The Hayato (隼人), which is Japanese for "falcon-people", were a people, believed to be of Austronesian origin, of ancient Japan who lived in the Satsuma and Ōsumi regions of southern Kyushu during the Nara period. They frequently resisted Yamato rule. After their subjugation they became subjects of the government under Ritsuryō, and the Ministry of the Military had an office known as the Hayato-shi (隼人司) in charge of their governance. The name also came into use by samurai as a title, hayato no suke (隼人助). In modern times, Hayato is a Japanese male given name.
The Hayato might have been the same as the Kumaso group of around the same time, but while the Kumaso are mentioned in the more legendary portions of the Nihon Shoki, the Hayato are recorded in various historical texts until the beginning of the Heian period. Though the Kumaso are generally portrayed as rebellious, the Hayato are listed among the attendants of emperors and princes from as early as Emperor Nintoku's reign. This, along with a mention of Hayato crying before the grave of Emperor Yūryaku after his death, suggests that the Hayato were naturalized as personal servants by the late 7th century.
Even after pledging allegiance to the Japanese court, the Hayato continued to resist its rule. After the establishment of Ōsumi Province in 713, the Ōsumi Hayato fought back in 720 with the Hayato Rebellion, but were defeated in 721 by an army led by Ōtomo no Tabito. The Handen-Shūju system was implemented in their lands in 800. The population of Yamato immigrants in Kagoshima prefecture in the early 8th century has been estimated at around 9,000 people and one-seventh of the total population. By this estimate, the Hayato population of the time can be calculated as consisting of around 54,000 people (not including Hayato emigrants to Honshū).
The Hayato were made to emigrate to the Kinai region, and were active in the protection of the court, the arts, sumo, and bamboo work. Many lived in Yamashiro Province, in the south of modern Kyoto. There remains an area called Ōsumi (大住) in Kyōtanabe, Kyoto, where many Ōsumi Hayato lived. These were the Hayato governed by the Hayato-shi.
The Hayato are believed to be of Austronesian origin. Their culture and language are also believed to be unique from those of other regions of Japan. In particular, their folk song and dance became famous in the Kinai region as the Hayato dance (隼人舞). An excavation of Heijō Palace discovered wooden shields with a distinctive reverse-S-shaped marking. These shields match those described in the Engishiki, which the Hayato used in court ceremonial functions. The Hayato had roles in various state ceremonies, including those for the new year, imperial enthronement, and visiting foreign officials.
According to the ancient records of Hizen province, the Gotō Islands were also inhabited by a people resembling the Hayato. The New Book of Tang describes a minor king of Haya (波邪), and this Haya has also been interpreted as referring to the Hayato.
There are three types of graves archaeologically associated with the Hayato: the underground tunnel tombs (地下式横穴墓) widely distributed around the border of Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefectures, the standing stone graves (立石土壙墓) of the southern Satsuma peninsula, and the underground stone-slab graves (地下式板石積石室) found north of the Satsuma peninsula. Another large group of tunnel tombs is located near the Ōsumi area of Kyotanabe. Because of the proximity and because the gravelly soil of the area is not suited to such tombs, these may also be associated with the Hayato.
In Japanese mythology, the deity Umisachihiko is considered the ancestor of the ruler of the Ata Hayato. The Hayato Dance may be intended to portray Umisachihiko's pain at being outdone by his younger brother Yamasachihiko.
Anthropological research on human skeletons of the Kofun period on southern Kyushu has shown that male skeletons found inland differ from those on the Miyazaki plain. Inland skeletons resembled those of Jōmon people and northwestern Kyushu Yayoi people, and some groups on the plain also resembled northern Kyushu Yayoi people. Additionally, skeletons excavated from late Yayoi-period ruins on Tanegashima are smaller than those found on Kyushu, and show signs of artificial cranial deformation.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu: アィヌ, Аину, Aynu; Japanese: アイヌ, Ainu; Russian: Айны, Ajny) or the Ezo (蝦夷) in the historical Japanese texts, are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido and formerly Northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Khabarovsk Krai and the Kamchatka Peninsula).Official estimates place the total Ainu population at 25,000, but unofficial estimates place its total population at 200,000, because many Ainu have been completely assimilated into Japanese society and as a result, they have no knowledge of their ancestry.Austronesian peoples
The Austronesian peoples, or more accurately Austronesian-speaking peoples, is a large group of various peoples in Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Oceania and Madagascar that speak the Austronesian languages. The nations and territories predominantly populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.Black people in Japan
Black people in Japan (黒人, Kokujin lit. black people) are Japanese residents or citizens of Sub-Saharan African ancestry.Hayato
Hayato may refer to:
Hayato (given name), a masculine Japanese given name
Hayato, Kagoshima, a town located in Aira District, Kagoshima, Japan
Hayato people (隼人, "falcon person"), peoples of ancient Japan
Hayato (satellite), a Japanese CubeSatHistory of Kagoshima Prefecture
The outline of the History of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan is described herein.Hoderi
Umisachi-hiko (海佐知毘古/海幸彦), in Japanese mythology and folklore, was a deity of the bounty of the sea and enchanted fisherman.
He is called Hoderi no mikoto (火照命) in the Kojiki, and Ho-no-susori no mikoto (火闌降命) or Ho-no-suseri no mikoto (火酢芹命) in the Nihon Shoki.
In Japanese mythology, he appears with his younger brother Yamasachi-hiko (Hoori). When the fish hook he lends to his younger brother is lost at sea, he demands its return rather than to accept any compensation. Later, he is defeated and subjugated by his younger brother, who has obtained mastery of the tides with a magic jewel.Japanese people
Japanese people (Japanese: 日本人, Hepburn: nihonjin) are an ethnic group that is native to the Japanese archipelago and modern country of Japan, where they constitute 98.5% of the total population. Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live outside Japan are referred to as nikkeijin (日系人), the Japanese diaspora. The term ethnic Japanese is often used to refer to mainland Japanese people, specifically Yamato people. Japanese people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the world.Kamikoshiki-jima
Kamikoshiki Island (上甑島, Kamikoshiki-jima) is the second largest island in the Koshikijima Islands. Its coasts are washed by East China Sea. The island's highest peak is Mount Tomekiyama 423 m (1,388 ft) high.Ogasawara Islanders
The Ogasawara Islanders (欧米系, Ōbeikei lit. Westerners), also Bonin Islanders, are a Euronesian ethnic group native to Japan. They are culturally and genetically distinct from the Yamato, the Ainu, and the Ryukyuans as they are the modern-day descendants of Europeans, White Americans, Polynesians, and Kanaks who settled Hahajima and Chichijima in the 18th century.Ryukyuan people
The Ryukyuan people (琉球民族, Ryūkyū minzoku, Okinawan: Ruuchuu minzuku), also Lewchewan or Uchinaanchu (沖縄人, Japanese: Okinawa jin), are the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Prefecture or Kagoshima Prefecture. Their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects.Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. There is also a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora. As many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide; mostly in Hawaii and, to a lesser extent, in other territories where there is also a sizable Japanese diaspora. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former.
Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are significantly related to the Yamato people (mainland Japanese) but have also a relative closer relation to the Ainu people, compared with the Yamato people. This is possibly explained with partially shared ancestry of the population during the Jōmon period (pre 10,000 BCE – 1,000 BCE) and with the population of the Yayoi period (1,000 BCE – 300 CE), which were migrants from East Asia (specifically China and the Korean peninsula).The Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, and cuisine which had fairly late (12th century) introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, and in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan.During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain (1872–1879), after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan. In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Okinawan ethnic identity, tradition, culture and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese (Yamato). After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945 and 1950 and then 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa, as seen in the Ryukyu independence movement.United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène, in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested.Shimokoshiki-jima
Shimokoshiki Island (下甑島, Shimokoshiki-jima) is the largest island in the Koshikijima Islands. Its coasts are washed by East China Sea. The island's highest peak is Mount Otake 604 m (1,982 ft) housing a long-range radar station of Japan Air Self-Defense Force at 31.694625°N 129.715992°E / 31.694625; 129.715992.Yamato people
The Yamato people (大和民族, Yamato minzoku, also in older literature "Yamato race") or Wajin (和人, Wajin, literally "Wa people") are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to the Japanese archipelago. The term came to be used around the late 19th century to distinguish the settlers of mainland Japan from minority ethnic groups who have settled the peripheral areas of Japan, such as the Ainu, Ryukyuans, Nivkh, Oroks, as well as Koreans, Taiwanese, and Taiwanese aborigines who were incorporated into the Empire of Japan in the early 20th century. People of Yamato Province incorporated native Japanese as well as Chinese and Korean migrants. Clan leaders also elevated their own belief system that featured ancestor worship into a national religion known as Shinto.The name was applied to the Imperial House of Japan or "Yamato Court" that existed in Japan in the 4th century, and was originally the name of the region where the Yamato people first settled in Yamato Province (modern-day Nara Prefecture). Generations of Japanese historians, linguists, and archeologists have debated whether the word is related to the earlier Yamatai (邪馬台). The Yamato clan set up Japan's first and only dynasty.
In recent centuries, some Yamato have emigrated from Japan to Peru, Brazil, and other South American countries.
Ethnic groups in Japan
|Post-classical – Modern|