Heavy industry

Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, huge buildings and large-scale infrastructure); or complex or numerous processes. Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, and it is also often more heavily cyclical in investment and employment.

Transportation and construction along with their upstream manufacturing supply businesses have been the bulk of heavy industry throughout the industrial age, along with some capital-intensive manufacturing. Traditional examples from the mid-19th century through the early 20th included steelmaking, artillery production, locomotive erection, machine tool building, and the heavier types of mining. From the late 19th century through the mid-20th, as the chemical industry and electrical industry developed, they involved components of both heavy industry and light industry, which was soon also true for the automotive industry and the aircraft industry. Modern shipbuilding (since steel replaced wood) is considered heavy industry. Large systems are often characteristic of heavy industry such as the construction of skyscrapers and large dams during the post–World War II era, and the manufacture/deployment of large rockets and giant wind turbines through the 21st century.[1]

Hoogovens
Integrated steel mill in the Netherlands. The two massive towers are blast furnaces.
Ussteel kosice slovakia
U. S. Steel Košice (in Slovakia) – a typical example of a heavy industry factory.

As part of economic strategy

Many East Asian countries rely on heavy industry as key parts of their overall economies. This reliance on heavy industry is typically a matter of government economic policy. Among Japanese and Korean firms with "heavy industry" in their names, many are also manufacturers of aerospace products and defense contractors to their respective countries' governments such as Japan's Fuji Heavy Industries and Korea's Hyundai Rotem, a joint project of Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Heavy Industries.[2]

In 20th-century communist states, the planning of the economy often focused on heavy industry as an area for large investments, even to the extent of painful opportunity costs on the production–possibility frontier (classically, "lots of guns and not enough butter"). This was motivated by fears of failing to maintain military parity with foreign capitalist powers. For example, the Soviet Union's manic industrialization in the 1930s, with heavy industry as the favored emphasis, sought to bring its ability to produce trucks, tanks, artillery, aircraft, and warships up to a level that would make the country a great power. China under Mao Zedong pursued a similar strategy, eventually culminating in the Great Leap Forward of 1958–1960, an attempt to rapidly industrialize and collectivize.[3][4] This industrialization attempt failed to create industrialization and instead caused the Great Chinese Famine, in which 25-30 million people died prematurely.[5]

In zoning

Heavy industry is also sometimes a special designation in local zoning laws. This allows industries with heavy impacts (on environment, infrastructure, and employment) to be sited with forethought. For example, the zoning restrictions for landfills usually take into account the heavy truck traffic that will exert expensive wear on the roads leading to the landfill.[6]

References

  1. ^ Teubal, Morris (1973). "Heavy and Light Industry in Economic Development". The American Economic Review. 63 (4): 588–596. ISSN 0002-8282.
  2. ^ Wade, Robert (2003-11-30). Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization (With a New introduction by the author ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11729-4.
  3. ^ Walder, Andrew G. (2015-04-06). "5, 8". China Under Mao. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-28670-2.
  4. ^ Naughton, Barry J. (2006-10-27). The Chinese Economy: Transitions and Growth. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-64064-0.
  5. ^ Walder 2015, p. 169-173.
  6. ^ Committee, British Association Glossary (1952). "Some Definitions in the Vocabulary of Geography, IV". The Geographical Journal. 118 (3): 345–346. doi:10.2307/1790321. ISSN 0016-7398.

External links

1968 in Afghanistan

The following lists events that happened during 1968 in Afghanistan.

In domestic affairs the year is marked by a thorough overhaul of the judicial system by the new Supreme Court; this involves reorganizing the powers and functions of the lower courts in line with the requirements of the constitution. In economic affairs the policies laid down in 1967 for encouraging investors in the private sector by substantial inducements - tax holidays, free import of capital goods, and protective tariffs – are continued. Government investment is again directed to the completion of projects begun under the second development plan and to the encouragement of heavy industry. The emphasis is again on consolidation rather than on beginning new projects, and on the gradual replacement of foreign aid by increased exploitation of national resources.

Automotive industry

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

The word automotive is from the Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle. This term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry

(1860-1930), first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898.

Bridesburg-Kensington-Richmond, Philadelphia

The Bridesburg-Kensington-Richmond section of Philadelphia is the area northeast of Center City. This area "... consists of the neighborhoods including: Bridesburg, Fishtown, Juniata Park, New Kensington, North West Kensington, Harrowgate, Port Richmond and Olde Richmond..." and "... was once predominantly industrial. However, most heavy industry has now left." According to an official Philadelphia parks agency, the official designation of "Bridesburg-Kensington-Richmond" by the planning commission is reflected in the way the parks system is set up.On May 12, 2015, an Amtrak train derailed in Harrowgate.

Hyundai Heavy Industries

Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (or HHI) is the world's largest shipbuilding company. Its headquarters are in Ulsan, South Korea. HHI was founded in 1972 by Chung Ju-yung as a division of the Hyundai Group, and in 1974, completed building its first ships. In 2002, the company was spun-off from its parent company. HHI has four core business divisions: Shipbuilding, Offshore & Engineering, Industrial Plant & Engineering, and Engine & Machinery. HHI also has five non-core related subsidiaries: Hyundai Electric & Energy Systems, Hyundai Construction Equipment, Hyundai Robotics, Hyundai Heavy Industries Green Energy, and Hyundai Global Service.The Hyundai Group started as a small South Korean construction firm in 1947, headed by its founder, Korean entrepreneur Chung Ju-Yung. Another widely known and closely related Korean company, the Hyundai Motor Company, was founded in 1967, five years prior to the founding of the Heavy Industry Group. The motor company was also founded by Chung.

The name is an informal romanisation of the Korean 현대 (hyeondae) meaning "contemporary", which was Chung's vision for the group of companies that he founded.

Industrial park

An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development. An industrial park can be thought of as a more "heavyweight" version of a business park or office park, which has offices and light industry, rather than heavy industry.

Industrial production in Shōwa Japan

This article covers the development of the industry in the Empire of Japan, during the rise of statism in the first part of the Shōwa era.

In its first 70 years, following the Meiji Restoration, factory production in Japan was all but non-existent, but by the first years of the Shōwa era, Japan was at a level comparable to many industrialized European countries. Industry in Japan grew both qualitatively and quantitatively. In 1920, the textile industry was the most important and Japan was known mainly as a manufacturer of wool and silk products, fabrics, fans, toys and similar goods. By 1939, however, industrial production in the areas of metallurgy and chemical products had grown by more than 100%.

Industrial output grew significantly during the period 1929-1942, while the total value of heavy industry in Japan, valued at approximately US$700 million in 1931, had risen to US$3.7 billion by 1940.

Taking the effects of inflation into consideration, this growth indicates a rise in profits of 400% in heavy industry between 1937 and 1940. At the same time as the extraordinary growth of heavy industry, and a 26% decline in consumption articles during the period 1937-1940, the textile industry maintained its principal place as the primary occupation for Japanese workers. At its relative height during this period, textile production employed approximately one million workers, or roughly 1/3 of the industrial workforce.

The rapid growth of pre-war and wartime Japanese industry is reminiscent of the Industrial Revolution in 18th century England. The growth of profits during both periods was astonishing, in terms of both percentages and totals.

These developments would never have arisen, however, without an abundant

source of low priced and docile manpower and convenient access to raw materials, the latter—though vital—were (and still are) exceedingly rare in Japan. Access to both were important factors in Japan's rapid industrial development.

The average Japanese industrial worker worked long hours for a low salary. Before 1940, more than 90% of workers received less than US$7 per week. In later years, average pay rose by 50%, but the cost of living—the articles and services for which one needs salary—rose as well. In peacetime, the Japanese work week averaged 56 hours, compared with 35 hours in the United States and 39 hours in France. Furthermore, the war effort exposed a marked scarcity of specialized workers.

One final important element of Japanese industry was small-scale, subsistence industry. Prior to 1941, most of the middle class was employed in handcrafts in cottage industries and small workshops, which normally employed fewer than five workers.

Women often worked in this type of industry, and large-scale industry often obtained materials from the small-scale outfits, particularly rayon and cotton.

Light industry

Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-income intensive than heavy industry and is more raw material-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods. Most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries. Light industry facilities typically have less environmental impact than those associated with heavy industry. For that reason zoning laws are more likely to permit light industry near residential areas.One definition states that light industry is a "manufacturing activity that uses moderate amounts of partially processed materials to produce items of relatively high value per unit weight".

Ministry of Construction of Heavy Industry

The Ministry of Construction of Heavy Industry of the USSR (Mintyazhstroy; Russian: Министерство строительства предприятий тяжелой промышленности СССР) was a central government institution charged with leading the heavy industry of the Soviet Union. It was established in 1946 to replace the several successor Commissariats to the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR, dissolved in 1939. After liquidation in 1953, it was reactivated from 1967 to 1986.The ministry headquarters was one of the Seven Sisters built during the last 10 years of Stalin's life, also known as the Red Gate building owing to its proximity to the Red Gate Square.

Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises

The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises is an executive agency of the Government of India that administers 48 central public sector enterprises (PSEs) and assists them in their effort to improve capacity utilization and increase profitability, generate resources and re-orient strategies to become more competitive. The ministry serves as an interface between PSEs and other agencies for long-term policy formulation. The ministry also encourages the restructuring of PSEs to make their operations competitive and viable on a long-term and sustainable basis.

As of July 2016, the Honorable Minister is Anant Geete, and the Honorable Minister of State is Babul Supriyo.

Ministry of Industry (Myanmar)

The Ministry of Industry (Burmese: စက်မှု ဝန်ကြီးဌာန) is a ministry in the Government of Myanmar that produces consumer products such as pharmaceuticals & foodstuffs, textiles, ceramics, paper & chemical products, home utilities and construction materials, assorted types of vehicles, earth-moving equipment, diesel engines, automotive parts, turbines & generators, CNC machines, transformers, solar-used products, agricultural machines, rubber & tires etc.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (三菱重工業株式会社, Mitsubishi Jūkōgyō Kabushiki-kaisha, informally MHI) is a Japanese multinational engineering, electrical equipment and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. MHI is one of the core companies of the Mitsubishi Group.

MHI's products include aerospace components, air conditioners, aircraft, automotive components, forklift trucks, hydraulic equipment, machine tools, missiles, power generation equipment, printing machines, ships and space launch vehicles. Through its defense-related activities it is the world's 23rd-largest defense contractor measured by 2011 defense revenues and the largest based in Japan.On November 28, 2018, the company was ordered by the South Korea Supreme Court to pay compensation for forced labor which the company oversaw during the Japanese occupation of Korea.

People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry

The People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry (Narkomtiazhprom; Russian: Народный комиссариат тяжёлой промышленности СССР) was a government ministry in the Soviet Union.

The People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry, known by the acronym NKTP, was founded in 1932 and was responsible for all heavy industrial goods, including mining, machinery and defense goods.Organisations they took responsibility for include:

Leningrad Military Mechanical Institute

Kharkiv Institute of Physics and TechnologyThe defense industry assets were separated in December 1936, with the creation of the People's Commissariat of the Defense Industry, and in August 1937 a commissariat was set up for engineering. In early 1939 the NKTP was divided into six separate commissariats.

Sany

Sany Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. (SSE: 600031) is a Chinese multinational heavy equipment manufacturing company headquartered in Changsha, Hunan Province. It is the sixth-largest heavy equipment manufacturer in the world, and the first in its industry in China to enter the FT Global 500 and the Forbes Global 2000 rankings. Its founder and main shareholder is Liang Wengen.Sany has a dozen industrial parks in China plus manufacturing facilities in Brazil, Germany, India, Indonesia and in the United States. The company has approximately 90,000 employees worldwide.

Secondary sector of the economy

The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.

This sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods or where they are suitable for use by other businesses, for export, or sale to domestic consumers. This sector is often divided into light industry and heavy industry. Many of these industries consume large quantities of energy and require factories and machinery to convert raw materials into goods and products. They also produce waste materials and waste heat that may cause environmental problems or cause pollution. The secondary sector supports both the primary and tertiary sector.

Some economists contrast wealth-producing sectors in an economy such as manufacturing with the service sector which tends to be wealth-consuming.[1] Examples of service may include retail, insurance, and government. These economists contend that an economy begins to decline as its wealth-producing sector shrinks.[2] Manufacturing is an important activity to promote economic growth and development. Nations that export manufactured products tend to generate higher marginal GDP growth which supports higher incomes and marginal tax revenue needed to fund the quality of life initiatives such as health care and infrastructure in the economy. The field is an important source for engineering job opportunities. Among developed countries, it is an important source of well-paying jobs for the middle class to facilitate greater social mobility for successive generations on the economy.

Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka

Shimizu-ku (清水区, Shimizu-ku) is the easternmost of the three wards of the city of Shizuoka in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

University of Miskolc

The University of Miskolc (before 1990: Technical University of Heavy Industry) is the largest university of Northern Hungary.

Uskoreniye

Uskoreniye (Russian: ускоре́ние, IPA: [ʊskɐˈrʲenʲɪɪ]; literally meaning acceleration) was a slogan and a policy announced by Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev on 20 April 1985 at a Soviet Party Plenum, aimed at the acceleration of political, social and economic development of the Soviet Union. It was the first slogan of a set of reforms that also included perestroika (restructuring), glasnost (transparency), new political thinking, and democratisation.

In May 1985, Gorbachev gave a speech in Leningrad, during which he admitted the slowing down of the economic development and inadequacy of living standards. This was the first time in history that a Soviet leader had done so.

The program was furthered at the 27th Congress of the Communist Party in Gorbachev's report to the congress, in which he spoke about "perestroika", "uskoreniye", "human factor", "glasnost", and "expansion of the khozraschyot" (commercialization). The acceleration was planned to be based on technical and scientific progress, revamping of heavy industry (in accordance with the Marxian economics postulate about the primacy in development of heavy industry over light industry), taking the "human factor" into account, and increasing the labour discipline and responsibility of apparatchiks. In practice it was implemented with the help of massive monetary emission infused into heavy industry, which further destabilised the economy and in particular brought an enormous disparity between actual cash money and virtual money used in cashless clearings (безналичный расчёт) between enterprises and state and among enterprises.

The politics of mere "acceleration" eventually failed, which was de facto admitted in June 1987 at a Party Plenum, and the "uskoreniye" slogan was phased out in favor of the more ambitious "Perestroika" (restructuring of the whole economy).

Zhenhua

Shanghai Zhenhua Heavy Industries Company Limited (ZPMC; Chinese: 上海振华重工(集团)股份有限公司), old name Shanghai Zhenhua Port Machinery Company (Chinese: 上海振华港口机械), in short form Shanghai Zhenhua (Chinese: 上海振华), is a Chinese multinational engineering company and one of the world's largest manufacturers of cranes and large steel structures.

Zoomlion

Zoomlion Heavy Industry Science and Technology Co., Ltd. is a Chinese manufacturer of construction machinery and sanitation equipment, Its headquarters are in the Zoomlion Science Park in Changsha, Hunan.Zoomlion is world's sixth largest and China's largest construction machinery enterprise. "In 2008, Zoomlion acquired CIFA, the world's third largest concrete machinery manufacturer, which was the largest ever European acquisition by a Chinese company at the time.

The business of Zoomlion consists of five sectors: construction machinery, agricultural machinery, heavy trucks, environmental business and financial services.

Italian construction equipment maker Compagnia Italiana Forme Acciaio (CIFA) and British construction equipment manufacturer Powermole are subsidiaries of the company.

Primary industry
Secondary industry
Tertiary industry

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