Hellenic languages

Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.[3] In most classifications, Hellenic consists of Greek alone,[4][5] but some linguists use the term Hellenic to refer to a group consisting of Greek proper and other varieties thought to be related but different enough to be separate languages, either among ancient neighbouring languages[6] or among modern spoken dialects.[7]

Hellenic
Greek
Geographic
distribution
Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Anatolia and the Black Sea region
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Greek
Subdivisions
ISO 639-5grk
Linguasphere56= (phylozone)
Glottologgree1276[2]

Greek and ancient Macedonian

A family under the name "Hellenic" has been suggested to group together Greek proper and the ancient Macedonian language, which is barely attested and whose degree of relatedness to Greek is not well known. The suggestion of a "Hellenic" group with two branches, in this context, represents the idea that Macedonian was not simply a dialect within Greek but a "sibling language" outside the group of Greek varieties proper.[6][8] Other approaches include Macedonian as a dialect of Greek proper or as an unclassified Paleo-Balkan language.[9]

Modern Hellenic languages

In addition, some linguists use the term "Hellenic" to refer to modern Greek in a narrow sense together with certain other, divergent modern varieties deemed separate languages on the basis of a lack of mutual intelligibility.[10] Separate language status is most often posited for Tsakonian,[10] which is thought to be uniquely a descendant of Doric rather than Attic Greek, followed by Pontic and Cappadocian Greek of Anatolia.[11] The Griko or Italiot varieties of southern Italy are also not readily intelligible to speakers of standard Greek.[12] Separate status is sometimes also argued for Cypriot, though this is not as easily justified.[13] In contrast, Yevanic (Jewish Greek) is mutually intelligible with standard Greek but is sometimes considered a separate language for ethnic and cultural reasons.[13] Greek linguistics traditionally treats all of these as dialects of a single language.[4][14][15]

Language tree

Hellenic 
 Greek 
 IonicAttic 

Standard Modern Greek

Yevanic

Cypriot Greek

Cappadocian Greek

Pontic

Crimean Greek (Mariupolitan)

Romano-Greek (a mixed language)

Italiot Greek 

Griko (Doric-influenced)

Calabrian Greek

Aeolic (extinct)

Arcadocypriot (extinct; related to Mycenaean?)

Pamphylian (extinct)

Mycenaean (extinct)

 Doric 

Tsakonian (Doric-influenced Koine?; critically endangered)

(?) Ancient Macedonian (extinct)

Classification

Hellenic constitutes a branch of the Indo-European language family. The ancient languages that might have been most closely related to it, ancient Macedonian[16] and Phrygian,[17] are not documented well enough to permit detailed comparison. Among Indo-European branches with living descendants, Greek is often argued to have the closest genetic ties with Armenian[18] (see also Graeco-Armenian) and Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan).[19][20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Graeco-Phrygian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Greek". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ In other contexts, "Hellenic" and "Greek" are generally synonyms.
  4. ^ a b Browning (1983), Medieval and Modern Greek, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Joseph, Brian D. and Irene Philippaki-Warburton (1987): Modern Greek. London: Routledge, p. 1.
  6. ^ a b B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the World's Major Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present. (Online Paper)
  7. ^ David Dalby. The Linguasphere Register of the World's Languages and Speech Communities (1999/2000, Linguasphere Press). Pp. 449-450.
  8. ^ LinguistList, Ancient Macedonian
  9. ^ For a survey of different views, see Brixhe C., Panayotou A. (1994), "Le Macédonien", in Bader, F. (ed.), Langues indo-européennes, Paris:CNRS éditions, 1994, pp 205–220.
  10. ^ a b Salminen, Tapani (2007). "Europe and North Asia". In Moseley, Christopher (ed.). Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 211–284.
  11. ^ Ethnologue: Family tree for Greek.
  12. ^ N. Nicholas (1999), The Story of Pu: The Grammaticalisation in Space and Time of a Modern Greek Complementiser. PhD Dissertation, University of Melbourne. p. 482f. (PDF)
  13. ^ a b Joseph, Brian; Tserdanelis, Georgios (2003). "Modern Greek". In Roelcke, Thorsten (ed.). Variationstypologie: Ein sprachtypologisches Handbuch der europäischen Sprachen. Berlin: de Gruyter. p. 836.
  14. ^ G. Horrocks (1997), Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers. London: Longman.
  15. ^ P. Trudgill (2002), Ausbau Sociolinguistics and Identity in Greece, in: P. Trudgill, Sociolinguistic Variation and Change, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  16. ^ Roger D. Woodard. "Introduction," The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, ed. Roger D. Woodard (2004, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-18), pp. 12-14.
    Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2004, p. 405.
  17. ^ Johannes Friedrich. Extinct Languages. Philosophical Library, 1957, pp. 146-147.
    Claude Brixhe. "Phrygian," The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages, ed. Roger D. Woodard, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 777-788), p. 780.
    Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2004, p. 403.
  18. ^ James Clackson. Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 11-12.
  19. ^ Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell, 2004, p. 181.
  20. ^ Henry M. Hoenigswald, "Greek," The Indo-European Languages, ed. Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat (Routledge, 1998 pp. 228-260), p. 228.
    BBC: Languages across Europe: Greek
Administrative divisions of Greece

Following the implementation on 1 January 2011 of the Kallikratis Plan, the administrative divisions of Greece consist of two main levels: the regions and the municipalities. In addition, a number of decentralized administrations overseeing the regions exist as part of the Ministry of the Interior, but are not entities of local government. The old prefectures were either abolished and split up or transformed into regional units in 2011. The administrative regions are divided into regional units which are further subdivided into municipalities.The Eastern Orthodox monastic community on Mount Athos is an autonomous self-governing entity.

Climate of Greece

The climate in Greece is predominantly Mediterranean. However, due to the country's unique geography, Greece has a remarkable range of micro-climates and local variations. To the west of the Pindus mountain range, the climate is generally wetter and has some maritime features. The east of the Pindus mountain range is generally drier and windier in summer. The highest peak is Mount Olympus, 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The north areas of Greece have a transitional climate between the continental and the Mediterranean climate. There are mountainous areas that have an alpine climate.

Geographic regions of Greece

The traditional geographic regions of Greece (Greek: γεωγραφικά διαμερίσματα, literally "geographic departments") are the country's main historical-geographic regions, and were also official administrative regional subdivisions of Greece until the 1987 administrative reform. Despite their replacement as first-level administrative units by the newly defined administrative regions (Greek: περιφέρειες), the nine traditional geographic divisions—six on the mainland and three island groups—are still widely referred to in unofficial contexts and in daily discourse.

As of 2011, the official administrative divisions of Greece consist of 13 regions (Greek: περιφέρειες)—nine on the mainland and four island groups—which are further subdivided into 74 regional units and 325 municipalities. Formerly, there were also 54 prefectures or prefectural-level administrations.

Government of Greece

Government of Greece (officially: Government of the Hellenic Republic; also Greek Government or Hellenic Government) is the government of the Third Hellenic Republic, reformed to its present form in 1974.The head of government is the Prime Minister of Greece. He recommends ministers and deputy ministers to the President of the Republic for an appointment. The prime minister, the ministers, and the alternate ministers belong to the Ministerial Council, the supreme decision-making committee. Usually, ministers and alternates sit in the Parliament. They are accountable to the Constitution. Deputy ministers are not members of the government.

Other collective government bodies, apart from the Ministerial Council, are the Committee on Institutions, the Government Council for Foreign Affairs and Defence and others, including particular government policy issues.

Graeco-Phrygian

Graeco-Phrygian () is a hypothetical clade of the Indo-European language family with two branches in turn: Greek and Phrygian. Greek has also been variously grouped with Armenian and Indo-Iranian (Graeco-Armenian; Graeco-Aryan), Ancient Macedonian (Graeco-Macedonian) and, more recently, Messapian. Greek and Ancient Macedonian are often classified under Hellenic; at other times, Hellenic is posited to consist of only Greek dialects. The linguist Václav Blažek states that, in regard to the classification of these languages, their surviving texts—because of their scarcity and/or their nature—cannot be quantified.The linguist Claude Brixhe points to the following features Greek and Phrygian are known to have in common and in common with no other language:

a certain class of masculine nouns in the nominative singular ending in -s

a certain class of denominal verbs

the pronoun auto-

the participial suffix -meno-

the stem kako-

and the conjunction ai

Greek Wikipedia

The Greek Wikipedia (also Hellenic Wikipedia, Elliniki Vikipedia, Greek: Ελληνική Βικιπαίδεια, also mentioned in Greek as Βικιπαιδεία) is the Greek-language edition of Wikipedia, the free online wikipedia. It was started on December 1, 2002. It surpassed the 10,000 article mark on May 16, 2006. As of May 23, 2019, it is the 47th largest Wikipedia, behind Slovenian and ahead of Galician.

Greek Wikipedia is the main free internet encyclopedia written in Greek. Its main competitor, Livepedia, started on 2004, had more than 100.000 articles. Many articles of Livepedia were republished articles from donations of various publishing houses and the site was also a wiki. Approximately 250 articles are coming at least partially from Livepedia, thanks to the Livepedia's use of GFDL until November 1, 2008. As of 2018, Greek Wikipedia's pageviews surpassed the 250 million annually. The daily pageviews of Greek Wikipedia vary within the year; peaking in the winter period (late November to mid March), while the months with the least pageviews are usually June, July and August. The active users are more than 1,000 today (as of May 15, 2019). The highest and lowest active users' numbers are recorded in the same period.

The community of Greek Wikipedia has organized some meetups as well. Since 2011, the Wikimedia User Group Greece has aided in the organization of various promotional activities, as well and some article contests.

Greek dress

Greek dress refers to the clothing of the Greek people and citizens of Greece from the antiquity to the modern times.

Greeks in Armenia

The Greeks of Armenia are, like the other groups of Caucasus Greeks, such as the Greeks in Georgia, are mainly descendants of the Pontic Greeks, who originally lived along the shores of the Black Sea, in the uplands of the Pontic Alps, and other parts of northeastern Anatolia. In their original homelands these Greek communities are called Pontic Greeks and Eastern Anatolia Greeks respectively. Seafaring Ionian Greeks settled around the southern shores of the Black Sea starting around 800 BC later expanding to coastal regions of modern Romania, Russia, Bulgaria and Ukraine. The Pontic Greeks lived for thousands of years almost isolated from the Greek peninsula, retaining elements of the Ancient Greek language and making Pontic Greek unintelligible to most other modern Hellenic languages. They were joined in the region by later waves of Greeks in the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine period, ranging from traders, scholars, churchmen, mercenaries, or refugees from elsewhere in Anatolia or the southern Balkans.

Grk

Grk or GRK may refer to:

Grk, Serbia

G protein-coupled receptor kinase

Green Rock Energy, an Australian energy company

Grk Bijeli, a white grape variety

Grk book series, and a dog character in the series

Hellenic languages

Killeen–Fort Hood Regional Airport, in Texas, United States

Robert Gray Army Airfield

Hellenic

Hellenic is a synonym for Greek. It means either:

of or pertaining to the Hellenic Republic (modern Greece) or Greek people (Hellenes, Greek: Έλληνες) and culture

of or pertaining to ancient Greece, ancient Greek people, culture and civilization.It may also refer to:

Hellenic Academy, an independent high school in Harare, Zimbabwe

Hellenic Airlines

Hellenic College, a liberal arts college in Brookline, Massachusetts

Hellenic College of London

Hellenic Conservatory

Hellenic FC, a football club in South Africa

The Hellenic languages, a branch of the Indo-European languages

Hellenic Parliament

Hellenic Petroleum (company)

Hellenic Post

Hellenic Primary & Nursery School, an independent primary school in Harare, Zimbabwe

Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund

Hellenic studies

Tampa Bay Hellenic, a women's soccer team in the United States

Hellenic (horse) (1987–2011), a thoroughbred racehorse

All pages with titles beginning with Hellenic

Infinitive

Infinitive (abbreviated INF) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. The word is derived from Late Latin [modus] infinitivus, a derivative of infinitus meaning "unlimited".

In traditional descriptions of English, the infinitive is the basic dictionary form of a verb when used non-finitely, with or without the particle to. Thus to go is an infinitive, as is go in a sentence like "I must go there" (but not in "I go there", where it is a finite verb). The form without to is called the bare infinitive, and the form with to is called the full infinitive or to-infinitive.

In many other languages the infinitive is a single word, often with a characteristic inflective ending, like morir ("(to) die") in Spanish, manger ("(to) eat") in French, portare ("(to) carry") in Latin, lieben ("(to) love") in German, etc. However, some languages have no infinitive forms. Many Native American languages, and some languages in Africa and Australia do not have direct equivalents to infinitives or verbal nouns. Instead, they use finite verb forms in ordinary clauses or various special constructions.

Being a verb, an infinitive may take objects and other complements and modifiers to form a verb phrase (called an infinitive phrase). Like other non-finite verb forms (like participles, converbs, gerunds and gerundives), infinitives do not generally have an expressed subject; thus an infinitive verb phrase also constitutes a complete non-finite clause, called an infinitive (infinitival) clause. Such phrases or clauses may play a variety of roles within sentences, often being nouns (for example being the subject of a sentence or being a complement of another verb), and sometimes being adverbs or other types of modifier. Many verb forms known as infinitives differ from gerunds (verbal nouns) in that they do not inflect for case or occur in adpositional phrases. Instead, infinitives often originate in earlier inflectional forms of verbal nouns. Unlike finite verbs, infinitives are not usually inflected for tense, person, etc. either, although some degree of inflection sometimes occurs; for example Latin has distinct active and passive infinitives.

Languages of the Balkans

This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries. With the exception of several Turkic languages, all of them belong to the Indo-European family. A subset of these languages is notable for forming a well-studied sprachbund, a group of languages that have developed some striking structural similarities over time.

List of Dewey Decimal classes

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) is structured around ten main classes covering the entire world of knowledge; each main class is further structured into ten hierarchical divisions, each having ten sections of increasing specificity. As a system of library classification the DDC is "arranged by discipline, not subject", so a topic like clothing is classed based on its disciplinary treatment (psychological influence of clothing at 155.95, customs associated with clothing at 391, and fashion design of clothing at 746.92) within the conceptual framework. The list below presents the ten main classes, hundred divisions, and thousand sections.

List of lakes of Greece

This is a list of lakes of Greece.

List of volcanoes in Greece

This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Greece.

Participle

A participle (PTCP) is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb. It is one of the types of nonfinite verb forms. Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχή (metokhḗ) "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).

Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated PRES or PRS) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in the present time. The present tense is used for actions in a time which are happening now. In order to explain and understand present tense, it is useful to imagine time as a line on which the past tense, the present and the future tense are positioned. The term present tense is usually used in descriptions of specific languages to refer to a particular grammatical form or set of forms; these may have a variety of uses, not all of which will necessarily refer to present time. For example, in the English sentence "My train leaves tomorrow morning", the verb form leaves is said to be in the present tense, even though in this particular context it refers to an event in future time. Similarly, in the historical present, the present tense is used to narrate events that occurred in the past.

There are two common types of present tense form in most Indo-European languages: the present indicative (the combination of present tense and indicative mood) and the present subjunctive (the combination of present tense and subjunctive mood). The present tense is mainly classified into four parts:

Simple Present

Present Perfect

Present Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous

Trade unions in Greece

Trade unions in Greece include:

GSEE

ADEDY

PAME

Greek Trade Union of Cleaners and Housekeepers

Anarcho-Syndicalist initiative Rocinante.

Tsakonian language

Tsakonian (also Tsaconian, Tzakonian or Tsakonic; Tsakonian: τσακώνικα, α τσακώνικα γρούσσα; Greek: τσακώνικα) is a modern Hellenic language which is both highly divergent from other spoken varieties of Modern Greek and, from a philological standpoint, is also linguistically classified separately from them. It is spoken in the Tsakonian region of the Peloponnese, Greece. Tsakonian descends from Doric, which was an Ancient Greek language on the Western branch of Hellenic languages, and it is its only living descendant (along with the debatable Maniot dialect of Modern Greek). Although Tsakonian is treated as a dialect of Modern Standard Greek, some compendia treat it as a separate language, since Modern Standard Greek descends from Ionic and Attic which are on the Eastern branch of the Hellenic languages, while Tsakonian (as a descendant of Doric) is the sole surviving member of the Western branch.

Tsakonian is critically endangered, with only a few hundred, mostly elderly, fluent speakers left. It is partially mutually intelligible with Standard Modern Greek.

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