Heathen Front

The Allgermanische Heidnische Front (AHF) was an international neo-Nazi organisation, active during the late 1990s and early 2000s, that espoused a form of neo-völkisch Germanic Neopaganism.

It was associated with musician and convicted murderer Varg Vikernes.

Algiz rune on flag - Algiz-Rune auf Flagge
Flag of the All-Germanic Heathens Front with Algiz rune

History

Norsk Hedensk Front (Norwegian Heathen Front) was founded in 1993 based on Vargsmål, a racist and anti-Semitic book by Norwegian black metal musician and convicted arsonist and murderer Varg Vikernes. According to the 2003 book Lords of Chaos, the organization officially denied that Vikernes was in charge, although this may have been to protect him, as Norwegian prisoners were prohibited from leading political groups. The organization's listed address was the same PO box Vikerness used in prison.[1]

The Swedish Heathen Front (Svensk Hednisk Front) was a small group formed around 1996.[2]

Algiz rune on flag of a Russian organisation - Algiz-Rune auf Flagge einer russischen Organisation
Flag of the Russian Heathen Front with Algiz rune

The German chapter, Deutsche Heidnische Front, was founded in 1998 by Hendrik Möbus. In 2001, the AHF claimed chapters in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, the United States, Canada, Russia[3] and Flanders.[4]

There was also a short-lived English Heathen Front closely associated during its inception with the British Movement but later linked by Searchlight, the anti-fascist monthly, to Tom Gowers, an officer of the British National Party based in the East Midlands, and to the militant odinist group Woden's Folk.[5]

By 1999, Heathen Front's website was selling Vargsmål.[6]

In a 2009 interview with Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet, Vikernes states: "I have never formed or been a member of such organisations".[7]

The organisation with time became a forum for neo-Nazis and heathen nationalists. In 2005 the Allgermanische Heidnische Front was closed down. Its members spread to other organisations.[2]

Ideology

The group's ideology was part of the loosely defined Neo-völkisch movement sometimes known as Odinism, which incorporated . The organization described its specific ideas as "Odalism", derived from the Germanic rune Odal (ᛟ). This movement rejects conventional academic research on history and archaeology, instead interpreting Germanic mythology as esoterically transmitted via ancestry.[8]

The Heathen Front espoused neo-Nazism, white supremacism and anti-semitism.[9][10][11] A 2001 report by the Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism describes the Svensk Hednisk Front (Swedish Heathen Front – SHF) as "an emerging Nazi organization" with an ideology blending "Odinism, anti-Christianity and antisemitism."[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Moynihan, Michael J.; Søderlind, Didrik (2003). Lords of chaos : the bloody rise of the satanic metal underground (New ed.). Feral House. p. 177. ISBN 9781932595529. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b Western Esotericism in Scandinavia, 2016, p.384, p.621
  3. ^ Website about the Russian Heathen Front in Russian language. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  4. ^ Gardell, p. 307, referring to the now defunct homepage: http://www.heathenfront.org/chap.htm
  5. ^ The English Heathen Front, Searchlight "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2012-02-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Ward, Eric K.; Lunsford, John; Massa, Justin (Fall 1999). "Black Metal Spreads Neo-Nazi Hate Message". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  7. ^ Midtskogen, Rune (4 July 2009). ""Greven" angrer ingenting" ["The Count" regrets nothing] (in Norwegian). Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  8. ^ Gregorius, Frederik (2006). "The "Allgermanische Heidnische Front" and Old Norse Religion". In Andrén, Anders (ed.). Old Norse religion in long-term perspectives : origins, changes, and interactions : an international conference in Lund, Sweden, June 3-7, 2004. Nordic Academic Press. pp. 389–392. ISBN 9789189116818. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  9. ^ Searchlight Magazine: Nazi black metal leader arrested in the US
  10. ^ Turn It Down Archived 2007-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2006-07-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Antisemitism Worldwide 2000/1 - Sweden Archived 2011-11-05 at the Wayback Machine
Arthur J. Jones

Arthur Joseph Jones (born January 1, 1948) is an American neo-Nazi. He was the Republican candidate for Illinois's 3rd congressional district in the November 2018 midterm elections, losing to Democrat Dan Lipinski.

Black Order (Satanist group)

The Black Order or The Black Order of Pan Europa are a Satanist group formerly based in New Zealand. Political scientists Jeffrey Kaplan and Leonard Weinberg characterised the Black Order as a "National Socialist-oriented Satanist mail order ministry". However, in 1995, the anti-fascist Searchlight organization, following an investigation, described it as part of a functioning international Occult-Fascist Axis.

Deutsche Heidnische Front

Deutsche Heidnische Front (DHF or German Heathens' Front) is a far right Neo-pagan group which was created in 1998 as the German section of the Heathen Front. It was formed by avowed neo-Nazi Hendrik Möbus. It is inactive since 2005.

Esoteric Nazism

Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.

Frank Collin

Francis Joseph Collin (born November 3, 1944) is an American former political activist and Midwest coordinator with the National Socialist White People's Party, later known as the American Nazi Party. After being ousted for being partly Jewish (which he denied), in 1970, Collin founded the National Socialist Party of America. In the late 1970s, its plan to march in the predominantly Jewish suburb of Skokie, Illinois was challenged; however, the American Civil Liberties Union defended its freedom of speech and assembly in a case that reached the United States Supreme Court. The court in National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie (1979), a major decision, ruled that the party had a right to march and to display a swastika, despite local opposition, due to the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. After Collin was convicted and sentenced in 1979 for child molestation, he lost his position in the party.After being released early on parole from prison, Collin created a new career as a writer, publishing numerous books under the pen name Frank Joseph. He wrote New Age and "hyperdiffusionist" works supporting the pseudoarchaeological idea that Old World peoples had migrated to North America in ancient times and created its complex societies of indigenous peoples. This thesis is rejected by mainstream scholars.

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs. However, fundamentalism has come to be applied to a tendency among certain groups–mainly, although not exclusively, in religion–that is characterized by a markedly strict literalism as it is applied to certain specific scriptures, dogmas, or ideologies, and a strong sense of the importance of maintaining ingroup and outgroup distinctions, leading to an emphasis on purity and the desire to return to a previous ideal from which advocates believe members have strayed. Rejection of diversity of opinion as applied to these established "fundamentals" and their accepted interpretation within the group often results from this tendency.Depending upon the context, the label "fundamentalism" can be a pejorative rather than a neutral characterization, similar to the ways that calling political perspectives "right-wing" or "left-wing" can have for some negative connotations.

Heathenry (new religious movement)

Heathenry, also termed Heathenism, contemporary Germanic Paganism, or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion. Scholars of religious studies classify Heathenry as a new religious movement. Its practitioners model it on the pre-Christian belief systems adhered to by the Germanic peoples of Iron Age and Early Medieval Europe. To reconstruct these past belief systems, Heathenry uses surviving historical, archaeological, and folkloric evidence as a basis, although approaches to this material vary considerably.

Heathenry does not have a unified theology but is typically polytheistic, centering on a pantheon of deities from pre-Christian Germanic Europe. It adopts cosmological views from these past societies, including an animistic view of the cosmos in which the natural world is imbued with spirits. The religion's deities and spirits are honored in sacrificial rites known as blóts in which food and libations are offered to them. These are often accompanied by symbel, the act of ceremonially toasting the gods with an alcoholic beverage. Some practitioners also engage in rituals designed to induce an altered state of consciousness and visions, most notably seiðr and galdr, with the intent of gaining wisdom and advice from the deities. Although many solitary practitioners follow the religion by themselves, members of the Heathen community often assemble in small groups, usually known as kindreds or hearths, to perform their rites outdoors or in specially constructed buildings. Heathen ethical systems emphasize honor, personal integrity, and loyalty, while beliefs about an afterlife vary and are rarely emphasized.

A central division within the Heathen movement concerns the issue of race. Some groups adopt a "universalist" perspective which holds that the religion is open to all, irrespective of ethnic or racial identity. Others adopt a racialist attitude—often termed "folkish" within the community—by viewing Heathenry as an ethnic or racial religion with inherent links to a Germanic race that should be reserved explicitly for people of Northern European descent or white people in general. Some folkish Heathens further combine the religion with explicitly racist, white supremacist, and far right-wing perspectives, although these approaches are repudiated by many Heathens. Although the term Heathenry is used widely to describe the religion as a whole, many groups prefer different designations, influenced by their regional focus and ideological preferences. Heathens focusing on Scandinavian sources sometimes use Ásatrú, Vanatrú, or Forn Sed; practitioners focusing on Anglo-Saxon traditions use Fyrnsidu or Theodism; those emphasising German traditions use Irminism; and those Heathens who espouse folkish and far-right perspectives tend to favor the terms Odinism, Wotanism, Wodenism, or Odalism.

The religion's origins lie in the 19th- and early 20th-century Romanticist movement which glorified the pre-Christian beliefs of Germanic societies. In this period, organised groups venerating the Germanic gods developed in Germany and Austria; these were part of the Völkisch movement and typically exhibited a racialist interpretation of the religion, resulting in the movement largely dissolving following the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II. In the 1970s, new Heathen groups emerged in Europe and North America, developing into formalized organizations in order to promote their faith. In recent decades, the Heathen movement has been the subject of academic study by scholars active in the field of Pagan studies. Scholarly estimates put the number of Heathens at no more than 20,000 worldwide, with communities of practitioners active in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia.

James Mason (neo-Nazi)

James Nolan Mason (born July 25, 1952) is an American neo-Nazi.

Mason believes that Nazis cannot take power as long as the existing U.S. government remains in place. He advocates murder and violence to create chaos and anarchy and destabilize the system. Mason considers Timothy McVeigh and the propagator of the Charlottesville car attack to be "heroes" and claims that the white race is in danger because of the Jews. Mason commented on the election of Donald Trump that "in order to Make America Great Again, you have to make it white again".Mason is an advisor to Atomwaffen Division, a paramilitary neo-Nazi organization responsible for 5 homicides in 2017-2018. During a court case related to Atomwaffen the prosecutor stated that James Mason may "represent the most violent, revolutionary and potentially terroristic expression of right-wing extremism current today".Mason has pled guilty to child pornography and sexual exploitation of a minor. He lives in a swastika-bedecked apartment in Denver.

Kerry Bolton

Kerry Raymond Bolton (born 1956) is a writer and political activist. He is involved in several nationalist and fascist political groups in New Zealand.

List of nationalist organizations

This is a list of nationalist organizations. Clarification of which sort of nationalism is given after some entries. This list does not include governments and formal armies.

List of neo-Nazi organizations

This is a list of neo-Nazi organizations.

Matthias Koehl

Matthias Koehl Jr. (January 22, 1935 – October 9/10, 2014) was an American Marine, a neo-Nazi politician and writer. He succeeded George Lincoln Rockwell as the longest serving leader of the American Nazi Party from 1967 to 2014.

Like the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano, Koehl was influenced by the occultism of the Greek-French writer Savitri Devi. He was also a close friend of the Dutch World War II Nazi collaborator Florentine Rost van Tonningen.

National Socialist Liberation Front

The National Socialist Liberation Front was originally established as a youth wing of the National Socialist White People's Party in 1969. In 1974 it was reconstituted as a separate neo-Nazi organization after its leader Joseph Tommasi had been expelled by NSWPP leader Matt Koehl.

Neo-völkisch movements

Neo-völkisch movements, as defined by the historian, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged especially in the English-speaking world since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th and early 20th century Germany in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism and multiculturalism. Some identify as neo-fascist, neo-Nazi, Third Positionist or alt-right while others are politicised around some form of white nationalism or identity politics and may show neo-tribalist-neo-pagan tendencies such as the one promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship. Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes so that neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements.

Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right and Evolian traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity, pantheism and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity Movement, Cosmotheism and Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism and National Socialist black metal). According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, only pagan-type groups are recognized as neo-völkisch, excluding Christian Identity.

Svensk Hednisk Front

Svensk Hednisk Front (SHF) (Swedish Heathen Front) is the Swedish sub-division of the Allgermanische Heidnische Front (AHF). It promotes a line of thought called Odalism and has been linked with Neo-Nazi groups.

Unite the Right rally

The Unite the Right rally was a white supremacist rally that occurred in Charlottesville, Virginia, from August 11 to 12, 2017. Protesters were members of the far-right and included self-identified members of the alt-right, neo-Confederates, neo-fascists, white nationalists, neo-Nazis, Klansmen, and various right-wing militias. The marchers chanted racist and antisemitic slogans, carried semi-automatic rifles, Nazi and neo-Nazi symbols (such as the swastika, Odal rune, Black Sun, and Iron Cross), the Valknut, Confederate battle flags, Deus Vult crosses, flags and other symbols of various past and present anti-Muslim and antisemitic groups. Within the Charlottesville area, the rally is often known as A12 or 8/12. The organizers' stated goals included unifying the American white nationalist movement and opposing the removal of the a statue of Robert E. Lee from Charlottesville's Lee Park.The rally occurred amidst the backdrop of controversy generated by the removal of Confederate monuments throughout the country in response to the Charleston church shooting in 2015. The event turned violent after protesters clashed with counter-protesters, leaving more than 30 injured. On the morning of August 12, Virginia governor Terry McAuliffe declared a state of emergency, stating that public safety could not be safeguarded without additional powers. Within an hour, the Virginia State Police declared the rally to be an unlawful assembly. At around 1:45 p.m., self-identified white supremacist James Alex Fields Jr. deliberately rammed his car into a crowd of counter-protesters about 0.5 miles (0.8 km) away from the rally site, killing Heather Heyer and injuring 19 other people. Fields fled the scene in his car but was arrested soon afterward; he was tried and convicted in Virginia state court of first-degree murder, malicious wounding, and other crimes in 2018, with the jury recommending a sentence of life imprisonment plus 419 years. The following year, Fields pleaded guilty to 29 federal crimes in exchange for federal prosecutors' agreement not to seek the death penalty.President Donald Trump's remarks on Charlottesville received substantial negative attention. In his initial statement on the rally, Trump did not denounce the marchers explicitly, instead condemning "hatred, bigotry, and violence on many sides". While Trump later stated that he condemned neo-Nazis and white nationalists, his first statement and his subsequent defenses of it, in which he also referred to "very fine people on both sides", were seen by critics as implying moral equivalence between the white supremacist marchers and those who protested against them, and were interpreted by some as a sign that he was sympathetic to white supremacy. The rally and surrounding clashes triggered a backlash against white supremacist groups in the United States. A number of groups that participated in the rally had events canceled by universities and their financial and social media accounts closed by major companies. Some Twitter users led a campaign to identify and publicly shame marchers at the rally from photographs; at least one rally attendee was dismissed from his job as a result of the campaign.Unite the Right held an anniversary rally on August 11–12, 2018, in Washington D.C. Like the original, the rally was expected to draw large protests from religious organizations, civil rights groups, and anti-fascist organizers. The rally's turnout consisted of 20–30 protesters amidst thousands of counter-protestors.

Varg Vikernes

Louis Cachet (born Kristian Vikernes, 11 February 1973), more popularly known as Varg Vikernes (Norwegian: [ˈvɑrɡ ˈviːkəɳeːs]), is a Norwegian musician and writer. In 1991, he founded the one-man music project Burzum, which became one of the most influential black metal acts. In 1993, he was convicted of murder and arson, and subsequently served 15 years in prison.A native of Bergen, Vikernes spent part of his childhood in Iraq where his father was working for the Iraqi government. He began playing guitar at the age of 14 and formed his first band, Kalashnikov, within the next two years. After founding Burzum he became part of the early Norwegian black metal scene. In 1992, Vikernes and other members of the scene were accused of burning down three Christian churches in Norway. He denied responsibility for the arsons, though he supported them. By early 1993, he had recorded four albums as Burzum and another with fellow black metal band Mayhem.

In August 1993, Vikernes fatally stabbed Mayhem guitarist Euronymous during an altercation at the latter's apartment. Vikernes was arrested and convicted of first-degree murder as well as for the unrelated arson. He stated that the killing was in self-defense and unsuccessfully argued for the charge to be reduced to voluntary manslaughter. He was sentenced to 21 years in prison. During his incarceration, Vikernes became affiliated with the neo-Nazi Norwegian Heathen Front, had two books published, and released two ambient albums as Burzum. While in prison, Vikernes also started a blog which "endorsed neo-Nazi views and contains rants against Muslims and Jews", although he has denied being a neo-Nazi and denounced neo-Nazi movements.Having served 15 years of his sentence, Vikernes was released on parole in early 2009. He changed his legal name to Louis Cachet to avoid difficulties with the public, but still goes by Varg Vikernes in daily life. After his release, he moved to France with his wife and children, where he continued releasing music and writing. He recorded six more albums before announcing the end of Burzum in 2018.

White nationalism

White nationalism is a type of nationalism or pan-nationalism which espouses the belief that white people are a race and seeks to develop and maintain a white national identity. Its proponents identify with and are attached to the concept of a white nation. White nationalists say they seek to ensure the survival of the white race, and the cultures of historically white states. They hold that white people should maintain their majority in majority-white countries, maintain their political and economic dominance, and that their cultures should be foremost. Many white nationalists believe that miscegenation, multiculturalism, immigration of nonwhites and low birth rates among whites are threatening the white race, and some believe these things are being promoted as part of an attempted white genocide.Analysts describe white nationalism as overlapping with white supremacism and white separatism. White nationalism is sometimes described as a euphemism for, or subset of, white supremacism, and the two have been used interchangeably by journalists and analysts. White separatism is the pursuit of a "white-only state"; supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to nonwhites and should dominate them, taking ideas from social Darwinism and Nazism. White nationalists generally avoid the term "supremacy" because it has negative connotations.Critics argue that the term "white nationalism" is simply a "rebranding" and ideas such as white pride exist solely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy, and that most white nationalist groups promote racial violence.

Groups
People

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.