this (e.g., Avebury), but lack evidence of domestic occupation. Super henge is sometimes used as a synonym for a henge enclosure. However, sometimes Super henge is used to indicate size alone rather than use, e.g. "Marden henge ... is the least understood of the four British 'superhenges' (the others being Avebury, Durrington Walls and Mount Pleasant Henge)".[4]
Thornborough Henge
The three aligned henges of the Thornborough Henges complex


The word henge is a backformation from Stonehenge, the famous monument in Wiltshire.[5] Stonehenge is not a true henge as its ditch runs outside its bank, although there is a small extant external bank as well. The term was first coined in 1932 by Thomas Kendrick, who later became the Keeper of British Antiquities at the British Museum.[6][7]


Avebury Stone Circles
Avebury henge contains several stone circles

Henges may be classified as follows:

  • Class I henges, which have a single entrance created from a gap in the bank;
  • Class II henges which have two entrances, diametrically opposite each other;
  • Class III henges, which have four entrances, facing each other in pairs.

Sub groups exist for these when two or three internal ditches are present rather than one.[8] Henges are usually associated with the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age, and especially with the pottery of this period: Grooved Ware, Impressed Wares (formerly known as Peterborough Ware), and Beakers. Sites such as Stonehenge also provide evidence of activity from the later Bronze Age Wessex culture.

Henges often contain evidence of a variety of internal features, including timber or stone circles, pits, or burials, which may pre- or post-date the henge enclosure. A henge should not be confused with a stone circle within it, as henges and stone circles can exist together or separately. At Arbor Low in Derbyshire, all the stones except one are laid flat and do not seem to have been erected, as no stone holes have been found. Elsewhere, often only the stone holes remain to indicate a former circle.

Some of the best-known henges are at:

Henges sometimes formed part of a ritual landscape or complex, with other Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments inside and outside the henge. Earlier monuments associated with a later henge might include Neolithic monuments such as a cursus (e.g., at Thornborough Henges the central henge overlies the cursus), or a long barrow such as the West Kennet Long Barrow at Avebury, Wiltshire, or even, as in the case of Stonehenge, Mesolithic post holes. Later monuments added after the henge was built might include Bronze Age cairns as at Arbor Low. Examples of such ritual landscapes are:

Burials have been recorded at a number of excavated henges, both pre-dating the henge and as a result of secondary reuse. For example:

  • At Avebury, at least two very disturbed inhumations were found in the central area
  • Cairnpapple and North Mains both had burials that pre-date the henges, as well as post-date them
  • At King Arthur's Round Table, Cumbria, a cremation trench lay within the monument
  • At Woodhenge, a central burial of a child was interpreted by its excavators as a dedicatory offering
  • At Maxey, phosphate surveys suggest that burials may also have been present within this monument

Origin and distribution

Ring of Brodgar 3
The Ring of Brodgar, Orkney is a possible area of origin for henges

Efforts to delineate a direct lineage for the henge from earlier enclosures have not been conclusive. Their chronological overlap with older structures makes it difficult to classify them as a coherent tradition. They seem to take the concept of creating a space separate from the outside world one step further than the causewayed enclosure, and they focus attention on an internal point. In some cases, the construction of the bank and ditch was a stage that followed other activity on the site. At Balfarg, North Mains and Cairnpapple, for example, earlier cremations and deliberate smashing of pottery predate the enclosure.

Concentrations of henges occur over much of Britain. Orkney (Cunliffe 2001) and Wessex (Burl 1969) have both been suggested as the original provenance of the monument type; however, others remain unconvinced (Barclay 2005). Unlike earlier enclosure monuments, henges were not usually built on hilltops but on low-lying ground, often close to watercourses and good agricultural land.

Some scholars, such as the editors of the 1982 edition of the Penguin Dictionary of Archaeology (Bray and Trump, 1982), have claimed that henges are unique to the British Isles. They state that similar, much earlier, circles on the European continent, such as Goseck circle (which has no bank), and later ones such as Goloring are not proper "henges". But The Penguin Archaeological Guide (Bahn, 2001) does not comment on geographical locations for henges.

Wyke down henge ditch pits dorset
Excavated henge ditch on Wyke Down (Dorset). The ditch was originally dug as a Causewayed enclosure and may therefore not be a henge.

Julian Cope, in The Megalithic European,[11] proposes that the henge was a regional development from the Europe-wide causewayed enclosure. He notes it appeared following a cultural upheaval in around 3000 BC, which inspired the peoples of Neolithic Europe to develop more independently. He notes the 'rondel enclosures' of Bavaria's Isar Valley, which according to investigations by the German archaeologist R. A. Maier, "drew comparisons with the henge monuments and causewayed enclosures of the British Isles." Although still with a multiple-causewayed ditch and entrances at cardinal points, the roundels are described by John Hodgson (2003) as not being positioned with defensive aims in mind. The largest, at Kothingeichendorf, appeared to be "midway between a henge and a causewayed enclosure".

Alasdair Whittle (2005) also views the development of the henge as a regional variation within a European tradition that included a variety of ditched enclosures. He notes that henges and the grooved ware pottery often found at them are two examples of the British Neolithic not found on the Continent. Caroline Malone (2001) also states that henges did not occur in the rest of Western Europe, but they developed from a broader tradition of enclosure to become "a phenomenon of the British Isles, a native tradition with sophisticated architecture and calendrical functions."


Henges may have been used for rituals or astronomical observation rather than day-to-day activity. That their ditches are located inside their banks indicates that they were not used for defence, and that the barrier of the earthworks was more likely symbolic than functional. Following arguments presented for Irish Iron Age enclosures, Barclay suggested that they are 'defensive': that the ditch and bank face something 'dangerous' inside the enclosure. He has also suggested that the considerable range of things surrounded by the earthworks, and the very long date range, are because henges were designed mainly to enclose pre-existing ceremonial sites that were seen as 'ritually charged' and therefore dangerous to people. It has been conjectured that whatever took place inside the enclosures was intended to be separate from the outside world and perhaps known only to select individuals or groups.

The alignment of henges is a contentious issue. Popular belief is that their entrances point towards certain heavenly bodies. But henge orientation is highly variable and may have been more determined by local topography than by desire for symbolic orientation. Statistical analysis showed that Class I henges have a slight tendency to have an entrance set in the north or north-east quarter. Class II henges generally have their axes aligned approximately south-east to north-west or north-east to south-west.

It has been suggested that the stone and timber structures sometimes built inside henges were used as solar declinometers to measure the position of the rising or setting sun. These structures do not appear in all henges; and when they do, often they are considerably more recent than the henges. Thus, they are not necessarily connected with the henge's original function. It has been conjectured that they could have been used to synchronize a calendar to the solar cycle for purposes of planting crops or timing religious rituals. Some henges have poles, stones or entrances that indicate the position of the rising or setting sun during the equinoxes and solstices, while others appear to frame certain constellations. Additionally, many are placed so that nearby hills either mark or do not interfere with such observations. Finally, some henges appear to be placed at particular latitudes. For example, a number are placed at a latitude of 55 degrees north, where the same two markers can indicate the rising and setting sun for both the spring and autumn equinoxes. But as henges are present from the extreme north to the extreme south of Britain, their latitude could not have been of great importance.

Formalisation is commonly attributed to henges: indications of the builders' concerns to control the arrival at, entrance into, and movement within the enclosures. This was achieved by placing flanking stones or avenues at the entrances of some henges, or by dividing the internal space with timber circles. While some henges were the first monuments to be built in their areas, others were added to already important landscapes, especially the larger examples.

The concentric nature of many of the internal features, such as the five rings of postholes at Balfarg or the six at Woodhenge, may represent a finer distinction than the inside-out differences suggested by henge earthworks. The ordering of space and the circular movement suggested by the sometimes densely packed internal features indicates a sophisticated degree of spatial understanding.

Hengiform monument

Hengiform monuments, or mini henges, are distributed throughout England and mainland Scotland (with examples as far north as Caithness), though no examples have been found in Wales. Pits, cremations, postholes, stone-sockets and graves have been found within them, and postholes and cremation pits have also been found to be present close to the site in some cases. They typically have either one entrance or two opposing entrances. In plan, a mini henge can be mistaken for a ploughed-out round barrow, although the former tend to be slightly larger and their earthworks more substantial. As with ordinary henges, they are thought to have served ritual purposes and are thought to be of late Neolithic date.

Henge enclosure

Henge enclosures often contain or lie close to one or more ordinary henges. Finds of animal bone, grooved ware pottery, and evidence of dwellings have been found and coupled with the time and energy needed to build them, it is considered that they must have been important social centres analogous to tribal capitals. Two or four evenly spaced entrances lead through the earthwork to the centre.

See also


  1. ^ "Early Prehistoric Monuments - Henges". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  2. ^ "Early Prehistoric Monuments - Hengi-Form Monuments". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  3. ^ "Early Prehistoric Monuments - Henge Enclosure". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  4. ^ Leary, Jim; Clarke, Amanda; Bell, Martin (July 2016). "Valley of the henges". current archaeology. XXVII, No. 4 (316): 28–34.
  5. ^ Anon. "Henge definition". dictionary.com. Dictionary.com LLC. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  6. ^ Rothwell, Henry. "Henges – or the archaeology of etymology (or vice versa); The man who gave us the word". Digital digging. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  7. ^ Pitts, Michael (2011). Hengeworld. Random House. pp. 26–28. Stonehenge is not a henge. This bizarre contribution … was first used by … Thomas Kendrick. … Technically, [henges] are earthwork enclosures in which a ditch was dug to make a bank, which was thrown up on the outside edge of the ditch.
  8. ^ Towrie, Sigurd. "The definition of a henge". Orkneyjar: The Heritage of the Orkney Islands. Sigurd Towrie. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  9. ^ a b "Maumbury Rings". Visit Dorchester. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  10. ^ "Dunragit". orgs.man.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-05-19.
  11. ^ Cope, Julian (2004). The Megalithic European: The 21st Century Traveller in Prehistoric Europe. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-713802-9. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  • Bahn, P.G. (ed.) (2001) The Penguin Archaeological Guide, Penguin, London.
  • Barclay, G. J. (2005) The henge and hengiform in Scotland, in Set in stone: new approaches to Neolithic monuments in Scotland, Cummings, V. and Pannett, A. (eds.) Oxbow, Oxford, pp. 81–94.
  • Bray, W. and Trump D. (eds.) (1982) The Penguin Dictionary of Archaeology, Penguin, London.
  • Burl, A (1969). "Henges: internal features and regional groups". Archaeological Journal. 126: 1–28. doi:10.1080/00665983.1969.11077434.
  • Cunliffe, B. (2001) Facing the Ocean: the Atlantic and its Periphery 8000 BC–AD 1500, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Hodgson, J. (2003) Neolithic Enclosures in the Isar Valley, Bavaria in Enclosures and Defences in the Neolithic of Western Europe (Part ii), Burgess, C., Topping, P., Mordant, C. and Maddison, M. (eds.) Oxbow, quoted in Cope, J. (2004) The Megalithic European, Harper Collins, pp. 48–49.
  • Malone, C. (2001) Neolithic Britain and Ireland, Tempus, Stroud.
  • Whittle, A. (2005) The Neolithic Period in The Archaeology of Britain, Hunter, I. and Ralston, J. (eds.), Routledge, London.


  • Atkinson, R. J. C. (1951) The henge monuments of Great Britain.
  • Thomas, J. (2004) Understanding the Neolithic, Routledge, London.

External links


Achill-henge is a modern Stonehenge-like structure on Achill Island off the northwest coast of County Mayo, Ireland.

An Actor's Revenge

An Actor's Revenge (雪之丞変化, Yukinojō Henge), also known as Revenge of a Kabuki Actor, is a 1963 film directed by Kon Ichikawa. It was produced in Eastmancolor and Daieiscope for Daiei Film.

An Actor's Revenge is a remake of the 1935 film of the same title (distributed in English-speaking countries as The Revenge of Yukinojō), which also starred Kazuo Hasegawa. The 1963 remake was Hasegawa's 300th role as a film actor. The screenplay, written by Ichikawa's wife, Natto Wada, was based on the adaptation by Daisuke Itō and Teinosuke Kinugasa of a newspaper serial originally written by Otokichi Mikami that was used for the 1935 version. There is an opera, An Actor's Revenge, with music by Minoru Miki and libretto by James Kirkup and a 2008 NHK production of the same story, with Yukinojō and Yamitaro played by Hideaki Takizawa.

Arbor Low

Arbor Low is a Neolithic henge monument in the Peak District, Derbyshire, England. Arbor Low is in the White Peak area of the Peak District: the White Peak is a carboniferous limestone plateau lying between approximately 200 and 400 metres (660 and 1,310 ft) OD. The site is private property, accessible through the courtesy of the owner, and is managed by the Peak District National Park Authority. As of February 2017, an entrance fee of £1 per adult is requested by the landowner. Children can enter free of charge.


Avebury () is a Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles, around the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, in southwest England. One of the best known prehistoric sites in Britain, it contains the largest megalithic stone circle in the world. It is both a tourist attraction and a place of religious importance to contemporary pagans.

Constructed over several hundred years in the Third Millennium BC, during the Neolithic, or New Stone Age, the monument comprises a large henge (a bank and a ditch) with a large outer stone circle and two separate smaller stone circles situated inside the centre of the monument. Its original purpose is unknown, although archaeologists believe that it was most likely used for some form of ritual or ceremony. The Avebury monument is a part of a larger prehistoric landscape containing several older monuments nearby, including West Kennet Long Barrow, Windmill Hill and Silbury Hill.

By the Iron Age, the site had been effectively abandoned, with some evidence of human activity on the site during the Roman occupation. During the Early Middle Ages, a village first began to be built around the monument, eventually extending into it. In the Late Medieval and Early Modern periods, local people destroyed many of the standing stones around the henge, both for religious and practical reasons. The antiquarians John Aubrey and William Stukeley, however, took an interest in Avebury during the 17th century, and recorded much of the site before its destruction. Archaeological investigation followed in the 20th century, led primarily by Alexander Keiller, who oversaw a project which reconstructed much of the monument.

Avebury is owned and managed by the National Trust. It has been designated a Scheduled Ancient Monument, as well as a World Heritage Site, in the latter capacity being seen as a part of the wider prehistoric landscape of Wiltshire known as Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites.

Ballynahatty, County Down

Ballynahatty (from Irish Baile na hÁite Tí, meaning 'townland of the house site') is a townland in County Down, Northern Ireland. It lies on the southern edge of Belfast. It contains the Giants Ring, a henge monument, consisting of a circular enclosure, 200m in diameter, surrounded with a 4m high earthwork bank with five entrances, and a small neolithic passage grave slightly off-centre. The Giant's Ring is a State Care Historic Monument at grid ref: J3272 6770.The remains of a woman who was part of a Neolithic farming community were discovered buried in the henge in 1855. Now known as Ballynahatty woman, her genome was sequenced in 2015 and reveals a woman with black hair and brown eyes typical of those with Mediterranean heritage. This implies that Ballynahatty woman was part of a group of early European farmers that migrated across Europe in the Neolithic period, originating in the Middle East.

Ballynahatty is also a townland, in the parish of Drumragh, County Tyrone.

Bryn Celli Ddu

Bryn Celli Ddu is a prehistoric site on the Welsh island of Anglesey located near Llanddaniel Fab. Its name means 'the mound in the dark grove'. It was archaeologically excavated between 1928 and 1929. Visitors can get inside the mound through a stone passage to the burial chamber, and it is the centrepiece of a major Neolithic Scheduled Monument in the care of Cadw. The presence of a mysterious pillar within the burial chamber, the reproduction of the 'Pattern Stone', carved with sinuous serpentine designs, and the fact that the site was once a henge with a stone circle, and may have been used to plot the date of the summer solstice have all attracted much interest.

Die Glocke

Die Glocke (German: [diː ˈɡlɔkə], "The Bell") was a purported top secret Nazi scientific technological device, secret weapon, or Wunderwaffe. Described by Polish journalist and author Igor Witkowski in Prawda o Wunderwaffe (2000), it was later popularized by military journalist and author Nick Cook as well as by writers such as Joseph P. Farrell and others who associate it with Nazi occultism and antigravity or free energy research.

Die Glocke has become a popular subject of speculation and a following similar to science fiction fandom exists around it and other alleged Nazi "miracle weapons" or Wunderwaffen. Mainstream reviewers such as former aerospace scientist David Myhra express skepticism that such a device existed.

Drove Cottage Henge

Drove Cottage Henge (sometimes called Hunter's Lodge Henge) is a Scheduled Ancient Monument in the Priddy parish of Somerset, England. It is located 370 metres (1,210 ft) north of Drove Cottage. The site is a ceremonial Neolithic location. Since this henge is one of only around 80 henges throughout England, it is considered to be nationally important.

Goseck circle

The Goseck circle (German: Sonnenobservatorium Goseck) is a Neolithic structure in Goseck in the Burgenlandkreis district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

Its construction is dated to approximately the 49th century B.C., and it seems to have remained in use until about the 47th century B.C. It may thus be the oldest and best known of the circular enclosures associated with the Central European Neolithic. Currently, the site is presented officially by the state archaeologists and the local association that looks after it as a ritual or cult structure.

The circle consists of a concentric ditch 75 metres (246 feet) across and two palisade rings containing entrances in places aligned with sunrise and sunset on the winter solstice days and smaller entrances aligned with the summer solstice. Marketing materials have described it as one of the oldest "Solar observatories" in the world, but sunrise and sunset during winter and summer solstices are the only evident astronomical alignments emphasized in the remains of the structure.

The existence of the site was made public in August 2003, and it was opened for visitors in December 2005.

Grooved ware

Grooved ware is the name given to a pottery style of the British Neolithic. Its manufacturers are sometimes known as the Grooved ware people. Unlike the later Beaker ware, Grooved culture was not an import from the continent but seems to have developed in Orkney, early in the 3rd millennium BC, and was soon adopted in Britain and Ireland.The diagnostic shape for the style is a flat-bottomed pot with straight sides sloping outwards and grooved decoration around the top. Beyond this the pottery comes in many varieties, some with complex geometric decorations others with applique bands added. The latter has led some archaeologists to argue that the style is a skeuomorph and is derived from wicker basketry.

Grooved ware pots excavated at Balfarg in Fife have been chemically analysed to determine their contents. It appears that some of the vessels there may have been used to hold black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) which is a poison and a powerful hallucinogen.

Since many Grooved ware pots have been found at henge sites and in burials, it is possible that they may have had a ritual purpose as well as a functional one. Grooved ware comes in many sizes, some vessels are extremely large, c. 30 gallons, and would be suitable for fermentation. The majority are smaller, ranging from jug- to cup-size, and could be used for serving and drinking. The theory that the first British farmers (c. 4000 BC) had the knowledge and ability to make ale from their crops with their pottery appears to be controversial and not yet widely discussed by the archaeological community.

The earliest examples have been found in Orkney and may have evolved from earlier Unstan ware bowls. The recent excavations at nearby Ness of Brodgar have revealed many sherds of finely decorated Grooved ware pottery, some of it representing very large pots. A large number of drinking vessels have also been identified. The style soon spread and it was used by the builders of the first phase of Stonehenge. Grooved ware pottery has been found in abundance in recent excavations at Durrington Walls and Marden Henge in Wiltshire. Here, the feasting would have involved drinking ale and eating pork. Smaller quantities of Grooved ware have been found at the nearby site of Figsbury Ring.

Grooved ware was previously referred to as Rinyo-Clacton ware, first identified by Stuart Piggott in the 1950s and named after sites where it was found. Rinyo is a neolithic settlement on the island of Rousay, Orkney. The site at Clacton now lies under the sea.

One way the tradition may have spread is through trade routes up the west coast of Britain. What seems unusual is that although they shared the same style of pottery, different regions still maintained vastly different traditions. Evidence at some early Henges (Mayburgh Henge, Ring of Brodgar, Arbor Low) suggests that there were staging and trading points on a national 'motorway' during the Neolithic and Bronze Age. This evidence perhaps explains how Cumbrian stone axes found their way to Orkney.

Unstan ware, a variation on grooved ware, emerged in Orkney. The people who used Unstan ware had totally different burial practices but managed to co-exist with their Grooved ware counterparts. Some hybrid chambered cairns have emerged in this region, containing architectural features of both the Maeshowe subclass and the Orkney-Cromarty stalled subclasses of cairn.

Heart of Neolithic Orkney

Heart of Neolithic Orkney refers to a group of Neolithic monuments found on the Mainland, one of the islands of Orkney, Scotland. The name was adopted by UNESCO when it proclaimed these sites as a World Heritage Site in 1999.

The site of patrimony currently consists of four sites:

Maeshowe – a unique chambered cairn and passage grave, aligned so that its central chamber is illuminated on the winter solstice. It was looted by Vikings who left one of the largest collections of runic inscriptions in the world.

Standing Stones of Stenness – the four remaining megaliths of a henge, the largest of which is 6 metres (19 ft) high.

Ring of Brodgar – a stone circle 104 metres in diameter, originally composed of 60 stones set within a circular ditch up to 3 metres deep and 10 metres wide, forming a henge monument. It has been estimated that the structure took 80,000 man-hours to construct.

Skara Brae – a cluster of eight houses making up Northern Europe’s best-preserved Neolithic village.

Ness of Brodgar is an archaeological site between the Ring of Brodgar and the Stones of Stenness that has provided evidence of housing, decorated stone slabs, a massive stone wall with foundations, and a large building described as a Neolithic "cathedral". Although it is not part of the World Heritage Site, the Ness of Brodgar "contribute[s] greatly to our understanding of the WHS" according to Historic Scotland, which manages most of the site.In 2008, UNESCO expressed concern about plans by the local council to "erect three large 72 metres wind turbines to the north-west of the Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brogdar" that might damage the site.

Muir of Ord

Muir of Ord (Scottish Gaelic: Am Blàr Dubh) is a village in Highland, Scotland. It is situated near the western boundary of the Black Isle, about 9 miles (14 km) west of the city of Inverness and 5 1⁄2 miles (9 km) south of Dingwall. The village has a population of 2,690 and sits 35 metres (115 ft) above sea level.

Ring of Brodgar

The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar, or Ring o' Brodgar) is a Neolithic henge and stone circle about 6 miles north-east of Stromness on the Mainland, the largest island in Orkney, Scotland. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the Heart of Neolithic Orkney.

Spirit of the Age (album)

Spirit of the Age is a 1988 compilation album by the British space rock group Hawkwind covering their Charisma Records period 1976–1979. It was issued by Virgin Records after they had acquired the Charisma catalogue, to test whether there was a viable market for the Hawkwind albums included in the deal. There was, and the company then re-issued each of the four albums the following year as part of the Compact price series.

In 1992, Virgin wished to include a new Hawkwind compilation, Tales from Atom Henge: The Robert Calvert Years, as part of their Virgin Universal series. The band's fan club editor, Brian Tawn, was approached to compile this new release, but chose to replicate the original compilation album with the exception of two changes: the addition of the previously hard to find single B-sides "Honky Dorky" and "The Dream of Isis", and the omission of "The Forge of Vulcan" in order to make space.


Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, two miles (3 km) west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet (4.0 m) high, seven feet (2.1 m) wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC.One of the most famous landmarks in the United Kingdom, Stonehenge is regarded as a British cultural icon. It has been a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument since 1882 when legislation to protect historic monuments was first successfully introduced in Britain. The site and its surroundings were added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986. Stonehenge is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage; the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust.Stonehenge could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. Deposits containing human bone date from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug, and continued for at least another five hundred years.

The Bull Ring

The Bull Ring is a Class II henge that was built in the late Neolithic period near Dove Holes in Derbyshire, England.It has coordinates 53.300695°N 1.884423°W / 53.300695; -1.884423

(grid reference SK 0785 7823), and is National Monument number 23282. There are also two barrows about 20m away from the henge; one oval, one bowl.The henge consists of a large, circular earthwork, which is currently about 1 metre (3 ft) high and 9–11 metres (30–36 ft) wide; however it was originally 2 metres (7 ft) high and 5.5–7 metres (18–23 ft) wide. The henge has a ditch on the inside, which varies between 0.5 and 1 metre (1 ft 8 in and 3 ft 3 in) deep and 8 and 12 metres (26 and 39 ft) wide; it was originally 1.2–2 metres (3 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) deep and 5–6.5 metres (16–21 ft) wide. The ditch and bank are separated by a berm, which was originally 5 metres (16 ft) wide. It encloses an area 53 (north–south) by 46 (east–west) metres, with entrances to the north and south, each of which have a causeway across the ditch. A skeleton was reputedly found near the north entrance; this entrance was also damaged in the 19th century by quarrying. The centre of the henge was ploughed in the 18th century; a drystone wall was also built across the site during the same era.A single standing stone (orthostat) was recorded as remaining in 1789 by Pilkington, potentially the remnant of a stone circle. It has been suggested that stones from the henge were used as sleepers for the Peak Forest Tramway circa 1790.A minor excavation was carried out in the west ditch in 1902; this reputedly discovered some pottery sherds and flint flakes, which have since been lost. A trial excavation by Oxford University Archaeological Society in 1949 established that the ring has two entrances, and also provided information about the original size of the bank and ditch. However, it did not provide any evidence of stones on the site. The excavation also turned up flint flakes, as well as a rim from a pottery food vessel.A third excavation was carried out in 1984 outside the south entrance, which found further flint flakes and pottery, several pits, and stakeholes of a fence following the henge bank, which are potentially original features of the henge. Most recently, Magnetometer and earth resistance surveys were carried out in 2000, with no conclusive results.The oval barrow to the south-west of the henge is about 27 by 21 metres (89 ft × 69 ft), and is approximately 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in) high. It was constructed some time in the early to mid-Neolithic period. A later (late Neolithic to late Bronze Age) bowl barrow is superimposed on it. The summit of the oval barrow was disturbed by a World War II slit trench; the edges of the barrow have also been disturbed by ploughing as well as a drystone wall, which has subsequently been removed. The barrow has not been excavated.

The Wallflower (manga)

The Wallflower (Japanese: ヤマトナデシコ七変化, Hepburn: Yamato nadeshiko Shichi Henge, lit. "Perfect Girl Evolution") is a manga series written by Tomoko Hayakawa. The individual chapters have been serialized in Bessatsu Friend since 2000, and in 36 tankōbon volumes in Japan by Kodansha. The series was licensed for an English language release in North America by Del Rey Manga and in Singapore by Chuang Yi, under the name My Fair Lady. The series ended in January 2015 after 36 volumes.Nippon Animation adapted part of the manga series into a twenty-five episode anime series which aired on TV Tokyo and TV Aichi from October 3, 2006 through March 27, 2007. The anime adaptation has been licensed for Region 1 release by A.D. Vision, who paid $500,000. In 2008, The WallFlower became one of over 30 ADV titles whose North American rights were transferred to Funimation Entertainment.

Thornborough Henges

The Thornborough Henges are an unusual ancient monument complex that includes the three aligned henges that give the site its name. The complex is located near the village of Thornborough, close to the town of Masham in North Yorkshire, England. The complex includes many large ancient structures including a cursus, henges, burial grounds and settlements. They are thought to have been part of a Neolithic and Bronze Age 'ritual landscape' comparable to Salisbury Plain and date from between 3500 and 2500 BC. This monument complex has been called 'The Stonehenge of the North'. Historic England considers its landscape comparable in ceremonial importance to better known sites such as Stonehenge, Avebury, and Orkney.In recent decades, there has been public concern about the impact on the ritual landscape of quarrying by Tarmac.


Woodhenge is a Neolithic Class II henge and timber circle monument within the Stonehenge World Heritage Site in Wiltshire, England. It is 2 miles (3.2 km) north-east of Stonehenge, just north of the town of Amesbury.

European megaliths
United Kingdom
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