Hebei

Hebei (河北; formerly romanised as Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili Province or Chihli Province. Its one-character abbreviation is "" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river",[5] referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.[6]

The modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911 after the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled[7] (by the Imperial Court)" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928.

Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, and Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.

A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào (燕趙), after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.

Hebei Province

河北省
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese河北省 (Héběi Shěng)
 • AbbreviationHE / HEB / (pinyin: )
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
Map showing the location of Hebei Province
Coordinates: 39°18′N 116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°ECoordinates: 39°18′N 116°42′E / 39.3°N 116.7°E
Named for —"(Yellow) River"
běi—"north"
"north of the Yellow River"
CapitalBaoding (1729-1913, 1935-1937, 1946-1947, 1949-1958, 1966-1968)

Beijing(1928-1930, 1945-1946, 1947-1949) Tianjin (1870-1902, 1913-1928, 1930-1935, 1958-1966)

Shijiazhuang (1968-present)
Largest cityShijiazhuang
Divisions11 prefectures, 121 counties, 2207 townships
Government
 • SecretaryWang Dongfeng
 • GovernorXu Qin
Area
 • Total188,800 km2 (72,900 sq mi)
Area rank12th
Highest elevation
(Mount Xiaowutai[1])
2,882 m (9,455 ft)
Population
(2016)[2]
 • Total74,700,500
 • Rank6th
 • Density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
 • Density rank11th
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan: 96%
Manchu: 3%
Hui: 0.8%
Mongol: 0.3%
 • Languages and dialectsJilu Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE
GDP (2017 [3])CNY 3.60 trillion
USD 532.66 billion (8th)
 • per capitaCNY 47,985
USD 7,107 (18th)
HDI (2010)0.691[4] (medium) (16th)
Websitewww.hebei.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
english.hebei.gov.cn (English)
Hebei
Hebei (Chinese characters)
"Hebei" in Chinese characters
Chinese河北
PostalHopeh
Literal meaning"North of the (Yellow) River"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinHéběi
Bopomofoㄏㄜˊ   ㄅㄟˇ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhHerbeei
Wade–GilesHo2-pei3
IPA[xɤ̌.pèi]
Wu
RomanizationGhupoh
Hakka
RomanizationHò-pet
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationHòh-bāk
IPA[hɔ̏ː.pɐ́k̚]
JyutpingHo4-bak1
Southern Min
Hokkien POJHô-pak
Abbreviation
Chinese
Literal meaning[an ancient province in modern southern Hebei]
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin
Bopomofoㄐㄧˋ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhJih
Wade–GilesChi4
IPA[tɕî]
Yue: Cantonese
JyutpingKei3
Southern Min
Tâi-lô
Zhili Province
Traditional Chinese直隸省
Simplified Chinese直隶省
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhílì Shěng

History

Plains in Hebei were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC.[8]

During the Spring and Autumn period (722 BC – 476 BC), Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south. Also during this period, a nomadic people known as invaded the plains of northern China and established Zhongshan in central Hebei. During the Warring States period (403 BC–221 BC), Jin was partitioned, and much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao.

The Qin dynasty unified China in 221 BC. The Han dynasty (206 BC – AD 220) ruled the area under two provinces (zhou), You Prefecture in the north and Ji Province in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei came under the control of warlords Gongsun Zan in the north and Yuan Shao further south; Yuan Shao emerged victorious of the two, but he was soon defeated by rival Cao Cao (based further south, in modern-day Henan) in the Battle of Guandu in 200. Hebei then came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei (one of the Three Kingdoms), established by the descendants of Cao Cao.

IronLion
1500-year-old Iron Lion of Cangzhou

After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern and Southern dynasties ensued. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan. The Northern Wei reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half (first the Eastern Wei; then the Northern Qi), which had its capital at Ye (), near modern Linzhang, Hebei. The Sui dynasty again unified China in 589.

Sancai Duck-Shaped Cup
Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County

During the Tang dynasty (618–907), the area was formally designated "Hebei" (north of the Yellow River) for the first time. During the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was eventually unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang (923–936). The next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei to the Khitan Liao dynasty in the north; this territory, called the Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, became a major weakness in the Chinese defense against the Khitans for the next century, since it lay within the Great Wall.

During the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty. The Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin–Song wars.

Budala5
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Saihanba5
Saihanba National Park in Inner Mongolian plateau grassland border, north Chengde, Hebei

The Mongol Yuan dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat (中書省) at capital Dadu. The Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as "Beizhili" (simplified Chinese: 北直隶; traditional Chinese: 北直隸; pinyin: Běizhílì), meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital, Beijing; the "Northern" designation was used because there was a southern counterpart covering present-day Jiangsu and Anhui. When the Manchu Qing dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, and Hebei became known as "Zhili", or simply "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, and overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia.

The Qing dynasty collapsed in 1912 and was replaced by the Republic of China. Within a few years, China descended into civil war, with regional warlords vying for power. Since Zhili was so close to Peking (Beijing), the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking (Beijing) to Nanking (Nanjing). As a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, and that the capital had been relocated elsewhere.

During the Second World War, Hebei was under the control of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of Japan, a puppet state of Imperial Japan.

The founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes: the region around Chengde, previously part of Rehe Province (historically part of Manchuria), and the region around Zhangjiakou, previously part of Chahar Province (historically part of Inner Mongolia), were merged into Hebei, extending its borders northwards beyond the Great Wall. The capital was also moved from Baoding to the upstart city of Shijiazhuang, and, for a short period, to Tianjin.

On July 28, 1976, Tangshan was struck by a powerful earthquake, the Tangshan earthquake, the deadliest of the 20th century with over 240,000 killed. A series of smaller earthquakes struck the city in the following decade.

In 2005, Chinese archaeologists unearthed what is being called the Chinese equivalent of Italy's Pompeii. The find in question, located near Liumengchun Village (柳孟春村) in Cang County in east-central Hebei, is a buried settlement destroyed nearly 700 years ago by a major earthquake. Another possible explanation may be the four successive floods which hit the area around the time when the settlement met its sudden end. The settlement appears to have been a booming commercial center during the Song dynasty.

Geography

LangYaShan5
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County, Hebei.

Most of central and southern Hebei lies within the North China Plain. The western part of Hebei rises into the Taihang Mountains (Taihang Shan), while the Yan Mountains (Yan Shan) run through northern Hebei, beyond which lie the grasslands of Inner Mongolia. The Great Wall of China cuts through northern Hebei from east to west as well, briefly entering the border of Beijing Municipality, and terminates at the seacoast of Shanhaiguan in northeastern Hebei. The highest peak is Mount Xiaowutai (小五台山) in Yu County in the northwest of the province, with an altitude of 2,882 m (9,455 ft).[1]

Hebei borders Bohai Sea on the east. The Hai He watershed covers most of the province's central and southern parts, and the Luan He watershed covers the northeast. Not counting the numerous reservoirs to be found in Hebei's hills and mountains, the largest lake in Hebei is Baiyangdian, located mostly in Anxin County.

Major cities:

Climate

Hebei has a continental monsoon climate, with cold, dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Temperatures average −16 to −3 °C (3 to 27 °F) in January and 20 to 27 °C (68 to 81 °F) in July; the annual precipitation ranges from 400 to 800 mm (16 to 31 in), concentrated heavily in summer.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Hebei Province, China[9][10][11][12]
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Baoding 31.7/22.6 89.1/72.7 2.5/–7.7 36.5/18.1
Qinhuangdao 28.1/21.7 82.6/71.1 0.1/–8.8 32.2/16.2
Tangshan 30.2/21.7 86.4/71.1 0.9/–10.2 33.6/13.6
Zhangjiakou 29.4/18.7 84.9/65.7 2.2/–12.9 36.0/8.8

Administrative divisions

Hebei is made up of eleven prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Hebei
Hebei prfc map 1

     Prefecture-level city district areas      County-level cities

Division code[13] Division Area in km2[14] Population 2010[15] Seat Divisions[16]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
  130000 Hebei Province 187700.00 71,854,202 Shijiazhuang city 47 94 6 21
1 130100 Shijiazhuang city 15848 9,547,869 Chang'an District 8 11 3
9 130200 Tangshan city 14334.59 7,577,284 Lunan District 7 4 3
8 130300 Qinhuangdao city 7791.57 2,987,605 Haigang District 4 2 1
5 130400 Handan city 12066.00 9,174,679 Congtai District 6 11 1
10 130500 Xingtai city 12433.00 7,104,114 Qiaodong District 2 15 2
2 130600 Baoding city 22185.00 10,029,197 Jingxiu District 5 15 4
11 130700 Zhangjiakou city 36861.55 4,345,491 Qiaoxi District 6 10
4 130800 Chengde city 39512.98 3,473,197 Shuangqiao District 3 4 3 1
3 130900 Cangzhou city 14305.28 7,134,053 Yunhe District 2 9 1 4
7 131000 Langfang city 6417.29 4,358,839 Anci District 2 5 1 2
6 131100 Hengshui city 8836.90 4,340,773 Taocheng District 2 8 1
Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations
English Chinese Pinyin
Hebei Province 河北省 Héběi Shěng
Shijiazhuang city 石家庄市 Shíjiāzhuāng Shì
Tangshan city 唐山市 Tángshān Shì
Qinhuangdao city 秦皇岛市 Qínhuángdǎo Shì
Handan city 邯郸市 Hándān Shì
Xingtai city 邢台市 Xíngtái Shì
Baoding city 保定市 Bǎodìng Shì
Zhangjiakou city 张家口市 Zhāngjiākǒu Shì
Chengde city 承德市 Chéngdé Shì
Cangzhou city 沧州市 Cāngzhōu Shì
Langfang city 廊坊市 Lángfáng Shì
Hengshui city 衡水市 Héngshuǐ Shì

These eleven prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 168 county-level divisions (47 districts, 21 county-level cities, 94 counties and 6 autonomous counties). Those are, in turn, divided into 2207 township-level divisions (1 district public office, 937 towns, 979 townships, 55 ethnic townships, and 235 subdistricts). At the end of 2017, the total population of Hebei is 75.2 million.[1]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[17] District area[17] City proper[17] Census date
1 Shijiazhuang[a] 2,770,344 2,834,942 10,163,788 2010-11-01
(1) Shijiazhuang (new districts)[a] 461,738 1,208,046 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
2 Tangshan[b] 2,128,191 3,187,171 7,577,289 2010-11-01
(2) Tangshan (new district)[b] 109,126 184,931 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
3 Handan[c] 1,316,674 1,445,338 9,174,683 2010-11-01
(3) Handan (new districts)[c] 627,869 1,757,637 see Handan 2010-11-01
4 Baoding[d] 1,038,195 1,138,521 11,194,382 2010-11-01
(4) Baoding (new districts)[d] 459,153 1,377,399 see Baoding 2010-11-01
(4) Baoding Xiong'an[e] 405,661 1,055,063 see Baoding 2010-11-01
5 Qinhuangdao[f] 967,877 1,029,670 2,987,605 2010-11-01
(5) Qinhuangdao (new district)[f] 120,710 517,073 see Qinhuangdao 2010-11-01
6 Zhangjiakou[g] 924,628 1,060,605 4,345,485 2010-11-01
(6) Zhangjiakou (new districts)[g] 209,414 591,334 see Zhangjiakou 2010-11-01
7 Xingtai 668,765 670,154 7,104,103 2010-11-01
8 Chengde 540,390 634,229 3,473,201 2010-11-01
9 Langfang 530,840 868,066 4,358,839 2010-11-01
10 Cangzhou 499,411 536,795 7,134,062 2010-11-01
11 Dingzhou 482,121 1,165,182 see Baoding 2010-11-01
12 Renqiu 430,896 822,455 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
13 Hengshui[h] 389,447 522,147 4,340,773 2010-11-01
(13) Hengshui (new district)[h] 165,363 362,013 see Hengshui 2010-11-01
14 Sanhe 386,902 652,042 see Langfang 2010-11-01
15 Qian'an 308,849 728,160 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
16 Zunhua 299,759 737,011 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
17 Huanghua 296,978 548,507 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
18 Wu'an 293,151 819,000 see Handan 2010-11-01
19 Bazhou 291,710 622,975 see Langfang 2010-11-01
20 Gaobeidian 274,853 323,671 see Baoding 2010-11-01
21 Zhuozhou 260,493 303,125 see Baoding 2010-11-01
22 Botou 258,203 584,308 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
23 Hejian 243,458 810,306 see Cangzhou 2010-11-01
24 Xinji 236,658 615,919 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
25 Shahe 218,958 498,416 see Xingtai 2010-11-01
(26) Luanzhou[i] 208,212 554,315 see Tangshan 2010-11-01
27 Shenzhou 207,945 566,087 see Hengshui 2010-11-01
28 Xinle 194,480 487,652 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
29 Nangong 188,260 469,030 see Xingtai 2010-11-01
30 Jinzhou 160,284 537,679 see Shijiazhuang 2010-11-01
(31) Pingquan[j] 136,401 229,622 see Chengde 2010-11-01
32 Anguo 135,524 185,386 see Baoding 2010-11-01
  1. ^ a b New districts established after census: Gaocheng (Gaocheng CLC), Luquan (Luquan CLC). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. ^ a b New district established after census: Caofeidian (Tanghai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. ^ a b New districts established after census: Yongnian (Yongnian County), Feixiang (Feixiang County); Handan County merged into Hanshan & Congtai. These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. ^ a b New districts established after census: Mancheng (Mancheng County), Qingyuan (Qingyuan County), Xushui (Xushui County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. ^ Xiong'an New Area is a special urban area jurisdiction consist of Rongcheng County, Anxin County, & Xiongxian County established after census.
  6. ^ a b New district established after census: Funing (Funing County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. ^ a b New districts established after census: Wanquan (Wanquan County), Chongli (Chongli County); Xuanhua County merged into Xuanhua. These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  8. ^ a b New district established after census: Jizhou (Jizhou CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  9. ^ Luanxian County is currently known as Luanzhou CLC after census.
  10. ^ Pingquan County is currently known as Pingquan CLC after census.

Politics

The politics of Hebei is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Hebei is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hebei. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hebei Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (CPC Party Chief).

Economy

Shijiazhuang central
Downtown Shijiazhuang.

In 2014, Hebei's GDP was 2.942 trillion yuan (US$479 billion),[18] ranked 6th in the PRC. GDP per capita reached 40,124 Renminbi. As of 2011, the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of industry contributed 203.46 billion, 877.74 billion, and 537.66 billion RMB respectively. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.96%.

20060416050427
A corner in downtown Zhangjiakou.

40% of Hebei's labor force works in the agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry sectors, with the majority of production from these industries going to Beijing and Tianjin Hebei's main agricultural products are cereal crops including wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum. Cash crops like cotton, peanut, soybeans and sesame are also produced.

Kailuan, with a history of over 100 years, is one of China's first modern coal mines, and remains a major mine with an annual production of over 20 million metric tonnes. Much of the North China Oilfield is found in Hebei, and there are also major iron mines at Handan and Qian'an. Iron, as well as steel, manufacturing are the largest industries in Hebei, and are likely to remain so as these industries consolidate and Hebei continues to grow as a manufacturing and transportation center for the region.

Hebei's industries include textiles, coal, steel, iron, engineering, chemical production, petroleum, power, ceramics and food.

Economic and technological development zones

  • Baoding Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone
  • Langfang Export Processing Zone
  • Qinhuangdao Economic & Technological Development Zone
  • Qinhuangdao Export Processing Zone
  • Shijiazhuang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Demographics

Zhengding Lingxiao Pagoda 3
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1912[19] 26,658,000—    
1928[20] 31,232,000+0.99%
1936-37[21] 28,644,000−1.08%
1947[22] 28,719,000+0.02%
1954[23] 35,984,644+3.27%
1964[24] 45,687,781+2.42%
1982[25] 53,005,876+0.83%
1990[26] 61,082,439+1.79%
2000[27] 66,684,419+0.88%
2010[28] 71,854,202+0.75%
Hebei Province was known as Zhili Province until 1928.
Beijing was part of Hebei Province[7] until 1928.
Tainjin was part of Hebei Province until 1928 and 1954 to 1967.
Rehe Province dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Hebei Province.
Qahar Province dissolved in 1952 and parts were incorporated into Hebei Province.

The population is mostly Han Chinese. 55 ethnic minorities are present in Hebei, representing 4.27% of the total population. The largest are Manchu (2.1 million people), Hui people (600000 people) and Mongol (180000 people).[29]

Ethnic groups in Hebei, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese 63,781,603 95.65%
Manchu 2,118,711 3.18%
Hui 542,639 0.78%
Mongol 169,887 0.26%
Zhuang 20,832 0.031%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China, eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China. 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)

In 2004, the birth rate was 11.98 births per 1,000 people, while the death rate was 6.19 deaths per 1,000 people. In 2000 the sex ratio at birth was 118.46 males to 100 females.[30]

Religion

Religion in Hebei[31][note 1]

  Deity worshippers, Taoists, Buddhists, Confucians, folk religious sects, or not religious people (90.61%)
  Christianity (3.05%)
  Islam (0.82%)

The predominant religions in Hebei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 5.52% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 3.05% of the population identifies as Christian,[31] mostly of the Catholic Church. Local worship of deities in the region began to organise into "benevolent churches" as a reaction to Catholicism in the Qing dynasty.

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.61% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism and folk religious sects. Zailiism is a folk religious sect that originated in Hebei. There is a presence of Tibetan Buddhist schools in the province.

Hebei has the largest Catholic population in China, with 1 million members according to the local government.[33] and 1.5 million Catholics according to the Catholic Church.[34] The province is considered as the center of Catholicism in China. The town of Donglu, where an apparition of the Virgin Mary was reported to have occurred in 1900, is reportedly "one of the strongholds of the unofficial Catholic Church in China".[35]

A large number of Catholics in Hebei remain loyal to the Pope and reject the authority of the Catholic Patriotic Church. Four of Hebei's underground bishops have been imprisoned in recent years: Bishop Francis An Shuxin of Donglu since 1996; Bishop James Su Zhimin since October 1997; and Bishops Han Dingxiang of Yongnian who died in prison in 2007 and Julius Jia Zhiguo of Zhengding since late 1999.[34][36] In 2003 there were 350.000 Protestants and 580.000 Muslims according to government statistics.[37][38] According to a survey, as of 2010 Muslims constitute 0.82% of the population of Hebei.[32]

Chengde, China - 013
View of the Puning Temple complex (Tibetan Buddhism).
张挥公大殿2
Great Temple of Zhang Hui (张挥公大殿 Zhāng Huī gōng dàdiàn), the central ancestral shrine of the Zhang lineage, in Qinghe (Zhangs' ancestral home).

Culture

Dafuo2
The giant Bodhisattva statue of Puning Temple, Chengde, Hebei province, built in 1755 under the Qianlong Emperor.

Dialects of Mandarin are spoken over most of the province, and most Mandarin dialects in Hebei are in turn classified as part of the Ji Lu Mandarin subdivision. Regions along the western border with Shanxi, however, have dialects that are distinct enough for linguists to consider them as part of Jin, another subdivision of Chinese, rather than Mandarin. In general, the dialects of Hebei are quite similar to and readily intelligible with the Beijing dialect, which forms the basis for Standard Chinese, the official language of the nation. However, there are also some distinct differences, such as differences in the pronunciation of certain words that derive from entering tone syllables (syllables ending on a plosive) in Middle Chinese.

Traditional forms of Chinese opera in Hebei include Pingju, Hebei Bangzi (also known as Hebei Clapper Opera), and Cangzhou Kuaiban Dagu. Pingju is especially popular: it tends to be colloquial in language and hence easy to understand for audiences. Originating from northeastern Hebei, Pingju has been influenced by other forms of Chinese opera like Beijing opera. Traditionally Pingju makes use of just a xiaosheng (young male lead), a xiaodan (young female lead), and a xiaohualian (young comic character), though it has since diversified with the use of other roles as well.

Dingzhou Liaodi Pagoda 3
The Liaodi Pagoda, built in 1055 during the Song dynasty

Quyang County, in central Hebei, is noted for its Dingzhou porcelain, which includes various vessels such as bowls, plates, vases, and cups, as well as figurines. Dingzhou porcelain is usually creamy white, though it is also made in other colours.

Hebei cuisine is typically based on wheat, mutton and beans.

Notable individuals

Well-known people born in Hebei Province include:

Media

Hebei is served by Hebei Television.

Transportation

Because Hebei surrounds Beijing and Tianjin, all the numerous important railway lines radiating out of these two cities pass through Hebei. The Beijing–Guangzhou Railway is one of the most important: it passes through many major cities such as Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Xingtai and Handan on its way south to Henan. Other important railways include the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, Beijing–Shanghai Railway, Beijing-Harbin Railway, Beijing–Chengde Railway, Beijing–Tongliao Railway, Beijing-Baotou Railway and Fengtai–Shacheng Railway. High-speed rail lines crossing the province include the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beijing-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway and Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan High-Speed Railway. Future high-speed rail lines from Beijing and Tianjin to Northeast China and Northwest China will traverse northern Hebei.

During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Beijing and Hebei were collaborating on a new passenger railway. The RMB 82.6 billion network will add 844 kilometers to the system. Current railway systems for Hebei trains are also being upgraded and will soon be able to travel at speeds of between 160 and 200 kilometers per hour.

As of the early 2013, railway schedule systems listed 160 passenger train stations within the province.[40]

The recent expressway boom in China has not left Hebei behind. There are expressways to every prefecture-level city of Hebei, totalling to approximately 2,000 kilometers. The total length of highways within Hebei is around 40,000 kilometers.

There are a number of ports along the Bohai Sea, including Qinhuangdao (the second busiest in China with a capacity of over 100 million tons), Huanghua, and Jingtang. Shijiazhuang's Zhengding Airport is the province's center of air transportation, with domestic and international flights. Parts of Hebei will also be served by the new Beijing Daxing International Airport in Beijing, which is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2017.[41]

Tourism

Xumipagodazhengding
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty

The Ming Great Wall crosses the northern part of Hebei and the eastern end is located on the coast at Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass), near Qinhuangdao. Informally known as the "First Pass of The World" (天下第一關), Shanhaiguan was the place where Ming general Wu Sangui opened the gates to Manchu forces in 1644, beginning nearly 300 years of Manchu rule; Shanhai Pass also marks the psychological entrance / exit of Manchuria, so that for centuries Manchuria was known as "outside the Pass" or "east of the Pass". Beidaihe, located near Shanhaiguan, is a popular beach resort well known as a former meeting place for top governmental officials.

The Chengde Mountain Resort and its outlying temples are a World Heritage Site. Also known as the Rehe Palace, this was the summer resort of the Manchu Qing dynasty emperors. The Chengde Resort was built between 1703 and 1792, and consists of a palace complex, a large park area composed of lakes, pavilions, causeways, bridges, etc., and a number of Tibetan Buddhist and Han Chinese temples in the surrounding area.

There are Qing dynasty imperial tombs at Zunhua (Eastern Qing Tombs) and Yixian (West Qing Tombs). The Eastern Qing Tombs are the resting place of 161 Qing emperors, empresses, and other members of the Qing imperial family, while the West Qing Tombs have 76. These are also part of a World Heritage Site.

The Zhaozhou, or Anji Bridge, built by Li Chun during the Sui dynasty, is the oldest stone arch bridge in China, and one of the most significant examples of pre-modern Chinese civil engineering.

Baoding, the old provincial capital, contains the historical Zhili Governor's Residence.

Xibaipo, a village about 90 km (56 mi) from Shijiazhuang, in Pingshan County was the location of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army during the decisive stages of the Chinese Civil War between May 26, 1948 and March 23, 1949, at which point they were moved to Beijing. Today, the area houses a memorial site.[42]

Sports

The 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship was held in Hebei.

Sports teams based in Hebei include:

National Basketball League (China)
Hebei Springs Benma

Chinese Football Association

Education

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under other national agencies:

Under the provincial government:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[31] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i.e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang. The number of Muslims is taken from a survey reported in the year 2010.[32]

References

Citations

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  16. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  17. ^ a b c 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: China Statistics Print. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
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  27. ^ 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.
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  32. ^ a b Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
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  34. ^ a b 河北地下教会主教成为爱国会成员. chinacath.org. 2010-09-15.
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  37. ^ 基督教. www.hebmzt.gov.cn.
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  40. ^ List of train stations in Hebei (in Chinese)
  41. ^ Moore, Malcolm (September 9, 2011). "China to build world's biggest airport". The Daily Telegraph.
  42. ^ Kenneth Pomeranz (July 22, 2010), Musings on a Museum: A Trip to Xibaipo

Sources

External links

Baoding

Baoding (Chinese: 保定; pinyin: Bǎodìng) is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 3 urban districts and Qingyuan and Mancheng counties largely being conurbated, on 1,840 km2 (710 sq mi). Baoding is among 13 Chinese cities with a population of over 10 million, ranking seventh.

Cangzhou

Cangzhou (simplified Chinese: 沧州; traditional Chinese: 滄州; pinyin: Cāngzhōu) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, Cangzhou's built-up (or metro) area made of Yunhe, Xinhua districts and Cang County largely being conurbated had a population of 1,205,814 inhabitants, while the prefecture-level administrative unit in total has a population of 7,134,062. It lies approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) from the major port city of Tianjin, and 180 km (110 mi) from Beijing.

Chengde

Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated northeast of Beijing. It is best known as the site of the Mountain Resort, a vast imperial garden and palace formerly used by the Qing emperors as summer residence. The permanent resident population is approximately 3,473,200 in 2017.

Dingzhou

Dingzhou, or Tingchow in Postal Map Romanization, and formerly called Ding County or Dingxian, is a county-level city in the prefecture-level city of Baoding, Hebei Province. As of 2009, Dingzhou had a population of 1.2 million. Dingzhou has 3 subdistricts, 13 towns, 8 townships, and 1 ethnic township. Dingzhou is about halfway between Baoding and Shijiazhuang, 196 kilometers (122 mi) southwest of Beijing, and 68 kilometers (42 mi) northeast of Shijiazhuang.

Handan

Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwest of Hebei province, China. The southernmost prefecture-level city of the province, it borders Xingtai on the north, and the provinces of Shanxi on the west, Henan on the south and Shandong on the east. At the 2010 census, its population was 9,174,683 inhabitants whom 2,845,790 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 3 urban districts, Handan and Yangyan counties, and Shahe City in Xintai municipality, largely being conurbated now.

Hebei China Fortune F.C.

Hebei China Fortune Football Club (simplified Chinese: 河北华夏幸福足球俱乐部; traditional Chinese: 河北華夏幸福足球俱樂部; pinyin: Héběi Huáxià Xìngfú Zúqiú Jùlèbù) is a professional Chinese football club that participates in the Chinese Super League division under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Langfang, Hebei and their home stadium is the Langfang Stadium that has a seating capacity of 30,000. Their current owners are real estate developers China Fortune Land Development who took over the club on January 27, 2015.

According to Forbes, Hebei are the 7th most valuable football team in China, with a team value of $90 million, and an estimated revenue of $22 million in 2015.

Hengshui

Hengshui (pinyin: Héngshuǐ) is a prefecture-level city in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China, bordering Shandong to the southeast. At the 2010 census its population was 4,340,373 inhabitants whom 522,147 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Taocheng urban district. It is on the Jingjiu Railway.

Langfang

Langfang (Chinese: 廊坊; pinyin: Lángfáng), is a prefecture-level city of Hebei Province, which was known as Tianjin Prefecture until 1973. It was renamed Langfang Prefecture after Tianjin became a municipality and finally upgraded into a prefecture-level city in 1988. Langfang is located approximately midway between Beijing and Tianjin. The name Langfang means "gallery square". At the 2010 census, the population of Langfang was 4,358,839, of whom 868,066 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Guangyang and Anci districts; its total area is around 6,417.28 km2 (2,477.73 sq mi). Langfang borders Baoding to the southwest, Cangzhou to the south (both prefecture-level cities of Hebei), Beijing to the north and Tianjin to the east. Sanhe City and Dachang Hui County are now conurbated with Beijing, so that they form part of the same built-up area. Langfang is the smallest prefecture-level city of Hebei Province by land area.

Manuel Pellegrini

Manuel Luis Pellegrini Ripamonti (Spanish pronunciation: [maˈnwel peleˈɣɾini]; Italian: [pelleˈɡriːni]; born 16 September 1953) is a Chilean professional football manager and former footballer, who is the manager of Premier League club West Ham United. As a coach, he has managed teams in Spain, England, Argentina, Chile, China and Ecuador. A qualified civil engineer and former footballer, after retiring as a player, he moved into coaching in his native Chile and subsequently Argentina. Pellegrini has won national leagues in four countries.

Pellegrini moved to Europe in 2004 to take the manager's post at Villarreal, a club near Valencia. Under Pellegrini, Villarreal achieved a third-place finish in La Liga in 2004–05, a Champions League semi-final in 2005–06 and broke the big two in 2008 by securing a second-place finish in La Liga in 2007–08.

Pellegrini's consistent record at Villarreal attracted the attention of Real Madrid and he was appointed manager there in 2009. He amassed a total of 96 points, a club record until it was surpassed by José Mourinho in the 2011–12 season, but lost the title to Barcelona by three points. He was dismissed after one season and later lamented the Galácticos policy employed at Real which prevented him from building a balanced team.

Pellegrini took up the manager's role at Málaga in November 2010. He led Málaga to a fourth-place finish in his first full season and to qualification for the UEFA Champions League. He made it to the quarter-finals of the 2012–13 Champions League, becoming the only coach to take two teams to the Champions League quarter-finals in their debut seasons in the competition. On 22 May 2013, Pellegrini confirmed he would leave Málaga at the end of the 2012–13 La Liga season. On 14 June 2013, he was appointed manager of Manchester City, and won the Football League Cup and Premier League in his first season as manager, in the process becoming the first manager from outside Europe to manage a team to the English Premier League title. The title winning season was also noted for goal scoring prowess with Manchester City scoring 151 goals in all competitions – an English football record.

Qian'an, Hebei

Qian'an (simplified Chinese: 迁安; traditional Chinese: 遷安; pinyin: Qiān'ān) is a county-level city in the northeast of Hebei province, China. It is under the administration of Tangshan City.

Qinhuangdao

Qinhuangdao (; Chinese: 秦皇岛) is a port city on the coast of China in northeastern Hebei province. It is administratively a prefecture-level city, about 300 km (190 mi) east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea. Its population during the 2010 national census was 2,987,605, with approximately one million people living in the built-up (or 'metro') area made up of three urban districts.

Renqiu

Renqiu (Chinese: 任丘; pinyin: Rènqiū) is a county-level city in Hebei province, China. It is located 79 kilometres (49 mi) northwest of the prefecture-level city of Cangzhou, which administers it, and 104 kilometres (65 mi) southwest of Tianjin. It is the location of Huabei oil field.

Sanhe

Sanhe (Chinese: 三河; pinyin: Sānhé Shì) is a county-level city administered by Langfang prefecture in eastern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. Sanhe city, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County form the Sanhe Exclave, an exclave of Hebei province surrounded by the Beijing and Tianjin municipalities.

The name of the city literally means "Three Rivers".

Shahe, Hebei

Shahe (Chinese: 沙河; pinyin: Shāhé) is a county-level city in the prefecture-level city of Xingtai, in the southern part of Hebei province, China.

Shahe has been called China's "glass capital." Its glass factories manufacture about ten percent of the world supply of flat glass. About 50,000 of Shahe's 480,000 residents work in the glass industry.

Smog in Shahe has become a serious problem, with some factories preferring to pay fines rather than comply with air pollution enforcement requirements.

Shijiazhuang

Shijiazhuang (Chinese: 石家庄, [ʂɻ̩̌.tɕjá.ʈʂwáŋ]) is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about 266 kilometres (165 mi) southwest of Beijing, and it administers eight districts, two county-level cities, and 12 counties.

As of 2015 it had a total population of 10,701,600 with 4,303,700 in the central (or metro) area comprising the seven districts and the county of Zhengding largely conurbated with the Shijiazhuang metropolitan area as urbanization continues to proliferate. Shijiazhuang's total population ranked twelfth in mainland China.Shijiazhuang experienced dramatic growth after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. The population of the metropolitan area has more than quadrupled in 30 years as a result of industrialization and infrastructural developments. From 2008 to 2011, Shijiazhuang implemented a three-year plan which concluded with the reorganization of the city resulting in an increase of green areas and new buildings and roads. A train station, airport and a subway system have been opened.Shijiazhuang is situated east of the Taihang Mountains, a mountain range extending over 400 km (250 mi) from north to south with an average elevation of 1,500 to 2,000 m (4,900 to 6,600 ft), making Shijiazhuang a place for hiking, outdoor trips and cycling.

Tangshan

Tangshan (Chinese: 唐山; pinyin: Tángshān) is a largely industrial prefecture-level city in the northeast of Hebei province. It has become known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake which measured 7.8 on the Richter scale, flattening much of the city and killing at least 255,000 residents according to official estimates. The city has since been rebuilt, has become a tourist attraction and has among the 10 largest ports in China.The city of Tangshan is approximately 149 kilometers, 92 miles or 80 nautical miles east by south east of the country's capital city of Beijing. It takes roughly 2 hours by road to get from Tangshan to Beijing and 1 hour by road to reach Tianjin.Tangshan's prefecture population was 7,577,289 at the 2010 census, with 3,187,171 in the built-up (or metro) area made of the 6 urban core districts.

Ulmus lamellosa

Ulmus lamellosa, commonly called the Hebei elm, is a small deciduous tree native to four Chinese provinces, Hebei, Henan, Nei Mongol, and Shanxi, to the west and south of Beijing.

Zhangjiakou

Zhangjiakou (; Chinese: 张家口; pinyin: Zhāngjiākǒu; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʈʂáŋ tɕjá kʰòu]) also known by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. At the 2010 census, its population was 4,345,485 inhabitants on 36,861.56 square kilometres (14,232.33 sq mi), divided into 17 Counties and Districts. The built-up (or metro) area made of Qiaoxi, Qiaodong Districts and Wanquan County largely being conurbated had 838,978 inhabitants in 2010 on 1,412.7 km2 (545.4 sq mi). Due to its position on several important transport arteries, it is a critical transport node for travel between Hebei and Inner Mongolia and connecting northwest China, Mongolia, and Beijing.

Zhangjiakou will be one of the host cities at the 2022 Winter Olympics.

Zhuozhou

Zhuozhou (Chinese: 涿州; pinyin: Zhuōzhōu), is a county-level city with 628,000 inhabitants in Hebei province, bordering Beijing to the north. It is administered by Baoding prefecture-level city. Zhuozhou has 3 subdistricts, 6 towns, 5 townships, and 1 development zone.

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