Helophorus

Helophorus ís the only genus in the beetle family Helophoridae (traditionally included within Hydrophilidae as the subfamily Helophorinae). They are small insects, found mainly in the Holarctic region (150 occur in Palearctic and 41 species in North America), but two or three species also live in the Afrotropical region, Central America and one in the Indomalayan region (northern India).[1][2]

Helophorus
Helophorus aquaticus01
Helophorus aquaticus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
Superfamily:
Family:
Helophoridae

Leach, 1815
Genus:
Helophorus

Fabricius, 1775
Species

see text

Helophorus grandis up
Helophorus grandis

Characteristics

Length about 2–9 mm. Body elongate with outline more or less interrupted between pronotum and elytra. On pronotum they have granulate sculpture and unique pattern of 7 longitudinal grooves. Ventral surface is with fine microsculpture, pubescent. Larvae are with long 3 segmented urogomphi and simple (non lobate) 8th tergum. They have four-segmented legs and a 10 segmented abdomen (with the 10th segment being a bit reduced).[3] Helophorus larvae may damage wheat, turnips, rutabagas, and rapeseed.

Systematics and evolution

Helophoridae belong to the superfamily Hydrophiloidea, and may be the sister taxon of Hydrochidae,[4] or a clade comprising Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae and Spercheidae or Georissidae and Epimetopidae.[5] Earlier systems included all of these families in the family Hydrophilidae. There are about 180 living species, including:

  • Helophorus abeillei
  • Helophorus aequalis
  • Helophorus alternans
  • Helophorus alternatus
  • Helophorus angustatus
  • Helophorus angusticollis
  • Helophorus aquaticus
  • Helophorus arcticus
  • Helophorus artus
  • Helophorus arvernicus
  • Helophorus asturiensis
  • Helophorus auricollis
  • Helophorus barbarae
  • Helophorus bergrothi
  • Helophorus biltoni
  • Helophorus brevipalpis
  • Helophorus browni
  • Helophorus californicus
  • Helophorus carsoni
  • Helophorus chamberlaini
  • Helophorus columbianus
  • Helophorus croaticus
  • Helophorus cuspifer
  • Helophorus daedalus
  • Helophorus difficilis
  • Helophorus discrepans
  • Helophorus dixoni
  • Helophorus dorsalis
  • Helophorus eclectus
  • Helophorus faustianus
  • Helophorus fenderi
  • Helophorus flavipes
  • Helophorus fortis
  • Helophorus frater
  • Helophorus frosti
  • Helophorus fulgidicollis
  • Helophorus furius
  • Helophorus glacialis
  • Helophorus grandis
  • Helophorus granularis
  • Helophorus griseus
  • Helophorus guttulus
  • Helophorus hammondi
  • Helophorus hatchi
  • Helophorus hilaris
  • Helophorus hirsutiventris
  • Helophorus inflectus
  • Helophorus illustris
  • Helophorus jacutus
  • Helophorus kaszabianus
  • Helophorus kerimi
  • Helophorus khnzoryani
  • Helophorus kirgisicus
  • Helophorus korotyaevi
  • Helophorus kozlovi
  • Helophorus kryzanovskii
  • Helophorus lacustris
  • Helophorus lapponicus
  • Helophorus laticollis
  • Helophorus latipennis
  • Helophorus lecontei
  • Helophorus ledatus
  • Helophorus leechi
  • Helophorus leontis
  • Helophorus lewisi
  • Helophorus liguricus
  • Helophorus linearis
  • Helophorus linearoides
  • Helophorus lineatus
  • Helophorus longitarsis
  • Helophorus maculatus
  • Helophorus marginicollis
  • Helophorus mervensis
  • Helophorus micans
  • Helophorus minutus
  • Helophorus montenegrinus
  • Helophorus nanus
  • Helophorus niger
  • Helophorus nigricans
  • Helophorus nitiduloides
  • Helophorus nitidulus
  • Helophorus nubilus
  • Helophorus oblongus
  • Helophorus obscurus
  • Helophorus orchymonti
  • Helophorus oregonus
  • Helophorus orientalis
  • Helophorus pallidipennis
  • Helophorus pallidus
  • Helophorus parajacutus
  • Helophorus paraminutus
  • Helophorus paramontanus
  • Helophorus paraspelendidus
  • Helophorus pitcheri
  • Helophorus ponticus
  • Helophorus poppii
  • Helophorus porculus
  • Helophorus pumilio
  • Helophorus redtenbacheri
  • Helophorus rinki
  • Helophorus robertsi
  • Helophorus rufipes
  • Helophorus schoedli
  • Helophorus schuhi
  • Helophorus sempervarians
  • Helophorus sibiricus
  • Helophorus similes
  • Helophorus smetanai
  • Helophorus splendidus
  • Helophorus strandi
  • Helophorus strigifrons
  • Helophorus subarcuatus
  • Helophorus subcarinatus
  • Helophorus syriacus
  • Helophorus terminassianae
  • Helophorus tuberculatus
  • Helophorus tumidus
  • Helophorus uvarovi
  • Helophorus zagrosicus

The genus is divided into many subgenera (Atracthelophorus, Cyphelophorus,Empleurus, Eutrichelophorus, Gephelophorus, Helophorus, Orphelophorus, Rhopalohelophorus and Transithelophorus).

References

  1. ^ Angus R.B., 1992. Insecta: Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Helophorinae, pp. XI + 144. In: Schwoerbel J. & Zwick P. (eds.), Süsswasserfauna von Mitteleuropa, Band 20/10-2. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin
  2. ^ Mart, A, Erman, O., A Study on Helophorus Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) Species. Turk. J. Zool. 25 (2001) 35-40
  3. ^ M.Hansen. Phylogeny and classification of the staphyliniform beetle families (Coleoptera). Biologiske Skrifter 48, Copenhagen, 1997
  4. ^ E.Anton, R.G.Beutel, On the Head Morphology and Systematic Position of Helophorus (Coleoptera: Hydrophiloidea: Helophoridae.)Zoologischer Anzeiger, Vol.242, 4, 2004
  5. ^ M.S.Caterino et al. On the constitution and phylogeny of Staphyliniformia (Insecta: Coleoptera), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol.34 - 3, 2005
Allen Confluence Gravels

The Allen Confluence Gravels is the name given to a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) in Northumberland, England. The site, listed since 1968, has an 'outstanding assemblage of river margin invertebrates.'

Curry and Hay Moors

Curry and Hay Moors (grid reference ST323273) is a 472.8 hectare (1168.1 acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Somerset, notified in 1992.

Curry and Hay Moors form part of the complex of grazing marshes known as the Somerset Levels and Moors. The low-lying site is situated adjacent to the River Tone which annually overtops, flooding the fields in winter. Soils are predominantly alluvial

clays overlying Altcar series peats. The flora and fauna of the ditches and rhynes is of national importance. Over 70 aquatic and bankside vascular plants have been recorded including frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus), wood club-rush (Scirpus sylvaticus) and lesser water-plantain (Baldellia ranunculoides). Over 100 species of aquatic invertebrates inhabit the ditches including one nationally rare soldier fly, (Odontomyia ornata) and 13 nationally scarce species including the water beetles Agabus uliginosus, Hydaticus transversalis and Helophorus nanus.

In winter the flooded fields provide food for large numbers of waterfowl with several thousand lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), hundreds of snipe (Gallinago gallinago) and smaller numbers of golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) regularly present. Over two hundred Bewick's swans (Cygnus bewickii) have been recorded, making the site an internationally important wintering ground for this species. Raptor species such as short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), merlin (Falco columbarius) and peregrine (Falco peregrinus) regularly hunt over the site in winter. Vertebrate species present include grass snake (Natrix natrix) and common frog Rana temporaria. Otters (Lutra lutra) are regularly recorded on the site.The moor was flooded during the winter flooding of 2013–14 on the Somerset Levels.

Helophorus auricollis

Helophorus auricollis is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China) and North America.

Helophorus grandis

Helophorus grandis is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in Africa, Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China), and North America.

Helophorus linearis

Helophorus linearis is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in Central America and North America.

Helophorus linearoides

Helophorus linearoides is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in North America.

Helophorus lineatus

Helophorus lineatus is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in North America.

Helophorus nitiduloides

Helophorus nitiduloides is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in North America.

Helophorus orientalis

Helophorus orientalis is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China), North America, and Southern Asia.

Helophorus sempervarians

Helophorus sempervarians is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in North America.

Helophorus sibiricus

Helophorus sibiricus is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in Northern Europe, Northern Asia, and Alaska. Fossils from Early Miocene sediments of the Irtysh River in western Siberia have been reliably assigned to this species, which means that Helophorus sibiricus existed already 16-23 million years ago.

Helophorus tuberculatus

Helophorus tuberculatus is a species of water scavenger beetle in the family Hydrophilidae. It is found in Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China) and North America.

List of beetles of Ireland

There are over 2,154 species of beetles species of Coleoptera native to Ireland. These are disposed in 84 families. By contrast there are 4,034 species of Coleoptera in the British Isles, consisting of 106 families . The largest beetle families in Ireland are the rove beetles (Staphylinidae) with 641 species, the weevils (Curculionidae) with 214 species, and the ground beetles (Carabidae) with 210 species.

List of the Cenozoic life of Alaska

This list of the Cenozoic life of Alaska contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Alaska and are between 66 million and 10,000 years of age.

List of the Cenozoic life of Washington (state)

This list of the Cenozoic life of Washington contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Washington and are between 66 million and 10,000 years of age.

List of the prehistoric life of Ohio

This list of the prehistoric life of Ohio contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Ohio.

List of the prehistoric life of Pennsylvania

This list of the prehistoric life of Pennsylvania contains the various prehistoric life-forms whose fossilized remains have been reported from within the US state of Pennsylvania.

Extant Coleoptera families

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