Helorus

Helorus, Heloros, Helorum, or Elorus (Greek: Ἔλωρος or Ἕλωρος, Ptol., Steph. B. or Ἕλωρον, Scyl.; Italian: Eloro), was an ancient greek city of Sicily, situated near the east coast, about 40 km south of Syracuse and on the banks of the river of the same name.[1] It is currently an archaeological site in the modern comune of Noto.[2]

Helorus
Eloro-Sito-Archeologico
The archaeological site of Helorus
Helorus is located in Italy
Helorus
Shown within Italy
LocationNoto, Province of Syracuse, Sicily, Italy
Coordinates36°50′32″N 15°06′34″E / 36.84222°N 15.10944°ECoordinates: 36°50′32″N 15°06′34″E / 36.84222°N 15.10944°E
Satellite ofSyracuse
Site notes
ManagementSoprintendenza BB.CC.AA. di Siracusa
Public accessYes
WebsiteArea Archeologica di Eloro ‹See Tfd›(in Italian)

History

We have no account of its origin, but it was probably a colony of Syracuse, of which it appears to have continued always a dependency. The name is first found in Scylax;[3] for, though Thucydides repeatedly mentions the road leading to Helorus from Syracuse,[4] which was that followed by the Athenians in their disastrous retreat, he never speaks of the town itself. It was one of the cities which remained the under the government of Hieron II by the treaty concluded with him by the Romans, in 263 BCE:[5] and, having during the Second Punic War declared in favor of the Carthaginians, was recovered by Marcus Claudius Marcellus in 214 BCE.[6]

Under the Romans it appears to have been dependent on Syracuse, and had perhaps no separate municipal existence, though in a passage of Cicero[7] it appears to be noticed as a civitas. Its name is again mentioned by the orator (Id. v. 34) as a maritime town where the squadron fitted out by Verres was attacked by pirates: but it does not occur in Pliny's list of the towns of Sicily; though he elsewhere[8] mentions it as a castellum on the river of the same name: and Ptolemy[9] speaks of a city of Helorus.

Its ruins were still visible in the days of Fazello; a little to the north of the river Helorus, and about a mile from the sea-coast. The most conspicuous of them were the remains of a theatre, called by the country people Colisseo: but great part of the walls and other buildings could be traced. The extent of them was, however, inconsiderable. These are now said to have disappeared, but there still remains between this site and the sea a curious column or monument, built of large stones, rising on a square pedestal.

This is commonly regarded as a kind of trophy, erected by the Syracusans to commemorate their victory over the Athenians. But there is no foundation for this belief: had it been so designed, it would certainly have been erected on the banks of the river Asinarus, which the Athenians never succeeded in crossing.[10]

References

  1. ^ Steph. B. s. v.; Vib. Seq. p. 11.
  2. ^ Wilson, R., DARMC, R. Talbert, S. Gillies, T. Elliott, J. Becker. "Places: 462234 (Helorus)". Pleiades. Retrieved March 22, 2013.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ § 13. p. 168;
  4. ^ τὴν Ἑλωρίνην ὁδόν, vi. 66, 70, vii. 80.
  5. ^ Diodorus xxiii. Exc. H. p. 50, where the name is corruptly written Αἰλώρων.
  6. ^ (Livy xxiv. 35.
  7. ^ In Verrem iii. 48.
  8. ^ xxxii. 2.
  9. ^ iii. 4. § 15.
  10. ^ Tommaso Fazello. iv. 2. p. 215; Cluverius Sicil. p. 186; William Henry Smyth, Sicily, p. 179; Richard Hoare, Classical Tour, vol ii. p. 136.

External links

Ancient Greek dialects

Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the common Koine Greek of the Hellenistic period, was divided into several varieties.

Most of these varieties are known only from inscriptions, but a few of them, principally Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic, are also represented in the literary canon alongside the dominant Attic form of literary Greek.

Likewise, Modern Greek is divided into several dialects, most derived from Koine Greek.

Cassibile (river)

The Cassibile (Ancient Greek: Κακύπαρις, romanized: Kakyparis, Latin: Cacyparis) is a 30 km long river located in south-eastern Sicily. The river rises from the Serra Porcari, near Palazzolo Acreide, in the Hyblaean Mountains which form the main part of the mountainous Sicilian southeast. It flows into the Ionian Sea between Capo Negro and Punta del Cane, 23 km south of Syracuse. The river has created a series of canyons and near Avola Antica several waterfalls and small lakes can be accessed by the ancient Scala Cruci staircase.

The river is mentioned by Thucydides during the retreat of the Athenians from Syracuse; from whom we learn that it was the first river they met with in proceeding along the coast road towards Helorus, and had a course of some length, so as to afford a passage up its valley into the interior.

Cycladic culture

Cycladic culture (also known as Cycladic civilisation or, chronologically, as Cycladic chronology) was a Bronze Age culture (c. 3200–c. 1050 BC) found throughout the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea. In chronological terms, it is a relative dating system for artefacts which broadly complements Helladic chronology (mainland Greece) and Minoan chronology (Crete) during the same period of time.

Demonax

Demonax (Greek: Δημώναξ, Dēmōnax, gen.: Δημώνακτος; c. AD 70 – c. 170) was a Greek Cynic philosopher. Born in Cyprus, he moved to Athens, where his wisdom, and his skill in solving disputes, earned him the admiration of the citizens. He taught Lucian, who wrote a Life of Demonax in praise of his teacher. When he died he received a magnificent public funeral.

Greece in the Roman era

Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when Ancient Greece was dominated by the Roman Republic (509 – 27 BC), the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 395), and the Byzantine Empire (AD 395 – 1453). The Roman era of Greek history began with the Corinthian defeat in the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. However, before the Achaean War, the Roman Republic had been steadily gaining control of mainland Greece by defeating the Kingdom of Macedon in a series of conflicts known as the Macedonian Wars. The Fourth Macedonian War ended at the Battle of Pydna in 148 BC and defeat of the Macedonian royal pretender Andriscus.

The definitive Roman occupation of the Greek world was established after the Battle of Actium (31 BC), in which Augustus defeated Cleopatra VII, the Greek Ptolemaic queen of Egypt, and the Roman general Mark Antony, and afterwards conquered Alexandria (32 BC), the last great city of Hellenistic Greece. The Roman era of Greek history continued with Emperor Constantine the Great's adoption of Byzantium as Nova Roma, the capital city of the Roman Empire; in AD 330, the city was renamed Constantinople; afterwards, the Byzantine Empire was a generally Greek-speaking polity.

Greek Dark Ages

The Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time),

is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis (city states) in the 9th century BC.

The archaeological evidence shows a widespread collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean world at the outset of the period, as the great palaces and cities of the Mycenaeans were destroyed or abandoned. At about the same time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed and in Egypt the New Kingdom fell into disarray that led to the Third Intermediate Period.

Following the collapse, fewer and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation. In Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased. The decoration on Greek pottery after about 1100 BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler, generally geometric styles (1000–700 BC).

It was previously thought that all contact was lost between mainland Hellenes and foreign powers during this period, yielding little cultural progress or growth, but artifacts from excavations at Lefkandi on the Lelantine Plain in Euboea show that significant cultural and trade links with the east, particularly the Levant coast, developed from c. 900 BC onwards. Additionally, evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al-Mina.

Heloridae

Heloridae is a family of wasps in the order Hymenoptera. There is at least one genus, Helorus, and at least two described species in Heloridae.

Helorum

Helorum may refer to several different things:

Helorum, a figure in the Book of Mormon

Helorus, an ancient city in Sicily

Helorus (insect)

Helorus is a genus of wasps in the family Heloridae. There are about seven described species in Helorus.

Helorus (river)

Helorus or Elorus (Greek: Ἕλωρος or Ἕλωρος, which directly translates to ellor, or elsewhere), is a river in the southeast of Sicily, the most considerable which occurs between Syracuse and Cape Pachynum. It is now called Tellaro, evidently a corruption of Helorus.

It rises in the hills between Palazzolo (ancient Acrae) and Giarratana, and flows at first to the south, then turns eastward, and enters the sea about 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Syracuse. Near its mouth stood the town of the same name. In the upper part of its course it is a mountain stream, flowing over a rugged and rocky bed, whence Silius Italicus calls it undae clamosus Helorus (xiv. 269); but near its mouth it becomes almost perfectly stagnant, and liable to frequent inundations. Hence Virgil justly speaks of praepingue solum stagnantis Helori (Aen. iii. 698). Ovid praises the beauty of the valley through which it flows, which he terms Helornia Tempe (Fast. iv. 476). Several ancient authors mention that the stagnant pools at the mouth of the river abounded in fish, which were said to be so tame that they would eat out of the hand, in the same manner as was afterwards not uncommon in the fishponds of the Romans. (Apollodorus of Athens ap. Steph. Byz. v. Ἔλωρος; Athenaeus, viii. p. 331; Plin. xxxii. 2. s. 7.)

It was on the banks of the Helorus, at a spot called Ἀρέας πόρος the precise locality of which cannot be determined, that the Syracusans were defeated by Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, in a great battle. (Herod. vii. 154; Pind. Nem. ix. 95; and Schol. ad loc.)

Hyblaean Mountains

The Hyblaean Mountains (Italian: Monti Iblei) is a mountain range in south-eastern Sicily, Italy. It straddles the provinces of Ragusa, Syracuse and Catania. The highest peak of the range is Monte Lauro, at 986 m.

List of geological features on Dione

This is a list of named geological features on Dione, a moon of Saturn. Dionean geological features are named after people and places in Roman mythology.

List of rivers of Italy

This is a list of rivers which are at least partially located in Italy. They are organized according to what body of water they drain into, with the exceptions of Sicily and Sardinia, which are listed separately. At the bottom all of the rivers are listed alphabetically.

Melanippus

The name Melanippus is the masculine counterpart of Melanippe.In Greek mythology, there were eleven people named Melanippus (Ancient Greek: Μελάνιππος, Melánippos):

Melanippus, one of the sons of Agrius and possibly Dia, daughter of King Porthaon of Calydon. Along with his brothers, except Thersites, he was killed by Diomedes.

Melanippus or Menalippus, brother of Tydeus and thus possible son of Oeneus, king of Calydon and Periboea. He was accidentally slain by Tydeus during a hunt. In some accounts, the murdered brother of Tydeus was called Olenias.

Melanippus, son of Perigune and Theseus, the father of Ioxus who, together with Ornytus, led a colony to Caria and became the ancestor of the family Ioxides.

Melanippus, sometimes misspelled "Menalippus", son of Astacus (hence referred to by the patronymic Astacides in Ovid), defender of Thebes in Seven Against Thebes. In Aeschylus' play, he defended the Proitid gate against Tydeus. He killed two of the seven attacking champions, Mecisteus and Tydeus, but was killed by either Amphiaraus, or by Tydeus himself as he died. (In versions where Melanippus is killed by someone other than Tydeus, the slayer decapitates him and delivers his head to Tydeus). Tydeus broke Melanippus' skull open and consumed his brain, which disgusted Athena so that she gave up her intent of making Tydeus immortal. Herodotus relates how in historical times, Cleisthenes abolished the hero cult of Adrastus in Sicyon in favour of that of Melanippus.

Melanippus, son of Hicetaon and a native of Percote. He fought under Hector, wishing to avenge the death of his cousin Dolops, and was killed by Antilochus during the Trojan War.

Melanippus, one of the 50 sons of Priam. His mother was a woman other than Hecuba. He fought in the Trojan War and was killed by Teucer. In some accounts, Melanippus was described to have a plume of horsehair like his brother Idaeus.

Melanippus, yet another Trojan, who was killed by Patroclus.

Melanippus, one of the Achaeans who fought at Troy. He was one of those who helped Odysseus carry the gifts at the point of reconciliation between Achilles and Agamemnon.

Melanippus, son of Ares and Triteia, daughter of the sea-god Triton, founder of the city of Tritaia, which he named after his own mother.

Melanippus, a young man of Patrae who was in love with Comaetho, but the parents on both sides were against their marriage. Melanippus and Comaetho met secretly in the temple of Artemis, where the girl served as priestess, and had sex there. The outraged goddess cursed the country with plague and famine; in order to put an end to the calamity, the inhabitants of Patrae were instructed by the oracle of Delphi to sacrifice both lovers to the goddess and, from then on, to sacrifice the handsomest young man and the most beautiful girl of the city each year, until a new strange deity is introduced in Patrae. The practice lasted until Eurypylus, son of Euaemon, on his way back from Troy, brought an image of Dionysus to Patrae.

Melanippus, son of Helorus, leader of the Mysian contingent in the Trojan War, killed by Neoptolemus.

Menalippus (misspelling of "Melanippus"? cf. #3 above), a son of Acastus. He, alongside his brother Pleisthenes and their servant Cinyras, was killed by Neoptolemus as they were hunting near the latter's grandfather Peleus' hideout, since Acastus and his family had been hostile towards Peleus.

Notacanthus

Notacanthus is a genus of spiny eels in the family Notacanthidae.

Noto

Noto (Sicilian: Notu; Latin: Netum) is a city and comune in the Province of Syracuse, Sicily, Italy. It is 32 kilometres (20 mi) southwest of the city of Syracuse at the foot of the Iblean Mountains. It lends its name to the surrounding area Val di Noto. In 2002 Noto and its church were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Paideia

In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (; Greek: παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis. It incorporated both practical, subject-based schooling and a focus upon the socialization of individuals within the aristocratic order of the polis. The practical aspects of this education included subjects subsumed under the modern designation of the liberal arts (rhetoric, grammar, and philosophy are examples), as well as scientific disciplines like arithmetic and medicine. An ideal and successful member of the polis would possess intellectual, moral and physical refinement, so training in gymnastics and wrestling was valued for its effect on the body alongside the moral education which the Greeks believed was imparted by the study of music, poetry, and philosophy. This approach to the rearing of a well-rounded Greek male was common to the Greek-speaking world, with the exception of Sparta where a rigid and militaristic form of education known as the agoge was practiced.

Phylakopi I culture

The Phylakopi I culture (Greek: Φυλακωπή) refers to a "cultural" dating system used for the Cycladic culture that flourished during the early Bronze Age in Greece. It spans the period ca. 2300-2000 BC and was named by Colin Renfrew, after the settlement of Phylakopi on the Cycladic island of Milos. Other archaeologists describe this period as the Early Cycladic III (ECIII).

Archaeological sites in Sicily
Province of Agrigento
Province of Caltanissetta
Province of Catania
Province of Enna
Province of Messina
Province of Palermo
Province of Ragusa
Province of Syracuse
Province of Trapani

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