Heart Mountain (Wyoming)

Heart Mountain is an 8,123-foot (2,476 m) klippe just north of Cody in the U.S. state of Wyoming, rising from the floor of the Bighorn Basin. The mountain is composed of limestone and dolomite of Ordovician through Mississippian age (about 500 to 350 million years old), but it rests on the Willwood Formation, rocks that are about 55 million years old—rock on the summit of Heart Mountain is thus almost 300 million years older than the rocks at the base.[1] For over one hundred years, geologists have tried to understand how these older rocks came to rest on much younger strata.

The carbonate rocks that form Heart Mountain were deposited on a basement of ancient (more than 2.5 billion years old) granite when the area was covered by a large shallow tropical sea. Up until 50 million years ago, these rocks lay about 25 miles (40 kilometers) to the northwest, where the eastern Absaroka Range now stands.

BighornBasin Absaroka ETM 2000jul24
Satellite photo of Heart Mountain and the surrounding area

Between 75 and 50 million years ago, a period of mountain-building called the Laramide Orogeny caused uplift of the Beartooth Range and subsidence of the Bighorn and Absaroka Basins. Just south of the Beartooth Range, this orogeny uplifted an elongate, somewhat lower plateau which sloped gently to the southeast toward the Bighorn Basin and to the south toward the Absaroka Basin. Immediately following this period of mountain-building, volcanic eruptions began to form the now extinct volcanoes of the Absaroka Range that lie to the south of the Beartooths and extend into Yellowstone National Park. Between 50 and 48 million years ago a sheet of rock about 500 square miles (1,300 square kilometers) in area detached from the plateau south of the Beartooths and slid tens of kilometers to the southeast and south into the Bighorn and Absaroka Basins.[1] This sheet, consisting of Ordovician through Mississippian carbonate rocks and overlying Absaroka volcanic rocks, was probably originally about 4–5 kilometers thick. Although the slope was less than 2 degrees, the front of the landslide traveled at least 25 miles (40 km) and the slide mass ended up covering over 1,300 square miles (>3,400 km2). This is by far the largest rockslide known on land on the surface of the earth and is comparable in scale to some of the largest known submarine landslides.[2]

Many models have been proposed to explain what caused this huge slab of rocks to start sliding and what allowed it to slide so far on such a low slope, fragmenting, thinning and extending as it went. Most geologists who have worked in the area agree that Absaroka volcanism played a role in the sliding and many suggest that a major volcanic or steam explosion initiated movement. Another model involves injection of numerous igneous dikes with the resulting heating of water within pores in rocks causing an increase in pressure which initiated sliding. Some geologists have suggested that hot pressurized water (hydrothermal fluids), derived from a volcano which sat north of Cooke City, Montana, effectively lubricated the sliding surface. Another possibility is that once the slide was moving, friction heated the limestone along the sliding surface, creating pseudotachylite,[3] which then further broke down to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas (or supercritical fluid).[2] The gas supported the slide in the way that air pressure supports a hovercraft, allowing the slide to move easily down the very low slope. When the rockslide stopped, the carbon dioxide cooled and recombined with calcium oxide to form the cement-like carbonate rock now found in the fault zone. The consensus favors catastrophic sliding and calculations suggest that the front of the sliding mass may have advanced at a speed of over 100 miles/hour (160 km/h), meaning that the mountain traveled to its present location in approximately 30 minutes.[4]

In the 48 million years since the slide occurred, erosion has removed most of the portion of the slide sheet which moved out into the Bighorn Basin, leaving just one big block of carbonate rocks—Heart Mountain.[3] Farther south, a large block of carbonate rock forms Sheep Mountain, which lies just south of the road that goes from Cody into Yellowstone Park. Some of the best views of the sliding surface, called the Heart Mountain fault, can be found along the Chief Joseph Highway (Wyoming Highway 296). The fault is particularly well exposed in Cathedral Cliffs, where it appears as a remarkably straight and nearly horizontal line just above a 2–3-meter-high cliff.

The nearby Heart Mountain War Relocation Center, where a number of Japanese Americans were interned during World War II, was named after the peak.

Heart Mountain
Heart Mountain Wyoming
Highest point
Elevation8,123 ft (2,476 m)
Prominence2,163 ft (659 m)
Coordinates44°40′0″N 109°7′5″W / 44.66667°N 109.11806°W
Heart Mountain is located in Wyoming
Heart Mountain
Heart Mountain
Heart Mountain is located in the United States
Heart Mountain
Heart Mountain
Heart Mountain (the United States)
Topo mapUSGS Heart Mountain
Mountain typeLimestone

See also


  1. ^ a b "Heart Mountain, Wyoming". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 2006-09-30. Retrieved 2006-05-17.
  2. ^ a b "Giant rock slab slid on hot lube". New Scientist. 7 May 2005. p. 19. Retrieved 2006-05-17.
  3. ^ a b Alden, Andrew. "A Superfault Superlandslide". About.com. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
  4. ^ Binns, Corey (19 May 2006). "Land Speed Record: Mountain Moves 62 Miles in 30 Minutes". LiveScience. Retrieved 2006-05-19.

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Camp Harmony

Camp Harmony was the unofficial euphemistic name of the Puyallup Assembly Center, a temporary facility within the system of internment camps set up for Japanese Americans during World War II. Approximately 7,390 Americans of Japanese descent from Western Washington and Alaska were sent to the camp (nearly doubling the town of Puyallup's then-population of 7,500) before being transferred to the War Relocation Authority camps at Minidoka, Idaho, Tule Lake, California and Heart Mountain, Wyoming.

Camp Harmony was established in May 1942, shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor and President Roosevelt's subsequent Executive Order 9066, which authorized the eviction of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. The location for the assembly center was on and around the Western Washington Fairgrounds in Puyallup, Washington. It consisted of four distinct areas:

A, with a population of about 2000, located northeast of the fairgrounds.

B, with a population of about 1200, just east of the fairgrounds in the vicinity of the current Blue parking lot.

C, with a population of about 800, located northwest of the fairgrounds.

D, with a population of about 3000, located on the fairgrounds proper in the area including the racetrack and grandstand, east of the roller coaster.The barracks "apartments" were designed to allow 50 square feet of space per individual, with one small window, a single electrical socket and a wood stove. Each area contained several mess halls, laundry facilities and latrines. A 100-bed hospital was built in Area D, and existing facilities were used as administration offices and community centers.In May and June 1942, just under 100 Japanese Americans left Camp Harmony to find work or attend school outside the exclusion zone, or to repatriate to Japan. On May 26, 196 men volunteered for an early transfer to Tule Lake to help finish construction on the camp there. The majority of the internees made the 30-hour train trip to Minidoka in 16 groups of approximately 500, beginning on August 12. The last train left the Puyallup station on September 12, and on September 30, 1942 the site was handed over to the Fort Lewis Ninth Service Command. The Puyallup Fairgrounds were then occupied by the U.S. Army 943rd Signal Service Battalion until they were transferred to Fort Lewis, Washington in December. The Puyallup Fairgrounds remained closed to the public until the end of the war, operating as an army training facility.The first postwar fair took place in September 1946. On November 25, 1978, the first Day of Remembrance was held at the Western Washington Fairgrounds, and over 2,000 attended. Five years later, on August 21, 1983, Governor John Spellman and Washington state representatives dedicated a sculpture by George Tsutakawa as a memorial to those confined at the wartime detention site.

Gravity spreading

Gravity spreading is a phenomenon in which a geological body laterally extends and vertically contracts to reduce its gravitational potential energy. It has been observed on many different scales, and at numerous locations on Earth, from rhyolite lava flows to passive margins. Additionally, gravity spreading is likely to have occurred on both Mars and Venus.

Heart Mountain

Heart Mountain can refer to:

Heart Mountain (Alberta), Canada

Heart Mountain (Alaska), United States

Heart Mountain (Colorado), United States

Heart Mountain (Idaho), United States

Heart Mountain (New Mexico), United States

Heart Mountain (Wyoming), United StatesHeart Mountain War Relocation Center, Wyoming, United States

Heart Mountain Relocation Center

The Heart Mountain War Relocation Center, named after nearby Heart Mountain and located midway between the towns of Cody and Powell in northwest Wyoming, was one of ten concentration camps used for the internment of Japanese Americans evicted from the West Coast Exclusion Zone during World War II by executive order from President Franklin Roosevelt after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, upon the recommendation of Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt.

This site was managed before the war by the federal Bureau of Reclamation for a major irrigation project. Construction of the 650 military-style barracks and surrounding guard towers began in June 1942, and the camp opened on August 11, when the first Japanese Americans arrived by train from the Pomona, Santa Anita, and Portland assembly centers. The camp would hold a total of 13,997 Japanese Americans over the next three years, with a peak population of 10,767, making it the third-largest "town" in Wyoming before it closed on November 10, 1945.Heart Mountain is best known for many of its younger residents' challenging the controversial draft of Nisei males from camp in order to highlight the loss of their rights through the incarceration. The Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee, led by Frank Emi and several others, was particularly active in this resistance, encouraging internees to refuse military induction until they and their families were released from camp and had their civil rights restored. Heart Mountain had the highest rate of draft resistance of all ten camps, with 85 young men and seven Fair Play Committee leaders ultimately sentenced and imprisoned for Selective Service Act violations. (At the same time, 800 Japanese American men — volunteers and draftees — joined the American military from Heart Mountain. In 1944, internees dedicated an Honor Roll listing the names of these soldiers, located near the camp's main gate.)

In 1988 and 1992 Congress passed laws to apologize to Japanese Americans for the injustices during the war and to pay compensation to survivors of the camps and their descendants. The site of the Heart Mountain War Relocation Center is considered to retain the highest integrity of the ten incarceration centers constructed during World War II. The street grid and numerous foundations are still visible. Four of the original barracks survive in place. A number of others sold and moved after the war have been identified in surrounding counties and may one day be returned to their original locations. In early 2007, 124 acres (50.2 ha) of the center were listed as a National Historic Landmark. The Federal Bureau of Reclamation owns 74 acres (29.9 ha) within the landmark boundary and currently administers the site. The remaining 50 acres (20.2 ha) were purchased by the Heart Mountain Wyoming Foundation, a nonprofit organization established in 1996 to memorialize the center's internees and to interpret the site's historical significance.

The Foundation runs the Heart Mountain Interpretive Center, opened in 2011, located at 1539 Road 19, Powell. The museum includes photographs, artifacts, oral histories and interactive exhibits about the wartime relocation of Japanese Americans, anti-Asian prejudice in America and the factors leading to their enforced relocation and confinement.

Hikaru Iwasaki

Hikaru “Carl” Iwasaki (October 18, 1923 – September 15, 2016) was an American born photographer of Japanese heritage who was sent to the Heart Mountain US internment camp as a teen during World War II. Born in San Jose, California, he "was a photographer in U.S. relocation camps for Japanese citizens during World War II." He was a contributor to Time, Life and Sports Illustrated magazines and photographed politicians and sports celebrities. He also photographed ordinary Japanese-Americans in the aftermath of the World War II internment. He also documented events of the civil rights movement, including the reaction to the Brown vs. the Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas in the 1950s.

Internment of Japanese Americans

The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in concentration camps in the western interior of the country of about 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific Coast. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens. These actions were ordered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.Of 127,000 Japanese Americans living in the continental United States at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, 112,000 resided on the West Coast. About 80,000 were Nisei (literal translation: "second generation"; American-born Japanese with U.S. citizenship) and Sansei ("third generation"; the children of Nisei). The rest were Issei ("first generation") immigrants born in Japan who were ineligible for U.S. citizenship under U.S. law.Japanese Americans were incarcerated based on local population concentrations and regional politics. More than 112,000 Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were forced into interior camps. However, in Hawaii, where 150,000-plus Japanese Americans composed over one-third of the population, only 1,200 to 1,800 were also interned. The internment is considered to have resulted more from racism than from any security risk posed by Japanese Americans. California defined anyone with 1/16th or more Japanese lineage as sufficient to be interned. Colonel Karl Bendetsen, the architect behind the program, went so far as saying anyone with "one drop of Japanese blood" qualified.Roosevelt authorized Executive Order 9066, issued on February 19, 1942, which allowed regional military commanders to designate "military areas" from which "any or all persons may be excluded." Although the executive order did not mention Japanese Americans, this authority was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were required to leave Alaska and the military exclusion zones from all of California and parts of Oregon, Washington, and Arizona, except for those in government camps. Approximately 5,000 Japanese Americans relocated outside the exclusion zone before March 1942, while some 5,500 community leaders had been arrested immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack and thus were already in custody.The United States Census Bureau assisted the internment efforts by spying and providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese Americans. The Bureau denied its role for decades despite scholarly evidence to the contrary, and its role became more widely acknowledged by 2007. In 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the removal by ruling against Fred Korematsu's appeal for violating an exclusion order. The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, avoiding the issue of the incarceration of U.S. citizens without due process.In 1980, under mounting pressure from the Japanese American Citizens League and redress organizations, President Jimmy Carter opened an investigation to determine whether the decision to put Japanese Americans into concentration camps had been justified by the government. He appointed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) to investigate the camps. The Commission's report, titled Personal Justice Denied, found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and concluded that the incarceration had been the product of racism. It recommended that the government pay reparations to the internees. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. government and authorized a payment of $20,000 (equivalent to $42,000 in 2018) to each camp survivor. The legislation admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership." The U.S. government eventually disbursed more than $1.6 billion (equivalent to $3,390,000,000 in 2018) in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans who had been interned and their heirs.

Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II

The Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II is a National Park Service site to commemorate the experience of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and their parents who patriotically supported the United States despite unjust treatment during World War II.

The work is located at Louisiana Avenue and D Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. in Washington, D.C. The Memorial commemorates Japanese American war involvement, veterans and patriotism during World War II, as well as the patriotism and endurance of those held in Japanese American internment, or, incarceration camps, and detention centers.

Lester C. Hunt

Lester Callaway Hunt, Sr. (July 8, 1892 – June 19, 1954), was a Democratic politician and dentist from the state of Wyoming. Hunt was the first to be elected to two consecutive terms as Wyoming's governor, serving as its 19th Governor from January 4, 1943, to January 3, 1949. In 1948, he was elected by an overwhelming margin to the U.S. Senate, and began his term on January 3, 1949.

Hunt supported a number of federal social programs and advocated for federal support of low-cost health and dental insurance policies. He also supported a variety of programs proposed by the Eisenhower administration following the Republican landslide in the 1952 elections, including the abolition of racial segregation in the District of Columbia, and the expansion of Social Security.

An outspoken opponent of Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist campaign, Hunt challenged McCarthy and his senatorial allies by championing a proposed law restricting Congressional immunity and allowing individuals to sue members of Congress for slanderous statements. In June 1953, Hunt's son was arrested in Washington, D.C., on charges of soliciting sex with an undercover male police officer. (Homosexual acts were prohibited by law at the time.) Several Republican senators, including McCarthy, threatened Hunt with prosecution of his son and wide publication of the event unless he abandoned plans to run for re-election and resigned immediately, which Hunt refused to do. His son was convicted and fined on October 6, 1953. On April 15, 1954, Hunt announced his intention to run for re-election. He changed his mind, however, after McCarthy renewed the threat to use his son's arrest against him. On June 19, 1954, Hunt committed suicide in his Senate office; the suicide dealt a serious blow to McCarthy's image and was one of the factors that led to his censure by the Senate later in 1954.

List of landslides

This list of landslides is a list of notable landslides and mudflows divided into sections by date and type. This list is very incomplete as there is no central catalogue for landslides, although some for individual countries/areas do exist. Volumes of landslides are recorded in the scientific literature using cubic kilometres (km3) for the largest and millions of cubic metres (normally given the non-standard shortening of MCM) for most events.

List of museums in Wyoming

This list of museums in Wyoming encompasses museums defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing. Museums that exist only in cyberspace (i.e., virtual museums) are not included.

To use the sortable table, click on the icons at the top of each column to sort that column in alphabetical order; click again for reverse alphabetical order.

Making Tracks

Making Tracks is an Asian American musical theater production by Second Generation, a New York-based theater company, with music by Woody Pak, lyrics by Brian Yorkey, and concept and book by Welly Yang.

Making Tracks tells the story of the rich and diverse history of Asians in America. Asians were (and still are) often limited to playing the roles of "the gook," "the geek," and "the gangster."

In the summer of 1993, Welly Yang began searching through history books and reading stories of Asian Americans. In 1998, Yang asked two friends, Woody Pak, a recent Juilliard graduate whom he met through a mutual friend, and Brian Yorkey, a classmate from Columbia University, to collaborate on a rock musical to tell these stories.

The original show was produced Off-Broadway in cooperation with the Taipei Theater in New York City in February 1999, bringing on another Columbia classmate, Lenny Leibowitz, as director. It also had Shawn Ku as choreographer and it was musically directed by David Jenkins and Tom Kitt. Yorkey and Kitt would go on later to write the Tony award-winning show Next To Normal. The show employed a cast of Asian American theater professionals, many who had performed with Yang from Miss Saigon. It starred Cindy Cheung, Timothy Huang, Mel Duane Gionson, Thomas Kouo, Mimosa, Michael Minn, Kiki Moritsugu, Aiko Nakasone, Rodney To, Virginia Wing, and Yang. Sets were by Sarah Lambert; projection design by Elaine McCarthy; graphic design by Richard Ng; lighting by Stephen Petrilli; costumes by Rasheda Poole and Shawn Ku; sound by Virg Nafarette.Village Theatre invited the show to Washington state to continue developing the show as part of the Village Originals program in the spring of 2000. That production added a new second act. After that successful production, the Taipei Philharmonic Foundation invited them to Taiwan, and launched the show's concept album, in collaboration with Sony Music Taiwan.

Melissa Wei-Tsing Inouye

Melissa Wei-Tsing Inouye is a Senior Lecturer in Chinese Studies at the University of Auckland. She is an expert in the social and cultural history of modern China, charismatic global Christianity, and women and religion.

Inouye grew up in Costa Mesa, California. She is a fourth-generation Chinese-Japanese American. Her Chinese great-grandfather, Gin Gor Ju, came to the United States from Guangdong province and settled in Utah. Her father's family is originally from Japan. Her father's parents, Bessie Shizuko Murakami Inouye and Charles Ichiro Inouye, met and married in a World War II-era Japanese internment in Heart Mountain, Wyoming.She received her Ph.D. in East Asian Languages and Civilizations from Harvard University in 2011. While researching and writing her dissertation, Miraculous Mundane: The True Jesus Church and Chinese Christianity in the Twentieth Century, she lived in Xiamen, China, and was an affiliate of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences from 2009-2010. In 2003 she graduated magna cum laude in East Asian Studies from Harvard College, delivering the Harvard Oration at the Class Day graduation exercises. She has lived in California, Taiwan, China, Japan, Hong Kong, Massachusetts, Utah and New Zealand. In 2019 she had her book, China and the True Jesus: Charisma and Organization in a Chinese Christian Church, published by Oxford University Press. She currently serves as an associate editor of the Mormon Studies Review and is a frequent contributor on topics of religion.

Nyogen Senzaki

Nyogen Senzaki (千崎 如幻, 1876–1958) was a Rinzai Zen monk who was one of the 20th century's leading proponents of Zen Buddhism in the United States.

Scout method

The Scout method is the informal educational system used by Scouts in the Boy Scouts of America. The aim of Scouting is character training with the goal of helping participants become independent and helpful, and thereby become "healthy, happy, helpful citizens".The Scout method uses appealing games in the primitive outdoors to generate challenges which a Scout learns to solve by themselves. Through the training and the example of the leader, Scouts are taught independence, leadership, the ambition to learn by themselves, and a moral code with positive goals. According to founder Robert Baden-Powell, the Scout method works naturally and unconsciously: naturally in the way that it follows the natural impulses of the Scout, and unconsciously because the Scout is not aware of the education.

Hands-on orientation provides a practical method of learning and helps the Scout build confidence. Activities and games provide a fun way to develop skills and provide contact with nature and the environment when pursued in an outdoor setting. Scouts learn in small groups to build unity and a family atmosphere. Developing the characteristics of responsibility, self-reliance, self-confidence, and readiness, the Scouts eventually learn collaboration and leadership skills. An attractive program of varying activities expands a Scout's horizons and bonds the Scout even more to the group.

Utah-Idaho Sugar Company

The Utah-Idaho Sugar Company was a large sugar beet processing company based in Utah. It was owned and controlled by the Utah-based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and its leaders. It was notable for developing a valuable cash crop and processing facilities that was important to the economy of Utah and surrounding states. It was part of the Sugar Trust, and subject to antitrust investigations by the U.S. Department of Justice, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Hardwick Committee.

Absaroka Range
Bighorn Mountains
Black Hills
Gallatin Range
Gros Ventre Range
Laramie Mountains
Medicine Bow Mountains
Salt River Range
Teton Range
Uinta Mountains
Wind River Range
Wyoming Range


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