Heisman Trophy

The Heisman Memorial Trophy (usually known colloquially as the Heisman Trophy or The Heisman), is awarded annually to a player in NCAA football. Winners epitomize great ability combined with diligence, perseverance, and hard work. It is presented by the Heisman Trophy Trust in early December before the postseason bowl games.

The award was created by the Downtown Athletic Club in 1935 to recognize "the most valuable college football player east of the Mississippi," and was first awarded to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger.[1][2] After the death in October 1936 of the Club's athletic director, John Heisman, the award was named in his honor and broadened to include players west of the Mississippi.[3][4] Heisman had been active in college athletics as a football player; a head football, basketball, and baseball coach; and an athletic director. It is the oldest of several overall awards in college football, including the Maxwell Award, Walter Camp Award, and the AP Player of the Year. The Heisman and the AP Player of the Year honor the most outstanding player, while the Maxwell and the Walter Camp award recognizes the best player, and the Archie Griffin Award recognizes the most valuable player. The most recent winner of the Heisman Trophy is University of Oklahoma quarterback Kyler Murray.

Heisman Trophy
HeismanTrophyLogo
Given forOutstanding performance which best exhibits the pursuit of excellence with integrity. Winners epitomize great ability combined with diligence, perseverance, and hard work.
LocationPlayStation Theater,
Times Square, Manhattan
Presented by
History
First awardDecember 9, 1935 to Jay Berwanger
Most recentKyler Murray
Websitewww.heisman.com

Trophy design

The trophy itself, designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu, is modeled after Ed Smith, a leading player in 1934 for the now-defunct New York University football team.[5] The trophy is made out of cast bronze, is 13.5 inches (34.3 cm) tall, 14 inches long, 16 inches in width and 25 pounds (11.3 kg).[5]

Eliscu had asked Smith, his former George Washington High School classmate, to pose for a commissioned sculpture of a football player. Smith did not realize until 1982 that the sculpture had become the Heisman Trophy. The Downtown Athletic Club presented Smith with a Heisman Trophy of his own in 1985.

From its inception in 1935, the statue was cast by Dieges & Clust in New York (and later Providence, Rhode Island) until 1980, when Dieges and Clust was sold to Herff Jones. For a time until at least 2008, the statues were cast by Roman Bronze Works in New York.[6]

Since 2005 the trophy has been made by MTM Recognition in Del City, Oklahoma.[7]

Selection

Originally only players east of the Mississippi were eligible, but since 1936 all football players in all divisions of college football are eligible for the award, though winners usually represent Division I Football Bowl Subdivision schools.[8]

There are three categories of persons eligible to vote for the award winner:

  • Sports journalists: Heisman.com states that sports journalists are to be the determinants of the award since they are "informed, competent, and impartial."[9] There are 870 media voters: 145 voters from each of six regions.
  • Previous Heisman winners (and in cases where an underclassman wins the award and remains in school to play, a prior winner may also be a current candidate). According to Heisman.com there are currently 57 prior winners eligible to vote[9] and, thus, 57 potential votes (a prior winner is not required to vote and does not lose his voting privileges by not voting).
  • Fans: As the Premier Partner of the Heisman Trophy, Nissan has a vote and gives this to the fans. Fan voting done through a survey collected by ESPN on NissanHeismanHouse.com. This constitutes one Heisman vote.

Except for the one vote based on the fan voting, the balloting is based on positional voting, whereby each voter identifies three selections, ranking them in order. Each first-place selection is awarded three points, each second-place selection is awarded two points, and each third-place selection is awarded one point. Voters must make three selections and cannot duplicate a selection, else the ballot is invalid and none of the selections count.[9]

The accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for the tabulation of votes, which has moved almost exclusively to online voting since 2007.[9]

Notable achievements

  • Larry Kelley and Clint Frank of Yale were the first teammates to win the Heisman Trophy, in 1936 and 1937.
  • Nile Kinnick of Iowa was the only Heisman Trophy winner (1939) to have a stadium named after him. In 1972, the University of Iowa renamed its football complex Kinnick Stadium. Kinnick is also the only winner to die in military service of the United States; he went down piloting an F4F Wildcat from the deck of USS Lexington (CV-16). His death in 1943 made him the first Heisman Trophy winner to die.
  • Doc Blanchard was the first junior to win the Heisman Trophy when he led Army to the national title in 1945.
  • Paul Hornung was the only player to win the Heisman Trophy as a player for a losing team. He took the award at Notre Dame 1956, when the Irish finished 2–8 on the year.
  • Ernie Davis was the first African American player to win the Heisman Trophy. He attended Syracuse University was drafted first overall in 1962, yet never played a game in the NFL as he was diagnosed with leukemia and died in 1963.
  • Terry Baker was the only player to win the Heisman Trophy and play in the Final Four in the NCAA Basketball Tournament in the same school year (1962–63).
  • Archie Griffin of Ohio State is the only player to receive the award twice, winning it as a junior in 1974 and a senior in 1975.[10]
  • Steve Spurrier, the 1966 recipient as a Florida Gator, became the first Heisman Trophy winner to coach a winner in 1996 (Danny Wuerffel, also of the University of Florida).[11]
  • Charles Woodson of the University of Michigan is the only primarily defensive player to win the award, beating out favorite Peyton Manning, quarterback for the University of Tennessee, in 1997. He was a standout cornerback, but also occasionally played as a wide receiver and punt returner.
  • In 2007, Tim Tebow became the first sophomore to win the Heisman. He also became the first major college quarterback to rush for 20 touchdowns and pass for 20 touchdowns in a season.
  • In 2012, Johnny Manziel became the first redshirt freshman to win the award.[12]
  • In 2016, Lamar Jackson became the youngest player to win the Heisman, at 19 years, 338 days old.
  • In 2017, Baker Mayfield became one of several former walk-on players to win the Heisman.
  • In 2018, Kyler Murray helped give the University of Oklahoma back-to-back Heisman winners, since Mayfield also played at Oklahoma. Murray and Mayfield are also the first quarterbacks from the same school to win the Heisman in back-to-back years in history.

Ohio State, Oklahoma, and Notre Dame have the most number of Heisman trophies won, each with seven; Ohio State has had six different players win the award.

The player who received the most votes (by percentage) was Reggie Bush of USC in 2005, though his award has since been vacated.[13] The player who won by the widest margin was Troy Smith of Ohio State in 2006.[13] The closest margin of votes was in 2009 between winner Mark Ingram of Alabama and Toby Gerhart of Stanford.[13]

Eleven of the Heisman Trophy winners are in the Pro Football Hall of Fame,[14][15] and four winners have also been named Most Valuable Player in a Super Bowl. Some winners have gone on to play in other professional sports, including Bo Jackson in baseball and Charlie Ward in basketball. Pete Dawkins and Dick Kazmaier are the only winners not to pursue a professional sports career: Dawkins had a career with the United States Army where he achieved the rank of Brigadier General; Kazmaier attended Harvard Business School, founded a consulting company specializing in sports marketing, and chaired the President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition during 1988–89.

University success

In addition to personal statistics, team achievements play a heavy role in the voting – a typical Heisman winner represents a team that had an outstanding season and was most likely in contention for the national championship or a major conference championship at some point in that season.

The closest that a player outside the modern Division I FBS came to winning the Heisman is third place; in both cases, the players involved played for schools in what was at the time Division I-AA, now Division I FCS. The first was Gordie Lockbaum from Holy Cross in 1987, followed by Steve McNair, from Alcorn State in 1993. Armanti Edwards, from Appalachian State University, was also briefly mentioned as a candidate for the award following Appalachian's upset of No. 5-ranked Michigan in 2007.

Besides Griffin winning consecutive Heismans at Ohio State, four other programs had two different players win the Heisman Trophy in consecutive years: Yale (1936–37), Army (1945–46), Southern California (USC) (2004–05, though Reggie Bush voluntarily forfeited his 2005 award in September 2010 and sent the trophy back to the Heisman Trust[16]), and Oklahoma (2017-2018). With an earlier win in 2002, the USC program actually had three different winners within four years.

Only three high schools have produced multiple Heisman trophy winners. The first was Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas, Texas (Davey O'Brien in 1938 and Tim Brown in 1987) (Woodrow remains the only public high school to be so recognized). Thereafter, two private high schools also achieved this distinction: Fork Union Military Academy in Fork Union, Virginia (Vinny Testaverde as a Postgraduate in 1982, and Eddie George in 1996) and Mater Dei High School in Santa Ana, California (John Huarte in 1964 and Matt Leinart in 2004).

Of the colleges where trophy namesake John Heisman coached, only Auburn University has produced Heisman winners, with Pat Sullivan in 1971, Bo Jackson in 1985, and Cam Newton in 2010.

Class and age

Until recently, most winners of the Heisman have been seniors.[17]

Texas A&M quarterback Johnny Manziel became the first freshman to win the Heisman in 2012. The following year, at 19 years, 342 days old, Florida State quarterback Jameis Winston became the youngest Heisman Trophy winner at that time as a freshman. Both, however, were in their second year of college, having been redshirted during their first year of attendance, meaning that no true freshman has yet won the award. No sophomore won the Heisman in its first 72 years, at which point there were three consecutive sophomore winners — Tim Tebow in 2007, followed by Sam Bradford and Mark Ingram Jr. — with Lamar Jackson, who also surpassed Winston's record as the youngest Heisman winner, becoming the fourth in 2016. Of the four sophomores to have won the award, only Bradford had been redshirted; the others all won during their second year of college attendance. Only a few juniors have won the award, starting with the eleventh winner in 1945, Doc Blanchard.

Five players have finished in the top three of the Heisman voting as freshmen or sophomores before later winning the award: Angelo Bertelli, Glenn Davis, Doc Blanchard, Doak Walker, and Herschel Walker. Eight players have finished in the top three as freshmen or sophomores but never won a Heisman: Clint Castleberry, Marshall Faulk, Michael Vick, Rex Grossman, Larry Fitzgerald, Adrian Peterson, Deshaun Watson, and Christian McCaffrey. Four players have specifically finished second in consecutive years: Glenn Davis (second in 1944 and 1945, winner in 1946), Charlie Justice (second 1948 and 1949), Darren McFadden (second 2006 and 2007), and Andrew Luck (second 2010 and 2011).

The oldest and youngest Heisman winners ever both played for Atlantic Coast Conference schools. The oldest, Chris Weinke, was 28 years old when he won in 2000; he spent six years in minor league baseball before enrolling at Florida State. The youngest winner is 2016 recipient Lamar Jackson of Louisville at the age of 19 years, 338 days, four days younger than Jameis Winston was when he won in 2013.

Position

The Heisman is usually awarded to a running back or a quarterback; very few players have won the trophy playing at a different position. Two tight ends have won the trophy, Larry Kelley and Leon Hart. Also, Desmond Howard and Tim Brown won as wide receivers. Charles Woodson is the only primarily defensive player to win the award, doing so as a defensive back, kick returner, and occasional wide receiver for Michigan in 1997. Legendary linebacker Dick Butkus only placed sixth in 1963 and third in 1964 and could qualify as an interior lineman, as he played center on offense during these two-way player days. The highest finish ever for any individual who played exclusively on defense is second, by defensive end Hugh Green of Pittsburgh in 1980 and linebacker Manti Te'o of Notre Dame in 2012. Although the Heisman is named in honor of an interior lineman, no interior lineman on either side of the ball has ever won the award. Offensive guard Tom Brown of Minnesota and the offensive tackle John Hicks of Ohio State placed second in 1960 and 1973, respectively. Rich Glover, a defensive lineman from Nebraska, finished 3rd in the 1972 vote—which was won by his Cornhusker teammate Johnny Rodgers. Washington's DT Steve Emtman finished 4th in voting in 1991. Ndamukong Suh of Nebraska finished fourth in 2009 as a defensive tackle. Also, Kurt Burris, a center for the Oklahoma Sooners football team, was a runner-up for the award in 1954 and Orlando Pace finished fourth in 1996 as an offensive tackle for Ohio State.

Venue

Because of damage to the Downtown Athletic Club's facilities following 9/11, the 2001 award ceremony was moved to the New York Marriott Marquis in Times Square. After the DAC declared bankruptcy in 2002, the Yale Club hosted the presentation at its facility in 2002 and 2003. The ceremony moved to the Hilton New York for 2004 and has been presented annually at the PlayStation Theater, formerly known as the Best Buy Theater and the Nokia Theatre Times Square, since 2005.

In 2017, the 83rd edition of the Heisman Trophy presentation returned to the Marquis Theatre.[18]

The 2008 Heisman press conference was held at the Sports Museum of America in New York. There was an entire gallery with the museum-attraction dedicated to the Trophy, including the making of the Trophy, the history of the DAC, and information on John Heisman and all the Trophy's winners. There was also a dedicated area celebrating the most recent winner, and the opportunity for visitors to cast their vote for next winner (with the top vote-winner receiving 1 official vote on their behalf). The Sports Museum of America closed permanently in February 2009.

History

The award was first presented in 1935 by the Downtown Athletic Club (DAC) in New York City, a privately owned recreation facility located on the lower west side near the later site of the former World Trade Center. It was first known simply as the DAC Trophy. The first winner, Jay Berwanger, was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles but declined to sign for them. He never played professional football for any team. In 1936, John Heisman died and the trophy was renamed in his honor.[19] Larry Kelley, the second winner of the award, was the first man to win it as the "Heisman Trophy".[20]

The first African American player to win the Heisman was Syracuse's Ernie Davis, who never played a snap in the NFL. He was diagnosed with leukemia shortly after winning the award and died in 1963. In 1966, former Florida Gators quarterback Steve Spurrier gave his Heisman trophy to the university president, Dr. J. Wayne Reitz, so that the award could be shared by Florida students and faculty.[5] The gesture caused Florida's student government to raise funds to purchase a replacement trophy for Spurrier.[5] Since then, the Downtown Athletic Club has issued two trophies to winners, one to the individual and a replica to his college.[5]

Several Heisman trophies have been sold over the years. O. J. Simpson's 1968 trophy was sold in February 1999 for $230,000 as part of the settlement of the civil trial in the O. J. Simpson murder case.[5] Yale end Larry Kelley sold his 1936 Heisman in December 1999 for $328,110 to settle his estate and to provide a bequest for his family.[5] Charles White's 1979 trophy first sold for $184,000 and then for nearly $300,000 in December 2006 to help pay back federal income taxes.[5] The current record price for a Heisman belongs to the trophy won by Minnesota halfback Bruce Smith in 1941 at $395,240.[5] Paul Hornung sold his Heisman for $250,000 to endow student scholarships for University of Notre Dame students from his hometown of Louisville, Kentucky.[5] Eliscu's original plaster cast sold at Sotheby's for $228,000 in December 2005.[5]

Television coverage

The presentation of the Heisman trophy was not broadcast on television until 1977.[21] Before 1977, the presentation of the award was not televised as a stand-alone special, but rather as a quick in-game feature. The ceremony usually aired on ABC as a feature at halftime of the last major national telecast (generally a rivalry game) of the college football season. ABC essentially showed highlights since the award was handed out as part of an annual weeknight dinner at the Heisman Club. At the time, the event had usually been scheduled for the week following the Army–Navy Game. The most watched Heisman ceremony ever was in 2009 when Mark Ingram won over Toby Gerhart and Colt McCoy.[22]

On December 8, 1977, CBS (who paid $200,000 for the rights) aired a one-hour (at 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time) special to celebrate the presentation of the Heisman trophy to Earl Campbell of the University of Texas. Elliott Gould and O. J. Simpson were the co-hosts, with Connie Stevens and Leslie Uggams providing musical entertainment and Robert Klein providing some comic relief.

Since then, a number of companies have provided television coverage of the event:

Controversy and politics

Regional bias controversy

A number of critics have expressed concern about the unwritten rules regarding player position and age, as noted above.

Over the years, there has been substantial criticism of a regional bias, suggesting that the Heisman balloting process has ignored West Coast players.[23] At present, the Pac-12 Conference (formerly Pac-10 and Pac-8) represents 12 of the 65 teams (roughly 18.5%) in the Power Five conferences. The Heisman can be, and has been, presented to players from other conferences, but a random sample over a long period of time might suggest that Pac-10/12 players might win somewhere close to 18% of the Heisman awards.[24] In the 20 seasons between 1981 (Marcus Allen) and 2002 (Carson Palmer), not a single Pacific-10 Conference or other West Coast player won the Heisman Trophy. Three Southern California (USC) players have won the trophy in the early years of the 21st century and two won it subsequent to Palmer. Although Terry Baker, quarterback from Oregon State, won the trophy in 1962, and Gary Beban from UCLA won in 1967, no non-USC player from the West Coast had won between Stanford's Jim Plunkett in 1970 and Oregon's Marcus Mariota in 2014. Other than Mariota's win, the closest since Plunkett's wins have been Toby Gerhart, Andrew Luck, Christian McCaffrey, and Bryce Love. All four were Stanford players who finished second in the Heisman balloting each year from 2009 to 2011, 2015, and 2017.

The West Coast bias discussion usually centers on the idea that East Coast voters see few West Coast games, because of television coverage contracts, time zone differences, or cultural interest. At Heisman-projection website StiffArmTrophy.com, commentator Kari Chisholm claims that the Heisman balloting process itself is inherently biased:

"For Heisman voting purposes, the nation is divided into six regions—each of which get 145 votes. Put another way, each region gets exactly 16.67 percent of the votes. However, each region does not constitute an even one-sixth of the population. Three regions (Far West, Midwest, and Mid-Atlantic) have larger populations than 16.67% of the national population; and three have less (Northeast, South, and Southwest). In fact, the Far West has the greatest population at 21.2% of the country and the Northeast has the least at 11.9%."[25]

Nullification of 2005 award

In 2010 University of Southern California athletic director Pat Haden announced the university would return its replica of the 2005 Heisman Trophy due to NCAA sanctions requiring the university to dissociate itself from Reggie Bush. The NCAA found that Bush had received gifts from an agent while at USC. On September 14, 2010, Bush voluntarily forfeited his title as a Heisman winner. The next day, the Heisman Trust announced the 2005 award would remain vacated and removed all mention of the 2005 award from its official website.[26] Bush eventually returned the trophy itself to the Heisman Trust in 2012.[27]

Critical responses from the national media were strident and varied. CBSSports.com producer J. Darin Darst opined that Bush "should never have been pressured to return the award." Kalani Simpson of Fox Sports wrote, "Nice try Heisman Trust...It's a slick move to try to wipe the slate clean." Former Football Writers Association of America president Dennis Dodd, on the other hand, decided to fictitiously award Bush's vacated 2005 award to Vince Young, the original runner-up that year. He wrote, "Since the Heisman folks won't re-vote, we did. Vince Young is the new winner of the 2005 Heisman." A Los Angeles Times piece argued that Bush's Heisman was "tainted" but lamented that the decision came five years after Bush was awarded the trophy and, therefore, four years after the expiration of Bush's term as current holder of the Heisman title.[28][29][30][31]

Elections involving notable controversy

  • 2013
    • Florida State quarterback Jameis Winston won the 2013 Heisman Trophy amidst a sexual assault investigation.[32]
  • 2010
    • Auburn Quarterback Cam Newton won the 2010 Heisman Trophy amidst an NCAA eligibility inquiry.[33]
  • 1967
    • Despite his team's beating the Bruins during the hours before the ceremony, USC's O.J. Simpson lost the 1967 trophy to UCLA quarterback Gary Beban; Simpson did win the trophy the next year.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Gridiron Scene for Trophy" (PDF). New York Times. November 14, 1935. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
  2. ^ "New York Pays High Honors to Berwanger". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 11, 1935. p. 27.
  3. ^ "Heisman Trophy Awarded Kelley" (PDF). New York Times. December 2, 1936. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  4. ^ "Heisman Trophy to Be Presented to Kelly Today". Chicago Daily Tribune. December 16, 1936. p. 30.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k John D. Lukacs (2007-12-07). "From the legendary to the little-known, Heisman history is never dull". ESPN. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
  6. ^ Johnston, Joey (December 14, 2008). "Winning One Heisman Is Tough Enough, And Tebow Has His". Tampa Tribune.
  7. ^ Tracy, Marc (December 7, 2017). "'No Two Are Exactly the Same': How the Heisman Trophy Is Made". nytimes.com. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  8. ^ "Berwanger Gains Trophy" (PDF). New York Times. December 5, 1935. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
  9. ^ a b c d "Heisman Trophy Balloting". heisman.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012.
  10. ^ "1974 & 1975 – 40th & 41st Awards". Heisman.com. Archived from the original on 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  11. ^ "Florida Gators Football Head Coach Steve Spurrier". gatorzone.com. Retrieved 2013-11-25.
  12. ^ "'Johnny Heisman': Manziel first freshman to win trophy". KHOU. 2012-12-08. Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
  13. ^ a b c Chisholm, Kari. "A plea to sportswriters for statistical accuracy". Stiff Arm Trophy. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  14. ^ "Heisman Trophy winners in the HOF". profootballhof.com. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
  15. ^ "Heroes of the Game". Retrieved 2016-01-17.
  16. ^ Smith, Erick (September 14, 2010). "Reggie Bush announces he is giving back his Heisman Trophy". USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
  17. ^ "Heisman Winners". The Heisman Trophy. Archived from the original on 2014-08-01.
  18. ^ Weiss, Brad (August 1, 2017). "When is the (2017) Heisman Trophy Presentation?".
  19. ^ "Heisman Trophy - John W. Heisman". Heisman.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  20. ^ "The Heisman Trophy". Heisman.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  21. ^ "Heisman Trophy Presentation broadcast history?".
  22. ^ Sen, Paul (December 13, 2012). "Heisman Trophy Presentation Second-Most Watched on Record — Sports Media Watch". SportsMediaWatch.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  23. ^ "Seattle Times, Bob Condotta". Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  24. ^ "San Jose Mercury News, John Wilner". 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  25. ^ "West Coast Bias". StiffArmTrophy. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
  26. ^ "Reggie Bush's Heisman to stay vacated". ESPN.com. September 16, 2010. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012.
  27. ^ Moura, Pedro (August 16, 2012). "Former USC RB Bush returned his '05 Heisman". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  28. ^ "Vince Young: Heisman Trophy Should Not Be Mine". Sports. Huffington Post. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  29. ^ "Vince Young wins the 2005 Heisman!". CBS Sports. September 22, 2010. Archived from the original on Sep 24, 2015.
  30. ^ "Bush's return of Heisman is wrong move". FOX Sports. 14 September 2010.
  31. ^ "Reggie Bush's tainted Heisman". Los Angeles Times. 16 September 2010. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  32. ^ "Jameis Winston's Heisman win dogged by fallout from sexual assault case". The Guardian. December 16, 2013. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  33. ^ "Auburn's Cam Newton timeline: From recruitment to NCAA ruling". AL.com. Retrieved 2015-12-12.
  34. ^ "10 Biggest Heisman Snubs Ever". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 2015-12-12.

External links

Media related to Heisman Trophy at Wikimedia Commons

1998 NCAA Division I-A football season

The 1998 NCAA Division I-A football season was the first of the Bowl Championship Series, which saw Tennessee win the national championship, one year after star quarterback Peyton Manning left for the NFL. The Volunteers defeated the Florida State Seminoles 23-16 in the Tostitos Fiesta Bowl in Tempe, Arizona to secure the inaugural BCS National Championship.

The BCS combined elements of the old Bowl Coalition and the Bowl Alliance it replaced. The agreement existed between the Rose, Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls, the Cotton Bowl Classic diminishing in status since the breakup of the Southwest Conference. Like the Bowl Alliance, a national championship game would rotate between the four bowls, with the top two teams facing each other. These teams were chosen based upon a BCS poll, combining the AP poll, the Coaches poll, and a third computer component. The computer factored in things such as strength of schedule, margin of victory, and quality wins without taking into account time (in other words a loss in October and a loss in November were on equal footing).

However, like the Bowl Coalition, the bowls not hosting the national championship would retain their traditional tie-ins.

The first run of the Bowl Championship Series was not without controversy as Kansas State finished third in the final BCS standings but was not invited to a BCS bowl game. Ohio State (ranked 4th) and two-loss Florida (8th) received the at-large bids instead. Also, Tulane went undefeated but finished 10th in the BCS standings and was not invited to a BCS bowl because of their strength of schedule.

2000 NCAA Division I-A football season

The 2000 NCAA Division I-A football season ended with the Oklahoma Sooners claiming their first national championship and their first conference championship since the departure of head coach Barry Switzer.

Oklahoma coach Bob Stoops was in his second season as head coach, having been the defensive coordinator of Steve Spurrier's 1996 National Champion Florida Gators, and also having helped Bill Snyder turn the Kansas State Wildcats around in the early 1990s. Stoops erased a three-game losing streak against rival Texas by a score of 63–14, one of the worst defeats in Texas' football history. Despite the lopsided victory, this game marked a return of the Red River Shootout to a rivalry game with national title implications.

The BCS title game was not without controversy, as the system shut fourth-ranked Washington out of the championship game, despite being the only team who had beaten each #2 Miami and #5 Oregon State and having the same 10-1 record as #3 Florida State during the regular season. 10–1 Miami, who handed #3 Florida State their only loss, was ranked higher in both the AP Writers' Poll and the ESPN/USA Today Coaches' Poll, and had the same record as the Seminoles, was also seen as a possible title contender.

Virginia Tech also was left out of the BCS bowls, despite being ranked higher than one of the at-large teams, Notre Dame.

The South Carolina Gamecocks broke a 21-game losing streak, stretching back into 1998, to go 8–4 including a win over Ohio State in the Outback Bowl.

Two new bowl games began in the 2000 season: the Silicon Valley Bowl, which had a contractual tie-in with the WAC, and the Galleryfurniture.com Bowl.

Andre Ware

Andre Ware (born July 31, 1968) is an American sports analyst and commentator and a former American football player. He was the 1989 Heisman Trophy winner as a quarterback for the University of Houston. He was the first African American quarterback to receive this honor. In the 1990 NFL Draft, Ware was the first round selection (#7 overall) of the Detroit Lions. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 2004.

Baker Mayfield

Baker Reagan Mayfield (born April 14, 1995) is an American football quarterback for the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League (NFL).

Mayfield began his college football career as a walk-on player for the Texas Tech Red Raiders. He is notable for being the first walk-on true freshman quarterback to start a season opener at a BCS school. Mayfield transferred from Texas Tech to Oklahoma following alleged scholarship issues and a lack of communication with coaches. After sitting out the 2014 season due to NCAA transfer rules, Mayfield won the starting quarterback job in 2015. He won several awards for his performance as a senior in 2017, including the Heisman Trophy, Maxwell Award, Walter Camp Award, and unanimous All-America recognition.

Mayfield was drafted by the Browns first overall in the 2018 NFL Draft. In his first NFL appearance, Mayfield led Cleveland to their first win in 19 games, ending a 635 day winless streak. He threw 27 touchdowns in his 13 starts for the Browns in 2018, breaking the rookie-season, passing-TD record previously held by Peyton Manning and Russell Wilson.

Billy Sims

Billy Ray Sims (born September 18, 1955) is a former American college and professional football player who was a running back in the National Football League (NFL) for five seasons during the 1980s. Sims played college football for the University of Oklahoma, where he was a two-time consensus All-American, and won the Heisman Trophy in 1978. He was the first overall pick in the 1980 NFL Draft, and played professionally for the NFL's Detroit Lions. Sims was the last Oklahoma player taken Number 1 overall in the NFL Draft until quarterback Sam Bradford was taken first in the 2010 NFL Draft. He was given the nickname "Kung Fu Billy Sims" by ESPN's Chris Berman, after a game where the Detroit Lions played the Houston Oilers. In the NFL Films highlight, rather than be tackled during a rushing attempt, Sims ran at, jumped, and, while fully airborne, kicked Oilers Cornerback Steve Brown in the head.

Ernie Davis

Ernest Davis (December 14, 1939 – May 18, 1963) was an American football player, a halfback who won the Heisman Trophy in 1961 and was its first African-American recipient.Davis played college football for Syracuse University and was the first pick in the 1962 NFL Draft. Selected by the Washington Redskins of the National Football League (NFL) in December 1961, he was then almost immediately traded to the Cleveland Browns and issued number 45.

Davis was diagnosed with leukemia in the summer of 1962, and died less than a year later at age 23, without ever playing in a professional game. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1979, and was the subject of the 2008 Universal Pictures film The Express, based on the non-fiction book Ernie Davis: The Elmira Express, by Robert C. Gallagher.

Glenn Davis (halfback)

Glenn Woodward Davis (December 26, 1924 – March 9, 2005) was a professional American football player for the Los Angeles Rams. He is best known for his college football career for the United States Military Academy at West Point from 1943 to 1946, where he was known as "Mr. Outside." He was named a consensus All-American three times, and in 1946 won the Heisman Trophy and was named Sporting News Player of the Year and Associated Press Athlete of the Year.

Jason White (American football)

Jason White (born June 19, 1980) is an American former college football quarterback who played for the University of Oklahoma, was recognized as a unanimous All-American, and won the Heisman Trophy in 2003.

Jay Berwanger

John Jacob "Jay" Berwanger (March 19, 1914 – June 26, 2002) was an American college football player and referee. He was the first winner of the Downtown Athletic Club Trophy in 1935 (the following year the award was renamed the Heisman Trophy); the trophy is awarded annually to the nation's most outstanding college football player. Berwanger was a star halfback for the Chicago Maroons football team of the University of Chicago, where he was known as the "one man football team". In 1936, Berwanger became the first player drafted into the National Football League (NFL) in its inaugural 1936 NFL Draft, although he did not play professionally.

John Huarte

John Gregory Huarte (born April 6, 1944) is a former American football quarterback. He played college football at the University of Notre Dame for the Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team and won the 1964 Heisman Trophy. He then played professionally with a number of teams in the American Football League (AFL), the National Football League (NFL), and in the World Football League (WFL) between 1965 and 1975. Huarte was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 2005.

Lamar Jackson

Lamar Demeatrice Jackson Jr. (born January 7, 1997) is an American football quarterback for the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Louisville and was selected 32nd overall by the Ravens in the first round of the 2018 NFL Draft. At Louisville, Jackson won the Heisman Trophy, Maxwell Award, and Walter Camp Award and was a unanimous All-American as a sophomore in 2016.

Leon Hart

Leon Joseph Hart (November 2, 1928 – September 24, 2002) was an American football end. He won the Heisman Trophy and the Maxwell Award while at the University of Notre Dame in 1949 and played in the National Football League (NFL) for eight seasons, from 1950 to 1957, with the Detroit Lions.

Hart is the only lineman to win three college football national championships and three NFL Championships. He is the last of only two lineman ever to win the Heisman Trophy. Also, he is one of three players, along with Angelo Bertelli and Cam Newton, to win the Heisman Trophy, a national championship, and be the first overall pick in the NFL draft all in the same one-year span.

List of Heisman Trophy winners

The Heisman Trophy, one of the highest individual awards in American college football, has been awarded 81 times since its creation in 1935, including 79 unique winners and one two-time winner. The trophy is given annually to the most outstanding college football player in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), and is awarded by the Heisman Trust, successors of the awards from the Downtown Athletic Club at an annual ceremony at the PlayStation Theater in Times Square, Manhattan.

In 1935, the award, then known as the DAC Trophy, was created by New York City's Downtown Athletic Club to recognize the best college football player "east of the Mississippi River". In that inaugural year, the award went to Jay Berwanger from the University of Chicago. Berwanger was later drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League but declined to sign for them. He never played professional football for any team, instead choosing to pursue a career in business. In 1936, the club's athletic director, football pioneer John Heisman, died and the trophy was renamed in his honor. Larry Kelley, the second winner of the award, was the first to win it as the "Heisman Trophy". In addition to the name change, the award also became a nationwide achievement. With the new name, players west of the Mississippi became eligible; the first player from the western United States was selected in 1938. Only one player, Ohio State's Archie Griffin, has won the award twice.On June 10, 2010, following several years of investigation, the NCAA announced that USC running back Reggie Bush, the 2005 Heisman trophy winner, received gifts from agents while still in college. The university received major sanctions, and there were reports that the Heisman Trophy Trust would strip his award. In September of that year, Bush voluntarily forfeited his title as the 2005 winner. The Heisman Trust decided to leave the award vacated with no new winner to be announced.Between 1936 and 2001, the award was given at an annual gala ceremony at the Downtown Athletic Club in New York City. The Downtown Athletic Club's facilities were damaged during the September 11, 2001 attacks. Due to financial difficulties stemming from the damage, the DAC declared bankruptcy in 2002, turning over its building to creditors. Following the club's bankruptcy and the loss of the original Downtown Athletic Club building, the Yale Club of New York City assumed presenting honors in 2002 and 2003. The ceremony was moved to the New York Marriott Marquis in Times Square for the 2002, 2003, and 2004 presentations, but since 2005, the event has been held at the venue now known as PlayStation Theater, also in Times Square. The move to the PlayStation Theater allowed the Downtown Athletic Club (and ultimately, the award's successor, The Heisman Trust) to resume full control of the event—the most prominent example of which was the return of the official portraits of past winners—despite the loss of the original presentation hall.In terms of balloting, the fifty states of the U.S. are split into six regions (Far West, Mid Atlantic, Mid West, North East, South, South West), and six regional representatives are selected to appoint voters in their states. Each region has 145 media votes, for a total of 870 votes. In addition, all previous Heisman winners may vote, and one final vote is counted through public balloting. The Heisman ballots contain a 3-2-1 point system, in which each ballot ranks the voter's top three players and awards them three points for a first-place daddy vote, two points for a second-place vote, and one point for a third-place vote. The points are tabulated, and the player with the highest total of points across all ballots wins the Heisman Trophy.

Mark Ingram Jr.

Mark Valentino Ingram Jr. (born December 21, 1989) is an American football running back for the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL), last playing for the New Orleans Saints. He played college football for the University of Alabama, won the Heisman Trophy, and was a member of a national championship team. He was drafted by the New Orleans Saints in the first round of the 2011 NFL Draft.

During his sophomore college season in 2009, Ingram won the first Heisman Trophy ever awarded to an Alabama Crimson Tide player, set the Crimson Tide's single-season rushing record with 1,658 yards, was recognized as a unanimous All-American, and helped lead the Tide to an undefeated 14–0 season and the 2010 BCS National Championship.Since entering the NFL in 2011, Ingram has earned two Pro Bowl selections (2014 and 2017). In 2018, he received a four-game suspension after testing positive for performance enhancing drugs.

Roger Staubach

Roger Thomas Staubach (born February 5, 1942), nicknamed "Roger the Dodger", "Captain America" and "Captain Comeback", is a former American football quarterback in the National Football League (NFL).

He attended the U.S. Naval Academy where he won the 1963 Heisman Trophy, and after graduation he served in the U.S. Navy, including a tour of duty in Vietnam. Staubach joined the Dallas Cowboys in 1969 and played with the club during all 11 seasons of his career. He led the team to the Super Bowl five times, four as the starting quarterback. He led the Cowboys to victories in Super Bowl VI and Super Bowl XII. Staubach was named Most Valuable Player of Super Bowl VI, becoming the first of four players to win both the Heisman Trophy and Super Bowl MVP, along with Jim Plunkett, Marcus Allen and Desmond Howard. He was named to the Pro Bowl six times during his 11-year NFL career. He is currently executive chairman of Jones Lang LaSalle.

Steve Owens (American football)

Loren Everett "Steve" Owens (born December 9, 1947) is a former football player, a running back in the National Football League (NFL) for five seasons in the early 1970s.

Owens played college football for the University of Oklahoma, and was the 1969 Heisman Trophy winner and an All-American. He was selected in the first round of the 1970 NFL draft by the Detroit Lions, 19th overall, and became the first Lion to rush for over a thousand yards in a season.

Terry Baker

Terry Wayne Baker (born May 5, 1941) is a former American football and basketball player. He played college football and college basketball at the Oregon State University. He played as a quarterback for the Oregon State Beavers football team from 1960 to 1962, winning the Heisman Trophy as senior. In the spring of his senior year, he played in the Final Four of the 1963 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament with the Oregon State Beavers men's basketball team. To date, he is the only athlete to win a Heisman Trophy and play in the Final Four. Baker was the first overall pick in the 1963 NFL draft and played with the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League (NFL) from 1963 to 1965. He then played for one season in the Canadian Football League (CFL) with the Edmonton Eskimos in 1967. Baker was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1982.

Tim Brown (American football)

Timothy Donell Brown (born July 22, 1966) is a former American football wide receiver who played professionally in the National Football League (NFL). He played college football for Notre Dame, where he won the Heisman Trophy, becoming the first wide receiver to win the award. He spent sixteen years with the Los Angeles/Oakland Raiders, during which he established himself as one of the NFL's most prolific wide receivers. Brown has also played for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. In 2015, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.

Troy Smith

Troy James Smith (born July 20, 1984) is an American former gridiron football quarterback. He played college football at Ohio State, was recognized as an All-American, and won the Heisman Trophy in 2006. He was drafted by the Baltimore Ravens in the fifth round of the 2007 NFL Draft, and also played for the NFL's San Francisco 49ers, the UFL's Omaha Nighthawks, and the CFL's Montreal Alouettes. Despite winning the Heisman Trophy, Smith never found success on the professional level, never appearing in more than six games a season during his four year NFL career. He played in the CFL for two seasons following his NFL career before retiring from football in 2014.

Heisman Trophy winners
Overall trophies
Overall media awards
Positional awards
Other national player awards
All-Americans
Head coaching awards
Assistant coaching awards
Conference awards
Division I FCS awards
Other divisions/associations
Academic, inspirational,
and versatility awards
Service awards
Regional awards
Awards organizations
Halls of fame
Related articles
Programs
Game coverage
Current commentators
Past commentators
Lore televised by ESPN
Conferences
Conference Championships
Bowls broadcast by ESPN

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