Heilongjiang (黑龙江; formerly romanized as Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China. Located in the most northeastern part of the country, Heilongjiang is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia (Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai and Zabaykalsky Krai) to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.
The province takes its name from the Heilong River (Chinese name of the Amur), which marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe City along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri rivers).
Heilongjiang is China's largest agricultural base, as well as an important industrial area mainly based on oil, timber, coal, and machinery manufacturing.
|• Chinese||黑龙江省 (Hēilóngjiāng Shěng)|
Map showing the location of Heilongjiang Province
(and largest city)
|Divisions||13 prefectures, 130 counties, 1274 townships|
|• Secretary||Zhang Qingwei|
|• Governor||Wang Wentao|
|• Total||454,800 km2 (175,600 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,690 m (5,540 ft)|
|• Density||84/km2 (220/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||28th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han: 95%|
|• Languages and dialects||Northeastern Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HL|
|GDP (2017 )||CNY 1.62 trillion|
USD 239.93 billion (21st)
|• per capita||CNY 42,699 |
USD 6,324 (25th)
|HDI (2014)||0.755 (high) (12th)|
"Heilongjiang" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"Black Dragon River"|
"Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the more well known western name, Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑 (pinyin: Hēi). The Manchu name of the region is Sahaliyan ula (literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin is derived, and the Mongolian name with the same meaning is Qaramörin. It is sometimes spelt "Heilungkiang", especially in older English texts.
Ancient Chinese records and other sources state that Heilongjiang was inhabited by people such as the Buyeo, the Mohe, Balhae, and the Khitan. Mongolic Donghu people lived in Inner Mongolia and the western part of Heilongjiang. Some names are Manchu or Mongolian. The eastern portion of Heilongjiang was ruled by the kingdom of Balhae between the 7th and 10th centuries. The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) that subsequently ruled much of north China arose within the borders of modern Heilongjiang.
Heilongjiang as an administrative entity was created in 1683, during the Kangxi era of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, from the northwestern part of the Jilin province. This Heilongjiang Province only included the western part of today's Heilongjiang Province, and was under the supervision of the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiyūn) (the title is also translated as the Military Governor of Heilongjiang; jiyanggiyūn is the Manchu reading of the Chinese word 將軍 jiāngjūn; "military leader, general" and is cognate with Japanese shōgun), whose power extended, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk, as far north as the Stanovoy Mountains. The eastern part of what's today Heilongjiang remained under the supervision of the General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), whose power reached the East Sea of Korea. These areas deep in Manchuria were closed off to Han Chinese migration.
The original seat of the Military Governor of Heilongjiang, as established in 1683, was in Heilongjiang City (also known as Aigun or Heihe, or, in Manchu, Saghalien Ula), located on the Amur River. However, already in 1690 the seat of the governor was transferred to Nenjiang (Mergen) on the Nen River, and, in 1699, further south to Qiqihar. According to modern historians, the moves may have been driven by supply considerations: Nenjiang and Qiqihar are connected by a convenient waterway (Nen River) with southern Manchuria, whereas accessing Aigun (Heihe) would require either sailing all the way down the Sungari River until its confluence with the Amur and then up the Amur to Heihe, or using a portage over the Lesser Xing'an Mountains between the Nen River valley and the Amur valley. An additional advantage of Qiqihar may have been its location at the junction of a northbound road (to Nenjiang) and a westbound one (to Mongolia), enabling its garrison to defend both against the Russians and the Ölöt Mongols.
Little Qing Military presence existed north of Aigun. According to the 18th- and early-20th-century European sources, and the reports of the Russians in the 1850s, the farthest Qing "advance guard" post was at Ulusu-Modon (Ulussu-Mudan) (Chinese: 乌鲁苏穆丹), near the Amur River's famous 's'-shaped meander. (The post was actually on the left bank of the river, lost to the Russians in 1860.)
In 1858 and 1860, the Qing government was forced to give up all land beyond the Amur and Ussuri Rivers to the Russian Empire, cutting off the Qing Empire from the Sea of Japan and giving Heilongjiang its present northern and eastern borders. At the same time, Manchuria was opened to Han Chinese migration by the Qing government. By the early twentieth century, due to the Chuang Guandong, the Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group in the region.
In 1945, Japanese forces in Manchuria were defeated by the Soviet Army. During the Chinese Civil War, Soviet forces aided the Chinese communists. Heilongjiang became the first province to be completely controlled by the communists and Harbin the first major city to be controlled by them.
At the beginning of communist rule, Heilongjiang included only the western portion of the present-day province, and had its capital at Qiqihar. The remaining area was the province of Songjiang; its capital was Harbin. In 1954, these two provinces were merged into present-day Heilongjiang. During the Cultural Revolution, Heilongjiang was also expanded to include Hulunbuir League and some other areas previously in Inner Mongolia; this has since mostly been reversed.
Heilongjiang is a land of varied topography. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the Greater Khingan Range and Lesser Khingan Range, Zhangguangcai Mountains, Laoye Mountains, and Wanda Mountains. The highest peak is Mount Datudingzi at 1,690 metres (5,540 ft), located on the border with Jilin province. The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.
The east and southwest of the province, which are relatively flat and low in altitude, contain the Muling River, the Naoli River, the Songhua River, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amur, while the northern border forms part of the Amur valley. Xingkai Lake (or Khanka Lake) is found on the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai.
A humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa or Dwb) predominates in the province, though areas in the far north are subarctic (Köppen Dwc). Winters are long and bitter, with an average of −31 to −15 °C (−24 to 5 °F) in January, and summers are short and warm to very warm with an average of 18 to 23 °C (64 to 73 °F) in July. The annual average rainfall is 400 to 700 millimetres (16 to 28 in), concentrated heavily in summer. Clear weather is prevalent throughout the year, and in the spring, the Songnen Plain and the Sanjiang Plain provide abundant sources of wind energy.
|City||July (°C)||July (°F)||January (°C)||January (°F)|
A road and highway proposal was accepted in 2006; the project plans to develop 38,000 kilometres (24,000 miles) of new roads and expand Heilongjiang’s total road network to 2,300,000 kilometres (1,400,000 miles).
There are 60 rail lines of around 5,300 kilometres (3,300 miles) including a section of the Asia-Europe Continental Bridge. The Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway, completed in 2012, stretches from Harbin, Heilongjiang's capital, to Dalian in Liaoning province via Changchun and Shenyang comprising 23 stops. It is expected to transport 37 million passengers per year by 2020 and 51 million by 2030.
Major airports include Harbin Taiping International Airport, Qiqihar Airport, Mudanjiang Airport, Jiamusi Airport and Heihe Airport. Harbin International Airport is capable of handling six million passengers every year and connects to over 70 domestic and international cities.
The Amur Bridge Project was proposed in 2007 by Valery Solomonovich Gurevich, the vice-chairman of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia. The railway bridge over the Amur River will connect Tongjiang with Nizhneleninskoye, a village in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.
|Administrative divisions of Heilongjiang|
|№||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|Districts*||Counties||Aut. counties||CL cities|
|230000||Heilongjiang Province||454800.00||38,312,224||Harbin city||65||42||1||20|
|1||230100||Harbin city||53523.50||10,635,971||Songbei District||9||7||2|
|8||230200||Qiqihar city||42205.81||5,367,003||Jianhua District||7||8||1|
|6||230300||Jixi city||22488.46||1,862,161||Jiguan District||6||1||2|
|3||230400||Hegang city||14679.98||1,058,665||Xiangyang District||6||2|
|10||230500||Shuangyashan city||22036.19||1,462,626||Jianshan District||4||4|
|2||230600||Daqing city||21222.03||2,904,532||Sartu District||5||3||1|
|12||230700||Yichun city||32759.66||1,148,126||Yichun District||15||1||1|
|5||230800||Jiamusi city||32704.00||2,552,097||Qianjin District||4||3||3|
|9||230900||Qitaihe city||6221.42||920,419||Taoshan District||3||1|
|7||231000||Mudanjiang city||38679.80||2,798,723||Dong'an District||4||1||5|
|4||231100||Heihe city||66802.65||1,673,898||Aihui District||1||3||2|
|11||231200||Suihua city||34964.17||5,416,439||Beilin District||1||6||3|
|13||232700||Daxing'anling Prefecture||46,755.00≈||511,564||Jiagedaqi District** (de facto); Mohe city (de jure)||4**||2||1|
* - including Ethnic districts
(Additional information regarding the last prefecture can be found at Greater Khingan.)
The thirteen prefecture-level divisions of Heilongjiang are subdivided into 128 county-level divisions (65 districts, 20 county-level cities, 42 counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1,284 township-level divisions (473 towns, 400 townships, 58 ethnic townships, and 353 subdistricts).
List of Secretaries of the CPC Heilongjiang Committee:
List of Governors:
Heilongjiang is also an important source of lumber for China. Pine, especially the Korean pine and larch are the most important forms of lumber produced in Heilongjiang. Forests are mostly to be found in the Greater Khingan Mountains and Lesser Khingan Mountains, which are also home to protected animal species such as the Siberian tiger, the red-crowned crane, and the lynx.
Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon horses and cattle; the province has the largest number of milk cows and the highest production of milk among all the province-level divisions of China.
Petroleum is of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfields are an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphite are other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang. Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power, with an average wind energy density of 200 watts per square metre.
Heilongjiang is part of northeast China, the country's traditional industrial base. Industry is focused upon coal, petroleum, lumber, machinery, and food. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for trade with Russia. Since a wave of privatization led to the closure of uncompetitive factories in the 1990s, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast China campaign to deal with this problem, promoting the private sectors as the preferred method of economic reform.
At least five miners were killed after a coal mine fire in Heilongjiang it was reported on September 21, 2008.
Its GDP has been rising steadily since 2003, growing 37% from 2003 to 2007. The value of the private economy reached RMB234 billion in 2006 and accounted for 37.6 percent of the GDP. In that year, the tax revenue from private enterprises hit RMB20.5 billion.
Private enterprises in Heilongjiang led the overall economic growth of the province. Many leading private enterprises have begun to emerge. The province's three major private enterprises, namely the Heilongjiang Sunflower Medicine Ltd, Qitaihe Yidaxin Coal Co., and Heilongjiang Yiyang Group, each contributed more than RMB100 million in tax revenue in 2007.
During the first decade of this century, many private investors were involved in large construction projects in Heilongjiang. In 2006, 928 large projects absorbed private capital of RMB5 million each, and 101 projects attracted RMB100 million each within the province. In line with the central government’s policy to revitalize the Northeast, Heilongjiang also restructured its six pillar industries, namely equipment manufacturing, petrochemicals, food processing, energy, pharmaceuticals, and forest and timber processing.
In 2017, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 1.62 trillion yuan (ca. US$240 billion), with an annual growth rate of 12.2%. Its per capita GDP was 42,699 yuan (US$6,324). In 2006 the per capita disposable income of urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 11,581 yuan (US$1,667), a rise of 13% from the previous year. The per capita net income of rural residents in the province reached 4,856 yuan (US$700), a rise of 17.5% from 2007.
|Established in 1923; dissolved in 1932 and incorporated into Manchukuo / Heilongjiang Province (present).|
Harbin part of Heilongjiang Province until 1947–1949 and 1953–1954.
Dongsheng SAR dissolved in 1932 and incorporated into Manchukuo / Heilongjiang Province (present).
Songjiang Province dissolved in 1955 and incorporated into Heilongjiang Province.
Hejiang Province dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Songjiang Province / Heilongjiang Province (present).
Nenjiang Province dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Heilongjiang Province.
|Ethnic groups in Heilongjiang (2000 census)|
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
Most of Heilongjiang's residents are either non-religious or practice Chinese folk religions, including Taoism. Manchu shamanism is practiced by many Manchu people. Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism have an important presence in the province.
Heilongjiang's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is relatively homogeneous across this region, known in Mandarin Chinese as "Dongbei" (the northeast).
Harbin, the provincial capital, is a city of contrasts, with Chinese, Russian, and eclectic worldwide influences clearly apparent. Bukui Mosque, a national heritage site, is the largest glazed-tile building in the province. Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant churches as well as synagogues dot the city.
The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed ice sculpture exhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2,000 ice sculptures were on display at the annual event.
Wudalianchi Lakes are a series of five lakes formed between 1719 and 1721 when volcanic eruption shaped one section of a tributary of the Amur into five interconnected lakes. The second lake in particular is renowned for its irregular geological sights. Lake Jingbo, in Ning'an County, is a section of the Mudan River that has been narrowed and shaped by volcanic eruption into a series of sights, including the Diaoshuilou Falls.
Anda (simplified Chinese: 安达; traditional Chinese: 安達; pinyin: Āndá) is a county-level city in western Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, located on the Harbin-Manzhouli Railway (formerly known as the Chinese Eastern Railway) about 30 kilometres (19 mi) southeast of Daqing and 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Harbin, and is under the administration of Suihua City. Home to China's forage and dairy industries, more than 1,814 km2 (700 sq mi) out of Anda's 3,586 km2 (1,385 sq mi) total area is made up of grasslands.Bei'an
Bei'an (Chinese: 北安; pinyin: Běi'ān; literally: 'northern peace') is a county-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province in the People's Republic of China. It is under the jurisdiction of Heihe.
Bei'an was the provincial capital of Bei'an province of Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan during the Second World War.Dongning, Heilongjiang
Dongning (simplified Chinese: 东宁; traditional Chinese: 東寧; pinyin: Dōngníng; literally: 'eastern tranqulity') is a county-level city of southeastern Heilongjiang province, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Mudanjiang.Fuyuan, Heilongjiang
Fuyuan (simplified Chinese: 抚远市; traditional Chinese: 撫遠市; pinyin: Fǔyuǎn Shì) is a county-level city of the province of Heilongjiang, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Jiamusi.Hailun
Hailun (simplified Chinese: 海伦; traditional Chinese: 海倫; pinyin: Hǎilún) is a city in west-central Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. Administratively, it is a county-level city of Suihua City.Harbin
Harbin (Manchu: ᡥᠠᠯᠪᡳᠨ; Chinese: 哈尔滨 Hārbīn) is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Harbin has direct jurisdiction over nine metropolitan districts, two county-level cities and seven counties. Harbin is the eighth most populous Chinese city according to the 2010 census, the built-up area (which consists of all districts except Shuangcheng and Acheng) had 5,282,093 inhabitants, while the total population of the sub-provincial city was up to 10,635,971. Harbin serves as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural, and communications hub in Northeast China, as well as an important industrial base of the nation.Harbin, whose name was originally a Manchu word meaning "a place for drying fishing nets", grew from a small rural settlement on the Songhua River to become one of the largest cities in Northeast China. Founded in 1898 with the coming of the Chinese Eastern Railway, the city first prospered as a region inhabited by an overwhelming majority of the immigrants from the Russian Empire.Having the most bitterly cold winters among major Chinese cities, Harbin is heralded as the Ice City for its well-known winter tourism and recreations. Harbin is notable for its beautiful ice sculpture festival in the winter. Besides being well known for its historical Russian legacy, the city serves as an important gateway in Sino-Russian trade today. In the 1920s, the city was considered China's fashion capital since new designs from Paris and Moscow reached here first before arriving in Shanghai. The city was voted "China Top Tourist City" by the China National Tourism Administration in 2004.Jiagedaqi District
Jiagedaqi or Jagdaqi (Oroqen: Jagdaqi, meaning "area with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litvin"; simplified Chinese: 加格达奇区; traditional Chinese: 加格達奇區; pinyin: Jiāgédáqí Qū) is a district and the seat of Daxing'anling Prefecture, Northeast China. Its physical location is in Inner Mongolia; however, it is under the jurisdiction of Heilongjiang Province.Jiamusi Dongjiao Airport
Jiamusi Dongjiao Airport (IATA: JMU, ICAO: ZYJM) is the airport serving the city of Jiamusi in Heilongjiang province, China. It also called Jiamusi Dongjiao International Airport（SC:佳木斯东郊国际机场), because it has international routes to Seoul–Incheon, Korea and Khabarovsk, Russia.Mishan
Mishan (Chinese: 密山; pinyin: Mìshān) is a county-level city in the southeast of Heilongjiang Province, China, bordering Russia's Primorsky Krai to the south and southeast. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Jixi.Mudanjiang Hailang International Airport
Mudanjiang Hailang International Airport (IATA: MDG, ICAO: ZYMD) is an airport serving the city of Mudanjiang in Heilongjiang Province, China.Muling
Muling (Chinese: 穆棱; pinyin: Mùlíng) is a county-level city of Mudanjiang, southeastern Heilongjiang province, China, bordering Russia's Primorsky Krai to the east. As of 2004, it has an area of 6,094 square kilometres (2,353 sq mi) and a population of 330,000.Nehe
Nehe (simplified Chinese: 讷河; traditional Chinese: 訥河; pinyin: Nèhé) is a county-level city of western Heilongjiang in Northeast China, It is located near the border with Inner Mongolia to the west and is under the administration of Qiqihar City, 144 kilometres (89 mi) to the north-northeast.Qiqihar
Qiqihar (Chinese: 齐齐哈尔) is the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province of China, located in the west central part of the province. The built-up (or metro) area made up of Longsha, Tiefeng and Jianhua districts had 979,517 inhabitants, while the total population of the prefecture-level city was 5,367,003 at the 2010 census. These are mainly Han Chinese, though the city is also home to thirty-four minorities including Manchus, Daur, and Mongols.
Close to Qiqihar are numerous wetlands and the Zhalong Nature Reserve, famous in China for being home to numerous red-crowned cranes.Qiqihar Sanjiazi Airport
Qiqihar Sanjiazi Airport (IATA: NDG, ICAO: ZYQQ) is a dual-use military and civil airport serving the city of Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province, China.Qitaihe
Qitaihe (Chinese: 七台河; pinyin: Qītáihé) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. Covering an area 6,223 km2 (2,403 sq mi), it is geographically the smallest prefecture-level division of the province. Qitaihe also has the second smallest population of the cities in Heilongjiang. At the 2010 census, its total population was 920,419, while 620,935 live in the built up area made of 3 urban districts.Tieli
Tieli (Chinese: 铁力) is a Chinese county-level city in Yichun prefecture, Heilongjiang province. It has approximately 273,000 inhabitants.Tongjiang, Heilongjiang
Tongjiang (Chinese: 同江; pinyin: Tóngjiāng) is a city of 160,000 in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, located at the confluence and on the right banks of the Songhua and Amur Rivers, the latter which marks the border with Russia. Administratively it is a county-level city of Jiamusi.Wudalianchi
Wudalianchi (Chinese: 五大连池; pinyin: Wǔdàliánchí), formerly Dedu County (德都县), is a county-level city in Heilongjiang province, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Heihe.
The city's name means "five joint ponds" and refers to a set of interconnected lakes formed after the eruption of the volcanoes of Laohei (老黑山) and Huoshao (火烧山) in 1720-21.Yichun, Heilongjiang
Yichun (Chinese: 伊春; pinyin: Yīchūn) is a prefecture-level city on the Songhua river in Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. The city is separated from Russia by the Amur River and has an international border of 246 kilometres (153 mi). At the 2010 census, Yichun has a total population of 1,148,126 while 729,202 people live in 15 districts separated by forests. The greening rate of Yichun is up to 83%. The nickname of Yichun is Lindu (Chinese: 林都; pinyin: Líndū; literally: 'forest capital').
|Bopomofo||ㄏㄟ ㄌㄨㄥˊ ㄐㄧㄤ|
|Romanization||Ha平 lon上 kaon平|
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Heilongjiang Province||黑龙江省||Hēilóngjiāng Shěng|
|Harbin city||哈尔滨市||Hā'ěrbīn Shì|
|Qiqihar city||齐齐哈尔市||Qíqíhā'ěr Shì|
|Jixi city||鸡西市||Jīxī Shì|
|Hegang city||鹤岗市||Hègǎng Shì|
|Shuangyashan city||双鸭山市||Shuāngyāshān Shì|
|Daqing city||大庆市||Dàqìng Shì|
|Yichun city||伊春市||Yīchūn Shì|
|Jiamusi city||佳木斯市||Jiāmùsī Shì|
|Qitaihe city||七台河市||Qītáihé Shì|
|Mudanjiang city||牡丹江市||Mǔdānjiāng Shì|
|Heihe city||黑河市||Hēihé Shì|
|Suihua city||绥化市||Suíhuà Shì|
|Daxing'anling Prefecture||大兴安岭地区||Dàxīng'ānlǐng Dìqū|
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(1)||Harbin (new district)[a]||244,898||825,634||see Harbin||2010-11-01|
|26||Jiagedaqi[b]||142,465||154,359||part of Daxing'anling Prefecture||2010-11-01|
|(33)||Mohe[e]||71,307||83,414||part of Daxing'anling Prefecture||2010-11-01|
Places adjacent to Heilongjiang
|Special administrative regions|