Hawaiian lobelioids

The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species. The six genera can be broadly separated based on growth habit: Clermontia are typically branched shrubs or small trees, up to 7 metres (23 ft) tall, with fleshy fruits; Cyanea and Delissea are typically unbranched or branching only at the base, with a cluster of relatively broad leaves at the apex and fleshy fruits; Lobelia and Trematolobelia have long thin leaves down a single, non-woody stem and capsular fruits with wind-dispersed seeds; and the peculiar Brighamia have a short, thick stem with a dense cluster of broad leaves, elongate white flowers, and capsular fruits.

The group contains morphologically divergent species, and was long thought to have derived from at least three introductions: one for Lobelia and Trematolobelia, one for Brighamia, and one for Clermontia, Cyanea, and Delissea. Based on recent DNA sequence evidence (Givnish et al., 1996, 2008) it now believed that all are derived from a single introduction. This was likely a Lobelia-like species that arrived about 13 million years ago, when Gardner Pinnacles and French Frigate Shoals were high islands and long before the current main islands existed.

Lobelia niihauensis (5762180787)
Lobelia niihauensis, long terminal inflorescences of magenta flowers.

Many species have beautiful and spectacular flowers, especially those in Lobelia and Trematolobelia. Unfortunately, they are also highly vulnerable to feeding by feral ungulates such as feral pigs; the stems are only partly woody, and contain few defenses against herbivory. The bark contains a milky (but apparently non-poisonous) latex, and is often chewed by rats and pigs. Seedlings are also vulnerable to disturbance by pig digging, and in areas with high densities of pigs it is not uncommon to find the only lobelioids being epiphytic on larger trees or on fallen logs.

Brighamia

Brighamia insignis - flowers
Brighamia insignis, dense cluster of broad leaves with elongate white flowers.

Brighamia is quite unlike the other genera, with a succulent stem and long, thin, tubular flowers. It was long thought to have been the result of a separate introduction, and its unique combination of characters made it difficult to place. These characters are the result of adaptation to growing on cliffs and pollination by the endemic Hawaiian hawkmoth, Manduca blackburni. This moth is now itself listed as endangered, surviving mainly on the southern slopes of Maui, well away from where Brighamia live. Some pollination may be done by closely related alien hawkmoths such as the five-spotted hawkmoth (M. quinquemaculata) and pink-spotted hawkmoth (Agrius cingulata). Despite their inaccessible habitat on cliffs, Brighamia are sometimes hand-pollinated by botanists to ensure seed set. Both species are now extremely rare. The genus is named in honour of the first director of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, William Tufts Brigham.

Brighamia species

† species believed to be extinct
* species is listed as endangered

Lobelia

Lobelia gloria-montis
Lobelia gloria-montis from Puʻu Kukui bog, West Maui.

Lobelia is a cosmopolitan genus of over 350 species, including common ornamentals. However, many lobelioid genera are derived from it and it is highly paraphyletic. The Hawaiian species are divided into two sections (Galeatella, the giant lobelias of montane bogs, and Revolutella, the smaller lobelias of rocky crests and interior rock walls), based on flower color and other characters. Like Brighamia and Trematolobelia, the fruit of Lobelia is a dry capsule. These species are probably the closest in appearance to the original Hawaiian colonist.

Lobelia species

† species believed to be extinct
* species is listed Endangered

Trematolobelia

Trematolobelia macrostachys
Trematolobelia macrostachys on Mount Kaʻala, Oʻahu.

Trematolobelia is distinguished from Lobelia by its unique dispersal method. Rather than drying and splitting apart, the outer (green) wall of the fruit disintegrates, revealing a perforated hard "frame" that allows the tiny wind-dispersed seeds to escape. They can be quite spectacular when in flower, with multiple flower branches and hundreds of flowers. Individual plants live for 5–10 years before flowering and dying.

Trematobelia species

† species believed to be extinct
* species is listed Endangered

Clermontia

Clermontia pallida flower
Clermontia pallida, showing the "double flower" of section Clermontia.
Clermontia clermontioides flower1a
Clermontia clermontioides, showing the tiny calyx lobes of section Clermontioideae (dark green).

Clermontia, with 22 species, are the most common of Hawaiian lobelioids. Unlike Cyanea, which are typically found in dense forest, Clermontia are frequently found in more open areas and edges, and therefore persist better when forests become fragmented. Nevertheless, there are still many endangered species. The flowers are often large and spectacular; in section Clermontia, the calyx lobes are similar in color and size to the corolla, giving the appearance of a flower with twice the normal number of petals.

Clermontia is a very important host for many species of Hawaiian Drosophilidae. The larvae of these flies breed in the rotting bark, leaves, flowers, and fruit of all lobelioids, but primarily Clermontia since it is largest and most common. Several species, especially on the Big Island, are epiphytic.

Clermontia girdling
Rat damage on Clermontia.

Clermontia species

  • section Clermontia: calyx lobes similar to petals
    • Clermontia calophylla* F.Wimmer - ʻŌhā wai nui (Kohala, Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia drepanomorpha* Rock - ʻŌhā wai (Kohala, Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia grandiflora Gaudich. - ʻŌhā wai (Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui)
    • Clermontia hawaiiensis (Hillebr.) Rock - ʻŌhā kēpau (Puna and Kaʻū on Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia kakeana Meyen - ʻŌhā wai (Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Maui)
    • Clermontia kohalae Rock - ʻŌhā wai (Kohala and Hāmākua on Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia lindseyana* Rock - ʻŌhā wai (Hawaiʻi, east Maui)
    • Clermontia micrantha (Hillebr.) Rock - ʻŌhā wai (Lānaʻi, west Maui)
    • Clermontia montis-loa Rock - ʻŌhā wai (Hilo, Puna, and Kaʻū on Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia multiflora Hillebr. - ʻŌhā wai (Oʻahu†, west Maui†)
    • Clermontia oblongifolia* Gaudich. - ʻŌhā wai (Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui)
    • Clermontia pallida Hillebr. - ʻŌhā wai (Molokaʻi)
    • Clermontia parviflora Gaudich. ex A.Gray - ʻŌhā wai (windward Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia persicifolia Gaudich. - ʻŌhā wai (Oʻahu)
    • Clermontia samuelii* C.N.Forbes - ʻŌhā wai (east Maui)
  • section Clermontioideae: calyx lobes short, green
    • Clermontia arborescens (H.Mann) Hillebr. - ʻŌhā wai nui (Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui)[1]
    • Clermontia clermontioides (Gaudich.) A.Heller (Kaʻū and Kona Districts on Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia fauriei H.Lév - Hāhāʻaiakamanu (Kauaʻi, Oʻahu)
    • Clermontia peleana* Rock (Hawaiʻi, Maui?)
    • Clermontia pyrularia* - ʻŌhā wai (Hawaiʻi)
    • Clermontia tuberculata* - ʻŌhā wai (Maui)
    • Clermontia waimeae* - ʻŌhā wai (Hawaiʻi)

† species believed to be extinct
* species is listed Endangered

Cyanea

Cyanea platyphylla
Cyanea platyphylla, one of the species with abundant spines.
Cyanea leptostegia
Cyanea leptostegia, one of the largest species.

Cyanea is the largest and most morphologically diverse group of Hawaiian lobelioids, with more than 70 species. Most grow as a single stem or as a cluster branching near the ground, but a few, such as C. stictophylla, grow as multi-branched shrubs. Some, such as C. leptostegia of Kauaʻi, can grow to over 9 metres (30 ft) tall - something that is especially notable given the relative thinness of the stem and soft wood.

Part of the reason Cyanea are able to grow tall stalks is that they tend to grow in deep forest, often in narrow gulches on the older islands, where there is little wind. This characteristic of growing under dense cover also makes them more sensitive to disturbance of the forest.

An interesting character of many Cyanea is their tendency to grow spines or thorns on the stem and leaves (see the photo of Cyanea platyphylla). This is most pronounced in younger plants, and some species undergo a kind of metamorphosis as they mature, to the extent that different growth stages were described as separate species, due in part to the presence or absence of spines. The purpose of the spines was puzzling, since in most island situations there is a tendency for plants to lose defenses - Hawaiʻi is noted for its nettle-less nettles, mintless mints, and (not quite) thornless raspberries - and no native browsing animals were known. However, it is now believed that the spines were a defense against the moa-nalo, giant browsing geese and goose-like ducks that formerly inhabited the islands (Givnish et al. 1995). These birds were apparently driven extinct by the Hawaiians before Europeans reached the islands, but their evolutionary effects live on.

Many species are now extinct or have not been seen in decades. These include C. arborea, C. comata, and C. pohaku, a cluster of species that formerly inhabited the drier, mesic areas of leeward East Maui where almost no native habitat remains. Because they are particularly sensitive to disturbance by pigs, Cyanea are often the first plants to disappear, even when the forest as a whole appears relatively healthy. Extinct species tended to have longer, more highly specialized flowers and to have narrower elevational and geographic ranges than the species that survived (Givnish et al. 1995).

Species of Cyanea on each major island tend to differ in flower tube length and mean elevation, apparently reflecting a partitioning of ecological and reproductive resources. The total number of species of Cyanea can be predicted rather precisely from the height and area of each of the major islands except Hawaiʻi (the Big Island), suggesting that the assembly of Cyanea communities requires more than 0.6 million years (the age of Hawaii) and less than 1.5 million years (the age of Maui) to run to ecological saturation (Givnish et al. 2008).

Cyanea species

† species believed to be extinct
* species is listed Endangered

Delissea

Delissea rhytidosperma full
Delissea rhytidosperma flower
Delissea rhytidosperma of Kauaʻi. Note the small knob about 1/3 of the way down the flower, one of the characters separating Delissea from Cyanea.

Delissea is similar to Cyanea in many ways, differing primarily in the flower (with a small knob on the dorsal side) and fruit (dark purple; most Cyanea fruit are orange, though some are also purple or blue). It is notable in part because it has suffered so much: only three of the nine species known to science are still extant, and one of these (D. undulata) is extinct in the wild. Several species are known only from type specimens collected in the late 1800s. Several species are very poorly known, and their status as species is questionable. For example, D. fallax and D. parviflora are both from Hawaiʻi and their flowers are identical; it is possible that they represent different growth forms of the same species (both Delissea and Cyanea are known to undergo changes in vegetative morphology during the lifetime of the plant). Delissea lauliiana was known only from the type, which was destroyed in Berlin during World War II. All three of these are believed to be extinct, and unless new specimens turn up there is no way to resolve questions about them.

Delissea species

  • section Delissea: nearly straight flowers 14–26 millimetres (0.55–1.02 in) long
    • Delissea fallax Hillebr. (Hawaiʻi†)
    • Delissea kauaiensis (Lammers) Lammers (Kauaʻi)
    • Delissea lauliiana Lammers (Oʻahu†)
    • Delissea parviflora Hillebr. (Hawaiʻi†)
    • Delissea rhytidosperma* H.Mann (Kauaʻi)
    • Delissea undulata* Gaudich. (Niʻihau†, Kauaʻi†, Maui†, Hawaiʻi)
  • section Macranthae: curved flowers 37–60 millimetres (1.5–2.4 in) long
    • Delissea laciniata Hillebr (Oʻahu†)
    • Delissea sinuata Hillebr. (Oʻahu†, Lānaʻi†)
    • Delissea subcordataGaudich. (Oʻahu)
    • Delissea waianaeensis* Lammers (Oʻahu)

† species believed to be extinct
* species is listed Endangered

References

  1. ^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "ʻOhawai, haha, tree clermontia" (PDF). United States Forest Service. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
The standard reference for Hawaiian plant taxonomy.
Adaptive radiation

In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches. Starting with a recent single ancestor, this process results in the speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and physiological traits. The prototypical example of adaptive radiation is finch speciation on the Galapagos ("Darwin's finches"), but examples are known from around the world.

Bishop's ʻōʻō

The Bishop's ‘ō‘ō or Molokai ‘ō‘ō (Moho bishopi) is a member of the extinct genus of the ‘ō‘ōs (Moho) within the extinct family Mohoidae. It was previously regarded as member of the Australo-Pacific honeyeaters (Meliphagidae). Lionel Walter Rothschild named it after Charles Reed Bishop, the founder of the Bishop Museum.

Clermontia drepanomorpha

Clermontia drepanomorpha is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name Kohala Mountain clermontia. It is one of several Hawaiian lobelioids in genus Clermontia that are known as `oha wai. This plant is endemic to Kohala, a volcano at the northern end of the island of Hawaii. This is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.There are fewer than 250 individuals remaining in the wet forests on the slopes of the volcano. Threats to the species include disturbance by feral pigs, deer, rats, and people, and invasive plant species.

Clermontia lindseyana

Clermontia lindseyana is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name hillside clermontia. It is one of several Hawaiian lobelioids in genus Clermontia that are known as `oha wai. This plant is known only from Haleakalā, a volcano on the island of Maui, and Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. This is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.There are ten known total occurrences of the plant and probably fewer than 1000 individuals remaining. Threats to the species include disturbance by domesticated and feral ungulates and rats, deforestation, and invasive plant species.

Clermontia oblongifolia

Clermontia oblongifolia is a species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name Oahu clermontia. It is one of several Hawaiian lobelioids in genus Clermontia that are known as ʻoha wai. This plant is native to three of the Hawaiian Islands, where one subspecies is not uncommon but the other two are very rare and endangered.The more common subspecies, ssp. oblongifolia, is endemic to Oʻahu, where it grows in rainforests.The rare subspecies mauiensis is endemic to Maui, where there is only a single plant remaining in the montane wet forests. It has been extirpated from Lānaʻi. This subspecies is federally listed as an endangered species of the United States.The rare subspecies brevipes is endemic to Molokaʻi, where there are fewer than 30 plants remaining. This subspecies is federally listed as an endangered species of the United States.

Clermontia peleana

Clermontia peleana is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name Pele clermontia. It is one of several Hawaiian lobelioids in genus Clermontia that are known as `oha wai. This plant is endemic to the island of Hawaii, where it is known from a few individuals. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.

There are two subspecies. When the plant was placed on the endangered species list, only subsp. peleana was believed extant, and it was known from eight remaining wild plants. The last of the eight died in the year 2000, and the species was then only known from one cultivated plant. Breeding efforts produced a number of seedlings that were transplanted into the species' native habitat, and by 2007, one of them was flowering.The other subspecies, subsp. singuliflora, was last seen on Hawaii in 1909 and Maui in 1920. It is currently declared as Critically endangered. In the summer of 2010 several actively reproducing specimens were discovered in the forests of the Hawaiian volcano Kohala, a place it had never been seen before. Seeds were collected and propagation efforts will be made.

Clermontia pyrularia

Clermontia pyrularia is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common names Hamakua clermontia and pear clermontia. It is one of several Hawaiian lobelioids in genus Clermontia that are known as ʻoha wai and haha. It is endemic to the island of Hawaiʻi, where there is one remaining wild population containing 15 individuals and several propagated individuals that have been planted in protected habitat. This is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.

This is a small tree which grows in Metrosideros polymorpha and Acacia koa dominated montane wet and subalpine dry forests on the slopes of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea between 3,000 and 7,000 ft (910 and 2,130 m). Associated plants include Lythrum maritimum and Rubus hawaiensis. It has toothed leaf blades borne on winged petioles. The plant blooms in November and December in greenish white double-lipped flowers with green-tipped sepals. Pear-shaped fruits occur soon after.Threats to this rare plant include feral pigs, black rats, and introduced plant species such as banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima), weeping rice grass (Ehrharta stipoides), and kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum). The plant also likely suffers from the loss of several native nectar-feeding birds which once pollinated it, and fruit-eating birds which dispersed its seeds.A few populations have been planted in Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge.

Clermontia samuelii

Clermontia samuelii is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common name Hana clermontia. It is one of several Hawaiian lobelioids in genus Clermontia that are known as `oha wai. This plant is endemic to Maui, where there are fewer than 250 mature specimens remaining. This is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.This is a shrub which can reach five meters in height. It grows in wet Metrosideros forests. Some individuals are protected within Haleakalā National Park. Threats to the species include invasive plant species such as glory bush (Tibouchina herbacea) and Vaseygrass (Paspalum urvillei), and feral pigs, which inflict severe damage upon the ecosystem.

Cyanea (jellyfish)

Cyanea is a cosmopolitan, or world-wide, genus of stinging jellyfish, primarily found in northern waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The same genus name has been given to a genus of plants of the Hawaiian lobelioids, an example of a parahomonym (same name, different kingdom).

Cyanea (plant)

Cyanea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae. The name Cyanea in Hawaiian is hāhā. These Hawaiian lobelioids are endemic to Hawaii with over 90% of Cyanea species are found only on one island in the Hawaiian chain. They grow in moist and wet forest habitat and are largely pollinated by birds such as the Hawaiian honeycreepers, and the seeds are dispersed by birds that take the fruits. Most Cyanea are trees with few branches or none. The inflorescence is a raceme of 4 to 45 flowers which grows from the leaf axils. The fruit is a fleshy berry. There have been several theories regarding the evolution of large prickles on plants endemic to islands that lack any mammalian or reptilian herbivores. One such theory suggests that the prickles are a defense against herbivory by the moa-nalo, a few taxa of flightless ducks that went extinct on the islands within the last 1600 years.

Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands

Located about 2300 miles (3680 km) from the nearest continental shore, the Hawaiian Islands are the most isolated group of islands on the planet. The plant and animal life of the Hawaiian archipelago is the result of early, very infrequent colonizations of arriving species and the slow evolution of those species—in isolation from the rest of the world's flora and fauna—over a period of at least 5 million years. As a consequence, Hawai'i is home to a large number of endemic species. The radiation of species described by Charles Darwin in the Galapagos Islands which was critical to the formulation of his theory of evolution is far exceeded in the more isolated Hawaiian Islands.

The relatively short time that the existing main islands of the archipelago have been above the surface of the ocean (less than 10 million years) is only a fraction of time span over which biological colonization and evolution have occurred in the archipelago. High, volcanic islands have existed in the Pacific far longer, extending in a chain to the northwest; these once mountainous islands are now reduced to submerged banks and coral atolls. Midway Atoll, for example, formed as a volcanic island some 28 million years ago. Kure Atoll, a little further to the northwest, is near the Darwin point—defined as waters of a temperature that allows coral reef development to just keep up with isostatic sinking. And extending back in time before Kure, an even older chain of islands spreads northward nearly to the Aleutian Islands; these former islands, all north of the Darwin point, are now completely submerged as the Emperor Seamounts.

The islands are well known for the environmental diversity that occurs on high mountains within a trade winds field. On a single island, the climate can differ around the coast from dry tropical (< 20 in or 500 mm annual rainfall) to wet tropical; and up the slopes from tropical rainforest (> 200 in or 5000 mm per year) through a temperate climate into alpine conditions of cold and dry climate. The rainy climate impacts soil development, which largely determines ground permeability, which affects the distribution of streams, wetlands, and wet places.

The distance and remoteness of the Hawaiian archipelago is a biological filter. Seeds or spores attached to a lost migrating bird's feather or an insect falling out of the high winds found a place to survive in the islands and whatever else was needed to reproduce. The narrowing of the gene pool meant that at the very beginning, the population of a colonizing species was a bit different from that of the remove, contributing population.

Evolutionary anachronism

Evolutionary anachronism is a concept in evolutionary biology, named by Connie C. Barlow in her book The Ghosts of Evolution (2000), to refer to attributes of living species that are best explained as a result of having been favorably selected in the past due to coevolution with other biological species that have since become extinct. When this context is removed, said attributes appear as unexplained amounts of energy investments on the part of the living organism, with no apparent benefit extracted from them, and can even be prejudicial to the continued reproduction of the surviving species. The general theory was formulated by Costa Rican-based American botanist Daniel Janzen and University of Arizona-based geologist Paul S. Martin (a prominent defender of the overkill hypothesis to explain the Quaternary extinction event) in a Science article published in 1982, titled Neotropical Anachronisms: The fruit the gomphotheres ate. Previously in 1977, Stanley Temple had proposed a similar idea to explain the decline of the Mauritius endemic tree tambalacoque following the extinction of the iconic dodo.Janzen, Martin and Barlow mainly discussed evolutionary anachronisms in the context of seed dispersal and passive defense strategies exhibited by plants that had evolved alongside disappeared megaherbivores. However, some examples have also been described in animal species. John Byers used the name relict behavior for animal behavior examples. Evolutionary anachronisms, as properly understood, should not be confused with examples of vestigiality. Though both concepts refer ultimately to organs that evolved to deal with pressures that are no longer present today, in the anachronisms case, the original function of the organ and the capacity of the organism to use it are still retained intact (e.g. the absence of gomphotheres to eat avocados doesn't make the avocado's pulp in any way vestigial, rudimentary or intrinsically incapable of playing its original function of helping disperse the avocado's seeds through zoochory, were a new suitable ecological partner to appear; while a true vestigial organ like the python's pelvic spurs cannot in any way be used to walk again).

Lobelia

Lobelia () is a genus of flowering plants comprising 415 species, with a subcosmopolitan distribution primarily in tropical to warm temperate regions of the world, a few species extending into cooler temperate regions. They are known generally as lobelias.

Moa-nalo

The moa-nalo are a group of extinct aberrant, goose-like ducks that lived on the larger Hawaiian Islands, except Hawaiʻi itself, in the Pacific. They were the major herbivores on most of these islands until they became extinct after human settlement.

Violet Lake

Violet Lake (Hawaiian: Kiʻowaiokihawahine), is a small high-elevation lake located at 5,020 ft (1,530 m) above sea level on Mauna Kahalawai (the West Maui Mountains), situated in the western part of the island of Maui. It is located in the boggy slopes near the ʻEke Crater and Puʻu Kukui, the highest peak of the West Maui Mountains. It is approximately 10 ft × 20 ft (3.0 m × 6.1 m) in size.The lake's English name derive from the reflected color of the lake's surface and also the Maui violet (Viola mauiensis) which grows on its banks. The Hawaiian language name Kiʻowaiokihawahine means the "pond of Kihawahine".The lake was important to the traditional Hawaiian religion. During ancient times, the lake and surrounding summit area was protected by kapu and regarded as the meeting place of heaven and earth. The lake was believed to be the home of the Hawaiian moʻo (lizard) goddess Kihawahine, who was associated with the aliʻi nui (high chiefs or kings) of Maui and an ʻaumakua (family deity) of Queen Keōpūolani, a descendant of the Maui royal line and the highest-ranking wife of King Kamehameha I, who established the Kingdom of Hawaii, and their son Kamehameha III. Kihawahine was also associated with the wetland and former royal complex at Mokuʻula located in the watersheds below the lake in Lahaina.The surrounding montane rainforest ecosystem on the slopes of Puʻu Kukui Watershed Management Area (the second wettest spot in the Hawaiian Islands) is extremely diverse and home to many endemic species. The lake's own unique ecosystem have not been well studied.

Species include the dwarfed ʻōhiʻa lehua tree (Metrosideros polymorpha), the Maui violet (Viola mauiensis), a variety of Hawaiian lobelioids (Lobelia gloriamontis), the Hawaiian damsel flies (Megalagrion spp.), and others. It has been described as an "extremely rare gem" which have "residents and visiting scientists alike".

ʻIʻiwi

The ʻIʻiwi (Drepanis coccinea, pronounced , ee-EE-vee), or scarlet honeycreeper is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. The ʻIʻiwi is a highly recognizable symbol of Hawaiʻi. The ʻIʻiwi is the third most common native land bird in the Hawaiian Islands. Large colonies of ʻIʻiwi inhabit the islands of Hawaiʻi, Maui, and Kauaʻi, with smaller populations on Molokaʻi but are no longer present on Lānaʻi and Oʻahu. ʻIʻiwi populations on Kauaʻi are decreasing while there are stable populations on Maui and Hawaiʻi.

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