The Hawaiian hawk or ʻio (Buteo solitarius) is a raptor of the Buteo genus endemic to Hawaiʻi, currently restricted to the Big Island. Buteos tend to be easily recognized by their bulky bodies relative to their overall length and wingspan. The ʻio is the only hawk that is native to Hawaiʻi, and fossil evidence indicates that it inhabited the island of Hawaiʻi, Molokaʻi, Oʻahu, and Kauaʻi at one time. Today, it is known to breed only on the Big Island, in stands of native ʻōhiʻa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) trees. The species is protected as an endangered species in the United States. However, the IUCN classifies the species as Near Threatened.
|At Honolulu Zoo, Hawaii|
The Hawaiian hawk measures approximately 40 to 46 centimeters (16 to 18 in) in length. The female, which weighs 605 g (21.3 oz) on average, is larger than the male, which averages 441 g (15.6 oz). Two color phases exist: a dark phase (dark brown head, breast, and underwings), and a light color phase (dark head, light breast and light underwings). Feet and legs are yellowish in adults and greenish in juveniles. During breeding season one of the pair, possibly the female, has a distinctive yellow forecap area just above the upper mandible.
Common threats to the ʻio are illegal shootings, the degradation of their native forest habitat, poisoning, vehicle collisions, starvation, and predation from other animals.
This solitary hawk remains in and defends its territories year round. They nest from March through September, and usually lay only one egg but sometimes they could lay up to three in their clutch. The female does the majority of sitting during the 38 days of incubation, while the male does the majority of the hunting. After the egg is hatched, the female only allows the male to visit when delivering food to the nest. The chick fledges at seven or eight weeks. Fifty to seventy percent of the nests successfully fledge young.
The ʻio usually hunts from a stationary position, but can also dive on prey from the air. Due to Hawaii having few native land mammals (The Hawaiian Hoary bat is Hawaii's only native terrestrial mammal), its original diet presumably consisted mainly of smaller birds such as the flightless ducks and rails that once inhabited Hawaii. Today it feeds largely on introduced animals such as rats, lizards, and game birds, as well as invertebrates such as insects. It will also feed on the Hawaiian crow, a Hawaiian bird which is extinct in the wild. They are opportunistic predators and are versatile in their feeding habits. They have a shrill and high-pitched call much like their Hawaiian name: "eeeh-oh." They are very noisy during the breeding season. ʻIo are strong fliers.
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Danelectro is a brand of musical instruments and accessories, founded in New Jersey in 1947. The company is known primarily for electric guitars and bass guitars that employed unique designs and manufacturing processes
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The Hawaiian crow or ʻAlalā (Corvus hawaiiensis) is a species of bird in the crow family, Corvidae, that is currently extinct in the wild, though reintroduction programs are underway. It is about the size of the carrion crow at 48–50 centimetres (19–20 in) in length, but with more rounded wings and a much thicker bill. It has soft, brownish-black plumage and long, bristly throat feathers; the feet, legs and bill are black. Today, the Hawaiian crow is considered the most endangered of the family Corvidae. They are recorded to have lived up to 18 years in the wild, and 28 years in captivity. Some Native Hawaiians consider the Hawaiian crow an ʻaumakua (family god).The species is known for strong flying ability and resourcefulness, and the reasons for its extirpation are not fully understood. It is thought that introduced diseases, such as Toxoplasma gondii, avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), and fowlpox, were probably a significant factor in the species' decline.Leucopternis
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The plumbeous hawk (Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea) is a species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.
It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru.
Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
It is threatened by habitat loss.Red-necked buzzard
The red-necked buzzard (Buteo auguralis), also known as the African red-tailed buzzard, is a species of buzzard in the family Accipitridae which is found in western and northern central Africa.Ridgway's hawk
Ridgway's hawk (Buteo ridgwayi) is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, native to the island of Hispaniola. It was named after the American ornithologist Robert Ridgway. It is a brownish-grey bird with barred tail and underparts. It feeds mainly on reptiles, but also consumes small birds and mammals. It nests high in a tree in spring. Populations of this bird have been declining because of habitat destruction and human persecution in the Dominican Republic and is classified as "critically endangered".Semiplumbeous hawk
The semiplumbeous hawk (Leucopternis semiplumbeus) is a species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, and Panama. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.Solitary eagle
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The upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) is a species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.White-necked hawk
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Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, and plantations. The species feeds on insects and other invertebrates. It is an opportunistic feeder that will feed on prey flushed by army ants, monkeys or even humans. It is endemic to Brazil and threatened by habitat loss.White-rumped hawk
The white-rumped hawk (Parabuteo leucorrhous) is a species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.
It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela.
Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.