Hefei

Hefei (/həˈfeɪ/, Chinese: 合肥) is the capital and largest city of the Chinese province of Anhui.[2] A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Located in the central portion of the province, it borders Huainan to the north, Chuzhou to the northeast, Wuhu to the southeast, Tongling to the south, Anqing to the southwest and Lu'an to the west. A natural hub of communications, Hefei is situated to the north of Chao Lake stands on a low saddle crossing the northeastern extension of the Dabie Mountains, which form the divide between the Huai and Yangtze rivers.[3]

The present-day city dates from the Song dynasty. Before World War II, Hefei remained essentially an administrative centre and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south. It has gone through a growth in infrastructure in recent years.[4] Hefei is the location of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor.

History

HefeiWallMap
Old Hefei Map with wall

From the 8th to the 6th centuries BC, Hefei was the site of many small states, later a part of the Chu kingdom. Many archaeological finds dating from this period have been made. The name 'Hefei' was first given to the county set up in the area under the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC.

In the 3rd century AD, the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford was fought at Xiaoyao Ford (逍遙津) in Hefei. Zhang Liao, a general of the Wei state, led 800 picked cavalry to defeat the 200,000-strong army from Wei's rival state Wu. Several decades of warring in Hefei between Wu and Wei followed this battle.

During the 4th to the 6th centuries AD, this crucial border region between northern and southern states was much fought over; its name and administrative status were consequently often changed. During the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) periods, it became the seat of Lu prefecture—a title it kept until the 15th century, when it became a superior prefecture named Luzhou.

The present city dates from the Song dynasty (960–1126), the earlier Hefei having been some distance farther north. In the 10th year of Xining (熙宁十年,1077 AD), the taxes collected from the Luchow Prefecture were 50315 Guan, approximately 25 million today's Chinese Yuan, with a ranking of the amount of taxes was the 11th(following Kaifeng, Hangzhou, Qinzhou, Chuzhou, Chengdu, Zizhou, Xingyuan, Mianzhou, Zhenzhou, Suzhou) among all the prefectures of Song Dynasty. During the 10th century, it was for a while the capital of the independent Wu kingdom (902–938) and was an important center of the Southern Tang state (937–975).

After 1127 it became a center of the defenses of the Southern Song dynasty (1126–1279) against the Jin (Jurchen) invaders in the Jin–Song wars, as well as a flourishing center of trade between the two states. When the Chinese Republic was founded in 1911, the superior prefecture was abolished, and the city took the name of Hefei. The city was known as Luchow or Liu-tcheou[5] (庐州, p Luzhou) during the Ming and Qing dynasties (after the 14th century to the 19th century). Hefei was the temporary capital for Anhui from 1853 to 1862. It was renamed as Hefei County in 1912. Following the Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, Hefei was made the capital of Anhui.

Before World War II, Hefei remained essentially an administrative center and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south. It was a collecting center for grain, beans, cotton, and hemp, as well as a center for handicraft industries manufacturing cloth, leather, bamboo goods, and ironware.

The construction in 1912 of the TianjinPukou railway, farther east, for a while made Hefei a provincial backwater, and much of its importance passed to Bengbu. In 1932–36, however, a Chinese company built a railway linking Hefei with Yuxikou (on the Yangtze opposite Wuhu) to the southeast and with the Huai River at Huainan to the north. While this railway was built primarily to exploit the rich coalfield in northern Anhui, it also did much to revive the economy of the Hefei area by taking much of its produce to Wuhu and Nanjing.

Although Hefei was a quiet market town of only about 30,000 in the mid-1930s, its population grew more than tenfold in the following 20 years. The city's administrative role was strengthened by the transfer of the provincial government from Anqing in 1949, but much of its new growth derived from its development as an industrial city. A cotton mill was opened in 1958, and a thermal generating plant, using coal from Huainan, was established in the early 1950s. It also became the seat of an industry producing industrial chemicals and chemical fertilizers. In the late 1950s an iron and steel complex was built. In addition to a machine-tool works and engineering and agricultural machinery factories, the city has developed an aluminum industry and a variety of light industries. There are several universities based in the city.

Geography

Hefei is located 130 kilometres (81 mi) west of Nanjing in south-central Anhui. Chao Lake, a lake 15 km (9 mi) southeast of the city, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in China. Though, the lake has unfortunately been polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus, in recent decades, the situation is improving due to efforts by both the government and the people.

Climate

Hefei features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons. Hefei's annual average temperature is 16.18 °C (61.1 °F). Its annual precipitation is just slightly over 1,000 millimetres (39 in), being heavier from May through August. Winters are damp and cold, with January lows dipping just below freezing and January averaging 2.8 °C (37.0 °F). The city sees irregular snowfalls that rarely turn significant. Springs are generally relatively pleasant if somewhat erratic. Summers here are oppressively hot and humid, with a July average of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F). In the months of June, July, August, and often September, daily temperatures can reach or surpass 37 °C (99 °F) with high humidity levels being the norm. Autumn in Hefei sees a gradual cooling and drying. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 35 percent in March to 50 percent in August, the city receives 1,868 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 41.1 °C (106 °F) on 27 July 2017.[6]

Air Pollution

Air quality typically diminishes in May and June when the city is blanketed by smog caused by the smoke generated as farmers outside the city burn their fields in preparation for planting the next crop. A dense wave of smog began in Hefei surrounding Anhui as well as other Chinese major cities including Shanghai and Tianjin.

Administrative divisions and demographics

Demographics

The majority of the population in Hefei are Han Chinese. There are a comparatively small number of Hui Chinese living in the city, for whom a few mosques have been constructed. Of the more than five million people in the city, some are migrant workers from other parts of Anhui.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Hefei administers 9 county-level divisions, including 4 districts, 1 County-city and 4 counties.

Hefei subdivisions area (km²), population (According to 2010 Census) and population density (per km²).[9]

Map
Division code[10] English Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[11] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[12]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
340100 Hefei 合肥市 Héféi Shì 11434.25 Shushan District 230000 45 65 19 1 736 1102
340102 Yaohai District 瑶海区 Yáohǎi Qū 142.90 Mingguang Road Subdistrict (明光路街道) 230000 13 2 1 118 18
340103 Luyang District 庐阳区 Lúyáng Qū 139.32 Bozhou Road Subdistrict (亳州路街道) 230000 11 1 84 14
340104 Shushan District 蜀山区 Shǔshān Qū 261.36 Sanli'an Subdistrict (三里庵街道) 230000 8 2 92 17
340111 Baohe District 包河区 Bāohé Qū 294.94 Luogang Subdistrict (骆岗街道) 230000 7 2 77 38
340121 Changfeng County 长丰县 Chángfēng Xiàn 1928.45 Shuihu (水湖镇) 231100 8 6 80 193
340122 Feidong County 肥东县 Féidōng Xiàn 2205.92 Dianbu (店埠镇) 231200 10 4 95 249
340123 Feixi County 肥西县 Féixī Xiàn 2082.66 Shangpai (上派镇) 231600 12 6 1 90 241
340124 Lujiang County 庐江县 Lújiāng Xiàn 2347.48 Lucheng (庐城镇) 231500 17 38 194
340181 Chaohu 巢湖市 Cháohú Shì 2031.22 Woniushan Subdistrict (卧牛山街道) 238000 6 11 1 62 138

Economy

The GDP was ¥627.43 billion (ca. US$91.12 billion) in 2016.

Before the Chinese civil war, Hefei's main industry was agriculture. After World War II, the capital of Anhui was moved from Anqing to Hefei. To assist the development of the city, many talented people were sent in from other parts of the country. Modern-day Hefei has machinery, electronics, chemistry, steel, textile, and cigarette industries, among others.

In the summer of 2005, the municipal government implemented changes designed to beautify the city by demolishing thousands of illegally built structures, and clearing away long-established marketplaces in many parts of the city. While these actions removed many unlicensed, and often poorly-constructed food stalls which had been contributing to the spread of disease and which posed fire hazards, these changes also removed longstanding businesses that had lined many streets throughout the city overnight. The impact on the local economy was felt immediately as hundreds, if not thousands, of low paid workers no longer had employment.

Hefei has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Ma'anshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[13]

Hefei was identified by The Economist in December 2012 as the world's No.1 fastest growing metropolitan economy.[14]

Transportation

Hefei South Railway Station
Hefei South Railway Station

Hefei has been the provincial capital since 1945 (before it was Lihuang, which is today's Jinzhai) and is a natural center of transportation, being situated to the north of Lake Chao and standing on a low saddle crossing the northeastern extension of the Dabie Mountains, which form the divide between the Huai and Yangtze rivers. From Hefei there is easy water transport via the lake to the Yangtze River opposite Wuhu.

Land

Important land routes run through Hefei, including:

1. G3 Beijing-Taipei Expressway (京台高速公路 From Beijing to Pingtan, and was designed to cross the Taiwan Strait to connect the highways in Taipei)

2. G40 Shanghai-Xi'an Expressway (沪陕高速公路 From Shanghai to Xi'an)

3. G42 Shanghai-Chengdu Expressway (沪蓉高速公路 From Shanghai to Chengdu)

4. G4212 Hefei-Anqing Expressway (合安高速公路 From Hefei to Anqing, a spur of G42)

5. G5011 Wuhu-Hefei Expressway (芜合高速公路 From Wuhu to Hefei, a spur of G50)

6. China National Highway 206 (烟汕线 From Yantai to Shantou)

7. China National Highway 312 (沪霍线 From Shanghai to Khorgas)

8. China National Highway 346 (沪康线 From Shanghai to Ankang)

9. S24 Changshu-Hefei Expressway (常合高速公路 From Changshu to Hefei)

10.S17 Bengbu-Hefei Expressway (蚌合高速公路 From Bengbu to Hefei)

11. G3W Dezhou-Shangrao Expressway (德上高速公路 From Dezhou to Shangrao)

There are two main train stations in Hefei. The newest one is Hefei South railway station (Hefeinan station, 合肥火车南站) where most high-speed trains pass through. Many city buses serve this station, for instance the 108 from the East gate of the University of Science and Technology's East campus on Susong road. It has a very comprehensive taxi rank with multiple queues to avoid a long wait. There are many fast food restaurants in the departure hall with seating. There are not so many options for arrivals, a small cafe and a takeaway kfc booth. There is an ATM in the ticket sales area next to the security gates for the departure hall.

The alternative station is Hefei railway station (合肥火车站) which is smaller and older. This has only one taxi queue, directly opposite the main exit. There is fast food, a post office and a China mobile store in the same courtyard next to the arrival gates.

There are some small stations such as Feidong Station (肥东火车站), Feixi Station (肥西火车站), Shuijiahu Station (水家湖火车站), Chaohu Station (巢湖火车站), Chaohu East railway station (Chaohudong station; 巢湖火车东站), Hefeibeicheng Station (Hefei Northtown Station 合肥北城火车站), Lujiang Station (庐江火车站) and so on. These stations are mostly located in small towns or played commuting roles.

Important railways that run through Hefei, including: 1. Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu High-Speed Railway (沪汉蓉高速铁路)

2. Hefei-Fuzhou High-Speed Railway (合福高速铁路 Play as part of Beijing-Taipei High-Speed Railway)

3. Hefei-Bengbu High-Speed Railway (合蚌高速铁路 A spur of Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway)

4. Shangqiu-Hefei-Hanzhou High-Speed Railway (商合杭高速铁路 The northern part, Shangqiu-Hefei High-Speed Railway will play as a part of Beijing-Hong Kong High-Speed Railway. Under Construction)

5. Hefei-Anqing-Jiujiang High-Speed Railway (合安九高速铁路 Play as a part of Beijing-Hong Kong High-Speed Railway. Under Construction)

6. Hefei-Qingdao High-Speed Railway (合青高速铁路 Proposed)

7. Nanjing-Xi'an High-Speed Railway (宁西高速铁路 Proposed)

8. Huainan Railway (淮南铁路 From Huainan-Wuhu)

9. Hefei-Jiujiang Railway (合九铁路)

10. Nanjing-Xi'an Railway (宁西铁路)

11. Lujiang-Tongling Railway (庐铜铁路 Under Construction)

In 2008 the thoroughfare Chang Jiang Road (Chinese: 长江路; pinyin: Chángjiāng lù) is undergoing a renovation project to widen the roads and to create a bus route in the center of the road, with bus stations at islands that are connected to the sidewalks by skyways. The First Ring Road is also undergoing construction, with traffic lights being replaced by overpasses and ramps built to connect the First Ring Road and all major intersecting roads. Both projects are intended to ease the traffic Hefei now experiences at rush hour.

Hefei Xinqiao International Airport replaced the old Hefei Luogang International Airport and started its operation on May 30, 2013 00:00. This new domestic aviation hub is located in Gaoliu Village situated in the northwestern part of Hefei City. The first arriving flight was China Eastern Airlines flight MU5172 from Beijing Capital International Airport. The first departing flight was China Eastern Airlines MU5468 to Shanghai Pudong International Airport. Hefei Xinqiao International Airport provides scheduled passenger service to major airports in China and other international cities. Destinations include Hong Kong, Macao, Singapore, Taipei (Taoyuan, Songshan), Kaohsiung, Taichung, Seoul, Cheongju, Yangyang, Jeju, Osaka, Nagoya, Shizuoka, Okayama, Boracay Island, Bali Island, Frankfurt, Siem Reap, Bangkok, Phuket Island and Krabi Island.

Subway

Hefei Metro is a rapid transit rail network under construction that will eventually serve both urban and rural areas of Hefei. As planned, Line 1 covers a total distance of 24 kilometres (15 miles) starting from Hefei Railway Station. It was inaugurated in December 2016.

In February 2013, Metro Line 2 also began its construction. It is being built alongside the Changjiang Dong Road, Changjiang Zhong Road and Changjiang Xi Road, which is a major passenger corridor in the east-west direction. It will pass through the city center area and connect to a transit point where passengers will be able to take the shuttle bus to Hefei Xinqiao International Airport. The Line 2 was opened on December 26, 2017.

In November 2015, Metro Line 3 construction began. Line 3 is expected to open in 2020. Line 3 will connect the New Station Exploitative-experimental Zone and the Economic Technology Development District, from the vocational education town to the university town.

Alongside Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3, Hefei is also planning to build other 12 metro lines, 4 lines of intra-metropolitan rail transit (to Lu'an, Huainan, Lujiang and Chaohu) and 3 lines of tram and hopefully accomplish the project by 2030.

Bus

Normal buses included 1-33, 35-53, 56,57,59-66, 68, 70, 72, 76, 78, 97, 99, 101-141, 143, 145-150, 152, 154-159, 161-163, 166, 226, 232-235, 300-305, 350-359, 399, 401, 502-513, 516-519, 521, 522, 525-533, 535-539, 577, 601-606, 621, 622, 650-657, 665, 670, 681-683, 686, 690-699, 702-710, 801-805, 901-903. And there are also several buses lines which severed for Feixi county(begins with X,such as X201),Feidong county(begins with D,such as D199), Changfeng county(begins with C,such as C131) and Chaohu city(begins with H, such as H105).

There are 4 major lines of Bus Rapid Transit in Hefei, including:

Bus Rapid Transit Line 1 (B1): from the downtown to the Binhu New Area. (Chinese: 滨湖新区; pinyin: Bīnhú Xīn Qū)

Bus Rapid Transit Line 2 (B2): from Previous Research Institute of China University of Science and Technology to Wang Tong Bus Station (Along Wangjiang Rd. 望江路)

Bus Rapid Transit Line 3 (B3): from No.2 buses company to Hefei No.2 Hospital New Area (Along Changjiang Rd. 长江路)

Bus Rapid Transit Line 5 (B5): from Hefeinan Railway Station to Binhu Wanda Bus Station (Along Baohe Avenue. 包河大道)

And there are several commuter lines operating, which only run at designated time or having a large interval, including:

T1 from West Bus Terminus (汽车客运西站) to No.7 High School New Campus (七中新区), T2 from Liushutang (柳树塘) to No.7 High School New Campus, T3 from North Square of Hefei Railway Station (火车站北广场) to Hefei Economic and Trade Tourism School (合肥经贸旅游学校), T5 from North Square of Hefei Railway Station to Gongda Vocational and Technical College (共达学院), T6 from North Square of Hefei Railway Station to Hefei Industrial School (合肥工业学校), T7 from Hefeinan Railway Station (合肥南站) to University Park (大学城), T8 from Gedadian (葛大店) to E-Commerce Park of the Youth (青年电商园), T9 from Public Transportation Group (No.2 Hospital) (公交集团或市二院) to No.10 High School New Campus (合肥十中新区), T10 from Shifu Square (市府广场) to No.10 High School New Campus, T12 from Anjuyuan(安居苑) to Provincial Administration Center (省行政中心), T13 from CPPCC of Anhui Province (省政协) to Provincial Administration Center, T15 from Binhu Vanke City (滨湖万科城) to Provincial Administration Center, T16 from Wanghucheng (望湖城) to Provincial Administration Center, T18 as a loop line of the CBD of Binhu New Area (滨湖CBD/滨湖核心区), T19 as a loop line of the Promoting Zone of Binhu New Area (滨湖启动区), T21 from Cuozhen (撮镇) to Fuxing Community (复兴社区), T22 from Shuidong Rd. (水东路) to Sanlian University Branch Campus (三联学院分校), T24 from Cuozhen to Qiaotouji (桥头集), T26 from Feihe (淝河镇) to Hefei International Port (合肥国际港).[15]

Research

Hefei plays an important role in scientific research in China. It has seven national laboratories, second only to Beijing: The National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (Chinese: 国家同步辐射实验室; pinyin: Guójiā tóngbù fúshè shíyàn shì), the Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale (Chinese: 微尺度物质科学国家实验室; pinyin: Wēi chǐdù wùzhí kēxué guójiā shíyàn shì), both of which are under the University of Science and Technology of China. It also has the Institute of Solid State Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, Institute of Intelligent Machines, High Magnetic Field Laboratory (founded in 2008), Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, all of which are under the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science which belongs to the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Hefei is the location of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor.

The No. 105 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, located in Hefei, is reportedly the site of the first human trials using CRISPR genome editing, doing so in 2015.[16]

Universities

USTC
An overview of USTC, including the Teaching Building II and the library

Yicheng Prison

Yicheng Prison is located within the city. It was built during the 1983 "Strike Hard" campaign and was formerly Hefei Zhenxing Machine Parts Factory. On June 15, 1984 the Prov. Justice Dept. decided to change the name of the Machine Parts Factory's Internal Dept. to the Prov. Independent LRC. On March 17, 1986, the City's Party Committee and government agreed to the change. On April 26 more than 400 inmates were transferred to Hefei Shangzhangwei Farm and Baihu Farm. In February 1992 a secondary country level prison was created at the Shangzhangwei Farm. In August 1992 the Hefei City LRD level was upgraded by the government. June 1996 the prison was changed to its present name. It is currently controlled by Hefei city. It mainly houses prisoners with sentences of less than 5 years and houses up to 1000 prisoners a year. In the past 20 years, nearly 20,000 inmates have completed their sentences here. The prison mainly cultivates vegetables and rice but also cooperates with the Zhejiang Rongguang Group and produces soccer training shoes, soccer balls, tourism products, and other products.[17]

Sport

Hefei has its own football team called Anhui Jiufang, who in the 2007–08 season were promoted from the Chinese Football Association Yi League to the Chinese Football Association Jia League which is the second highest tier of Chinese football.It was acquired by Tianjin Runyulong in 2011.

Sites of interest

浮莊
Baohe Village (simplified Chinese: 包河浮庄; traditional Chinese: 包河浮莊; pinyin: Bāo hé fú zhuāng)
Baohe
Fuzhuang in winter
  • Sanhe Town, ancient town which has a history of more than 2,500 years.
  • Xiaoyaojin Park, a public park sitting on the ancient site of the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford.
  • Temple of Lord Bao, built in 1066 near the tomb of Lord Bao.
  • Li Hongzhang's Former Residence (Chinese: 李鸿章故居; pinyin: Lǐhóngzhāng gùjū), built in the late 19th century and fully restored by the 1990s.
  • Hui Garden (Chinese: 徽园; pinyin: Huī yuán) (Opened to the public in September 2001)
  • Children's Welfare Institute (a.k.a. "Social Welfare Institute"), children's orphanage
  • Anhui Laomingguang Stadium, the home ground of Anhui Jiufang, but also used for other public sporting events.

Notable people

Sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-03. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  2. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Archived from the original on 2013-12-09. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  3. ^ "Hefei | China". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  4. ^ "The Economist Intelligence Unit". country.eiu.com. Retrieved 2019-06-14.
  5. ^ Inter alia: Mitchell Sr., S.A. A New Universal Atlas Containing Maps of the various Empires, Kingdoms, States and Republics Of The World. "China. Archived 2012-06-29 at the Wayback Machine" Entered 1850, Published 1853.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2014-01-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  8. ^ "Archived copy" 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-09-23. Retrieved 2018-11-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Archived 2012-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码 Archived 2013-04-05 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ 《合肥统计年鉴2011》
  12. ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》
  13. ^ "THE RISE OF THE 'CHAMPS' - NEW REPORT MAPS BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY IN CHINA'S FASTEST GROWING CITIES". Archived from the original on 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  14. ^ "Metro economies". Archived from the original on 2017-09-25. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  15. ^ "Archived copy" 合肥公交集团有限公司. Archived from the original on 2017-09-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ Rana, Preetika; Marcus, Amy Dockser; Fan, Wenxin (January 21, 2018). "China, Unhampered by Rules, Races Ahead in Gene-Editing Trials". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 7, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2018. Later in 2016, news reports said a Chinese hospital had begun the world’s first Crispr trial. In fact, it wasn’t first—No. 105 Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army in Hefei began testing Crispr on patients in 2015, says Liu Bo, who leads that trial.
  17. ^ "Laogai Handbook 2007-2008" (PDF). Laogao.it. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
  18. ^ "Archived copy" 友好都市. Kurume city. Archived from the original on 2015-02-24. Retrieved 2015-02-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Hefei, China – Columbus Sister Cities". columbussistercities.com. Archived from the original on 2018-07-05. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
  20. ^ "合肥市缔结友好城市关系情况一览表". hfwqb.hefei.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2019-02-03.

External links

Anhui

Anhui (安徽; formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked province in Eastern China. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a short section in the north.

With a population of 62 million, Anhui is the 8th most populous province in China. It is the 22nd largest Chinese province based on area, and the 12th most densely-populated region of all 34 Chinese provincial regions. Anhui's population is mostly composed of Han Chinese. Languages spoken within the province include Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, and the Gan and Wu varieties of Chinese.

The name "Anhui" derives from the names of two cities: Anqing and Huizhou (now Huangshan City). The abbreviation for Anhui is "Chinese: 皖; pinyin: wǎn" after the historical State of Wan, Mount Wan, and the Wan river.

The administration of Anhui is composed of the provincial administrative system, led by the Governor, Provincial Congress, The People's Political Consultative Conference, and Provincial Higher people's Court. Anhui is known as a province with political tradition in China's government system. Aside from managing provincial government departments, the provincial government manages 16 cities, 62 counties, 43 county-level districts and 1,522 townships. By the end of 2016, the population registered in Anhui was 70.27 million.

The total GDP of Anhui Province is listed as 12th of all 31 provincial regions in 2017.

Beijing–Hong Kong (Taipei) passageway

The Beijing–Hong Kong (Taipei) passageway is a proposed high-speed railway passage in Greater China. It will run in a north–south direction from Beijing to Hong Kong, with a branch leading from Hefei to end at Taipei across the Taiwan Strait. It will connect the cities of Beijing, Xiong'an, Fuyang, Hefei, Jiujiang, Nanchang, Ganzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong on the main line, as well as Fuzhou and Taipei on the branch line.

The line was announced by the Chinese government in 2016 as part of the national "eight vertical and eight horizontal" high-speed railway network.

Chaohu

Chaohu (Chinese: 巢湖; pinyin: Cháohú) is a county-level city of Anhui Province, East China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Hefei. Situated on the northeast and southeast shores of Lake Chao, from which the city was named, Chaohu is under the administration of Hefei, the provincial capital, and is the latter's easternmost county-level division.

On August 22, 2011, the Anhui provincial government announced in a controversial decision that Chaohu was to be split into three parts and absorbed into neighboring cities. Juchao District was renamed to Chaohu as a county-level city under Hefei's administration.

Feixi County

Feixi County (simplified Chinese: 肥西县; traditional Chinese: 肥西縣; pinyin: Féixī Xiàn) is a county of Anhui Province, East China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Hefei, the capital of Anhui. The county has an area of 2,053.19 km2 (792.74 sq mi) and a population of 858,895 inhabitants.

G5011 Wuhu–Hefei Expressway

The Wuhu–Hefei Expressway (Chinese: 芜湖—合肥高速公路), commonly referred to as the Wuhe Expressway (Chinese: 芜合高速公路) is an expressway that connects Wuhu, Anhui, China and Hefei, Anhui. It is a spur of G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway and is completely in Anhui Province.

HT-7

HT-7, or Hefei Tokamak-7, is an experimental superconducting tokamak nuclear fusion reactor built in Hefei, China, to investigate the process of developing fusion power. The HT-7 was developed with the assistance of Russia, and was based on the earlier T-7 tokamak reactor. The reactor was built by the Hefei-based Institute of Plasma Physics under the direction of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

The HT-7 construction was completed in May 1994, with final tests accomplished by December of the same year allowing experiments to proceed.

The HT-7 has been superseded by the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) built in Hefei by the Institute of Plasma Physics as an experimental reactor before ITER is completed.

Hefei Luogang Airport

Hefei Luogang Airport is a former international airport serving Hefei, the capital of Anhui province, China. Opened in 1977, it served as Hefei's main airport until it was replaced by the new Hefei Xinqiao International Airport on 30 May 2013. In 2018, the airport was renamed "合肥骆岗通用机场" (Hefei Luogang General-Purpose Airport) to serve helicopter and other low-flying aircraft.

Hefei Metro

Hefei Urban Rail Transit (Chinese: 合肥城市轨道交通) abbreviated Hefei Metro (Chinese: 合肥轨道) is a rapid transit system in Hefei, China. Line 1 begun construction on 1 June 2012 and was opened on December 26, 2016. Line 2 opened on December 26, 2017. Thales Saic Transport is providing the line with urban rail traffic management and CBTC systems.

Hefei South railway station

Hefeinan (South) railway station (Chinese: 合肥南站; pinyin: Héféinán Zhàn), also known as Hefei High-Speed railway station (Chinese: 合肥高铁站; pinyin: Héféi Gāotiě Zhàn), is located in Baohe, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Hefei South railway station is also a comprehensive transportation hub; passengers can interchange between high-speed long distance trains, long distance and local buses, taxi, etc. Hefei Metro Line 1 are located at or near the bottom of station complex Metro station. The formation of a centralized transfer center will see connections with the future Hefei Metro Lines 4 & 5.

Hefei University of Technology

Hefei University of Technology (simplified Chinese: 合肥工业大学; traditional Chinese: 合肥工業大學; pinyin: Hefei Gōngyè Dàxué) is a major and key university in China, with particular strength in Engineering and Management Science. Located in Hefei, the capital of the Anhui Province, it is also a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.Hefei University of Technology is a national key university administrated directly by the Ministry of Education of P.R. China. It has been listed in major national initiatives seeking to enhance the international competitiveness of the top-tier universities in China such as Project 211 and Project 985 Innovation Platform.

HFUT has four campuses, namely, Tunxilu, Lu’anlu, Feicuihu and Xuancheng, covering an area of about 3,417,390 m². The first three campuses are all located in Hefei, the provincial capital of Anhui, and the fourth in Xuancheng, a city about 194 kilometers away from Hefei.

Campuses in Hefei have 19 schools covering a wide range of fields with a strong focus on engineering science. The schools offer 82 undergraduate programs, 32 first-level disciples with authorization to confer master's degrees, 12 first-level disciples for doctoral programs as well as 12 post-doctoral programs. 4 disciplines are selected as national key disciplines, 28 provincial key disciplines. The university has 1 state key lab, 1 national engineering lab, 4 national university-industry joint engineering research centers and 46 research centers at the ministerial or provincial level as well as 1 national A-level architectural design and research institute. The campus in Xuancheng has 5 departments.

At present, HFUT enrolls 29,480 undergraduate students and 11,800 graduate students. It has made remarkable achievements in student education. Throughout the years, key disciplines, courses, textbooks, teaching and experiment centers, teaching staff of HFUT have won numerous awards at all levels, highly reputed in China. It is among the first batch of 61 pilot colleges and universities to conduct the Education and Development Plan for Outstanding Engineers initiated by the Ministry of Education. About 200 projects carried out by HFUT students have been funded by the National University Student Innovation Program.

In 2013, the university had an annual research funding in sciences of over RMB 447 Million. Total number of applications for invention patents was 357, of which 204 have been licensed. 82 computer software patents were granted. In recent years, HFUT won 5 national science-and-technology-related awards, and 19 first prizes at the ministerial or provincial level.

HFUT is actively pursuing connections with leading institutions through academic partnerships with universities worldwide. By supporting a wide range of collaborative activities including faculty and student exchange projects, joint supervision plan and international programs at all levels, HFUT has established academic links with more than 30 universities around the world, such as Ohio State University in U.S.A. Meanwhile, hundreds of international students from over 30 countries and regions are studying at HFUT.

Hefei Xinqiao International Airport

Hefei Xinqiao International Airport (IATA: HFE, ICAO: ZSOF) is the main airport serving Hefei, the capital of Anhui Province, China. It is located near the town of Gaoliu in Shushan District, 31.8 km (19.8 mi) from the city center. Construction started in December 2008 with a total investment of 3.728 billion yuan. Opened on 30 May 2013, it replaced Luogang Airport as Hefei's main airport.

Hefei railway station

The Hefei railway station (Chinese: 合肥站; pinyin: Héféi Zhàn) is a major railway station in Hefei, Anhui, China.

It was built in 1934, and served as of 2019 by the Hening Passenger Railway, Western Union Railway, Huainan Railway and Hefei-Jiujiang Railway.

Hefei–Bengbu high-speed railway

Hefei–Bengbu high-speed railway (or the Hefei–Bengbu section of the Beijing–Taipei high-speed rail corridor) is a 130.67 km (81.19 mi) high-speed rail line between Hefei and Bengbu in Anhui province. It is a part of the future Jingfu line connecting Beijing and Fuzhou, Fujian.

Construction started in January 2009. The railway was opened on October 16, 2012.With the fastest (G-series) trains on the new line, the travel time from Hefei to Beijing South railway station is only four hours. Besides the Hefei-Beijing trains, there is also direct service from Hefei to Qingdao, via Jinan and the Jiaozhou–Jinan high-speed railway.The total estimated investment is 13.6 billion yuan. The design speed is 350 km/h (220 mph). It is part of the Jingfu line connecting Beijing and Fuzhou, Fujian.

There are 8 stations along this line.

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway

Hefei–Fuzhou high-speed railway (simplified Chinese: 合福高速铁路; traditional Chinese: 合福高速鐵路; pinyin: Héfú Gāosù Tiělù), is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line between Hefei and Fuzhou, the provincial capitals of Anhui and Fujian, respectively. It has a total length of 813 km (505 mi) and runs through Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian province. Construction began on April 27, 2010 and the line was opened on 28 June 2015. The total cost of the line was about ¥109.8 billion. On this line, trains can reach top speeds of 300 kilometres per hour, reducing the travel time by rail from Hefei to Fuzhou from fourteen to four hours. The railway is part of the future Beijing–Taipei high-speed rail corridor.

Cities and towns along the route include Changlinhe, Chaohu, Wuwei, Tongling, Nanling, Jingxian, Jingde, Jixi and Huangshan in Anhui, Wuyuan and Shangrao in Jiangxi, and Wuyishan, Jianou, Gutian, Nanping and Minqing in Fujian.

The Hefu passenger-dedicated line (PDL) constitutes a portion of the proposed Beijing–Taipei high-speed rail corridor, which would tunnel under the Taiwan Strait from Fuzhou to the island of Taiwan. The northern section of this project is being built as the section of the Beijing-Shanghai HSR from Beijing to Bengbu. From Bengbu, a high-speed rail spur (opened on 2012-10-16), extends to Hefei, supporting 4 hour travel time from Beijing South railway station to Hefei. The Hefu PDL would then extend the line from Hefei to Fuzhou on the western shores of the Taiwan Strait. Political differences between mainland China and Taiwan complicate plans to extend the line by tunnel to Taipei.

Hefei–Nanjing passenger railway

The Hefei–Nanjing passenger railway also known as the Hening railway (simplified Chinese: 合宁铁路; traditional Chinese: 合寧鐵路; pinyin: Hé-Níng Tiělù) is a high-speed railway in China, running from Hefei to Nanjing at 250 km/h (155 mph). The line is 166 km (103 mi) long and began service on April 18, 2008. High-speed trains on the line reduced travel time between Nanjing and Hefei from over three hours to 1.5 hours. The Hening Line forms part of the high-speed Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu high-speed railway from Shanghai to Chengdu and the easternmost section of the Nanjing–Xi'an Railway.

Hefei–Wuhan passenger railway

The Hewu passenger line (simplified Chinese: 合武铁路; traditional Chinese: 合武鐵路; pinyin: Hé-Wǔ tiělù) is a 250 kilometres (160 mi) high-speed railway in Chinese provinces of Anhui and Hubei, with trains running from Anhui's capital Hefei to Hubei's capital Wuhan at 350 kilometres per hour (220 mph). The railway opened on 31 December 2008, high-speed services started on April 1, 2009. at 250 km/h (160 mph) and has been used by Shanghai–Nanjing–Hefei–Wuhan express trains since then.

As of July 2010, scheduling systems showed nine daily D-series express trains running in each direction between Hefei and Wuhan's three train stations (Wuhan, Hankou, and Wuchang), making the trip in 2 hours to 2 hrs 40 min. Another six Shanghai-Wuhan D-series trains passed this section without stopping in Hefei.As of September 2013 the number of Daily departures each way is over 20 in order to increase train speed the line was upgraded to 350 km/h (220 mph).This railway is one of the sections of the important east-west route known as the Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu High-Speed Railway (Shanghai–Hankou–Chengdu).

The railway uses tunnels when crossing the Dabie Mountains on the Anhui–Hubei border.

Luyang District

Luyang District (simplified Chinese: 庐阳区; traditional Chinese: 廬陽區; pinyin: Lúyáng Qū) is one of four urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Hefei, the capital of Anhui Province, East China. It makes up the main part of the old city area of Hefei. It has a total area of 139.32 square kilometres (53.79 sq mi), and a population of 609,239 inhabitants.

Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway

Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway (Chinese: 沪汉蓉快速客运通道), is a fully completed high-speed railway corridor operated by China Railway High-speed. The Chinese name of the railway line, Huhanrong, is a combination of the abbreviations for Shanghai (沪, Hù), Wuhan (汉, Hàn), and Chengdu (蓉, Róng), three major cities along the line.

The Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger-dedicated line is one of the four east–west high-speed rail corridors outlined in China's national high-speed rail plan. From east to west, it will connect the major cities of Shanghai (a provincial-level municipality), Nanjing (the capital of Jiangsu), Hefei (the capital of Anhui), Wuhan (the capital of Hubei), Chongqing (a province-level municipality), and Chengdu (the capital of Sichuan). The total population of the four provinces and two municipalities served by this rail line is over 320 million (as of 2008).Despite its name, the line is actually a medium-speed railway designed to run at a maximum speed of 200 km/h (120 mph) in most sections. The newer Yangtze River passageway, running parallel to it at 350 km/h (220 mph), is being planned to manage the increasing passenger traffic.

Yaohai District

Yaohai District (simplified Chinese: 瑶海区; traditional Chinese: 瑤海區; pinyin: Yáohǎi Qū) is one of four urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Hefei, the capital of Anhui Province, East China. The district has a surface of 142.9 km2 (55.2 sq mi) and a population of 902,830 inhabitants. It contains 1 township, 1 town, 10 subdistricts, 1 industrial park, and 1 development zone.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinHéféi
Wade–GilesHo2-fei2
IPA[xɤ̌.fěi]
Wu
RomanizationGheh-vi
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationHahp-fèih
IPA[hɐ̀p̚.fȅi]
JyutpingHap6-fei4
Southern Min
Hokkien POJHa̍p-pûi
Climate data for Hefei (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
27.5
(81.5)
30.4
(86.7)
34.7
(94.5)
36.4
(97.5)
37.8
(100.0)
41.1
(106.0)
41.0
(105.8)
38.6
(101.5)
34.7
(94.5)
30.1
(86.2)
22.5
(72.5)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
9.4
(48.9)
14.4
(57.9)
21.1
(70.0)
26.6
(79.9)
29.3
(84.7)
32.2
(90.0)
31.8
(89.2)
27.8
(82.0)
22.5
(72.5)
16.0
(60.8)
9.7
(49.5)
20.6
(69.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
5.2
(41.4)
9.8
(49.6)
16.3
(61.3)
21.8
(71.2)
25.3
(77.5)
28.3
(82.9)
27.6
(81.7)
23.3
(73.9)
17.7
(63.9)
11.0
(51.8)
5.1
(41.2)
16.2
(61.1)
Average low °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
1.9
(35.4)
6.1
(43.0)
12.2
(54.0)
17.6
(63.7)
21.7
(71.1)
25.2
(77.4)
24.3
(75.7)
19.8
(67.6)
13.8
(56.8)
7.1
(44.8)
1.6
(34.9)
12.6
(54.7)
Record low °C (°F) −20.6
(−5.1)
−14.1
(6.6)
−7.3
(18.9)
−0.4
(31.3)
6.2
(43.2)
12.2
(54.0)
17.9
(64.2)
15.8
(60.4)
10.8
(51.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−13.5
(7.7)
−20.6
(−5.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42.4
(1.67)
52.3
(2.06)
76.6
(3.02)
81.4
(3.20)
91.1
(3.59)
142.9
(5.63)
173.3
(6.82)
126.0
(4.96)
67.2
(2.65)
57.4
(2.26)
59.4
(2.34)
30.8
(1.21)
1,000.8
(39.41)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.2 8.9 11.6 10.3 10.2 10.6 12.1 11.0 7.8 8.5 7.6 6.0 112.8
Average relative humidity (%) 75 74 72 71 71 76 80 81 77 74 74 73 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 118.7 113.5 138.6 168.0 190.9 165.5 189.2 190.9 153.8 154.4 148.7 135.8 1,868
Percent possible sunshine 38 37 35 42 44 41 46 50 43 46 48 46 43
Source: China Meteorological Administration[7][8]
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