Hawaii Superferry

Hawaii Superferry was a Hawaii-based transportation company that provided passenger and vehicle transportation between Honolulu Harbor on the island of Oʻahu and Kahului Harbor on Maui. Legal issues over environmental impact statements and protests from residents of Maui and Kauaʻi temporarily delayed the implementation of service, but service between Oʻahu and Maui began in December 2007. The company had hoped to return service to Nawiliwili Harbor on Kauaʻi and additionally planned to eventually provide service to Kawaihae Harbor on the Big Island.[1]

Ferry operations were suspended in March, 2009 after the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that a state law allowing the Superferry to operate without a second complete environmental impact statement was unconstitutional.[2] The company went bankrupt as a result of these actions preventing service in Hawaii.[3] On July 2, 2009 a Delaware Bankruptcy Court granted the company's motion to abandon both the ships Alakai and Huakai, ending all possibilities that the company might return to Hawaii;[4] the ships were bought by the US Maritime Administration in 2010.[5] The United States Navy eventually purchased the craft for a total of $35M, a small fraction of their original $180M cost.[6]

Hawaii Superferry
Honolulu, Hawaii
Area served
Oahu, Maui
Websitewww.hawaiisuperferry.com HawaiiSuperFerry.com


HI Superferry
Alakai docking in Honolulu Harbor

The vessel used by Hawaii Superferry was an aluminum-hulled catamaran with drive-on / drive-off vehicle capability or fast ferry service. It is designed and built in the United States Mobile, AL by Austal USA, a division of the world's largest fast-ferry builder, Australia-based shipbuilder Austal. The vessel is powered by environmentally clean MTU Friedrichshafen engines running on ultra-low sulfur diesel using waterjet propulsion which the company claimed will minimize impact to marine mammals. It was capable of transporting up to 866 passengers and 282 subcompact cars.

The first ship, Alakai, arrived in Honolulu Harbor on June 30, 2007.[7] The second ship, Huakai, was scheduled for completion in 2009, but due to state court ruling halting service, Huakai was abandoned along with Alakai.[4]


Superferry aerial
An aerial view of Alakai at Nawiliwili Harbor on Kauaʻi during her Open House on August 19, 2007

Private steamships and ferries were the sole way of traveling between the islands from the 19th century until the 1950s and they have returned twice since statehood. The first attempt to re-establish service was the vehicle ferries in 1959-1960s between Oahu, Maui and Big Island -- aboard which surfer Eddie Aikau moved with his family from Maui to Oahu.[8] The second attempt was made by Seaflite, which operated fast 50 knot hydrofoils between the major islands in the mid-1970s.[9] There is currently only one passenger ferry service remaining in Hawaii, from the island of Maui (Lahaina) and Lanai (Manele). The route is operated daily by Expeditions, a company based in Lahaina.

The concept of the Superferry was founded in 2001 and first announced by founders Timothy Dick, John Garibaldi, and Robert "Terry" White in September 2003 after more than two years of planning. Hawaii Superferry stated its plans to operate a daily service between the newly built interisland ferry terminal at Pier 19 in Honolulu Harbor to Kahului on Maui and Nawiliwili on Kauai, with later expansion of service to Kawaihae near Kona on the Big Island. The company claimed fares for a family trip to be similar to the equivalent airfare, car rental, and parking.[10]

In January 2004, the company formed a partnership with Austal to build two high-speed catamarans.[11] Construction on the first ship began in June 2004. Meanwhile, the company secured its first investors, including Maui Land & Pineapple Company[12], Grove Farm on Kauaʻi,[13] and a MARAD loan guarantee of $140 million [14]

Inaugural voyage

The Hawaii Supreme Court ruled on August 23, 2007 that the state Department of Transportation had erred in not requiring a second environmental impact assessment for harbor improvements at Kahului Harbor, reversing an earlier ruling in 2005 by Maui Circuit Court Judge Joseph Cardoza.[15] Superferry then announced that it would accelerate its launch to August 26, 2007, two days earlier than its originally scheduled launch date.[16]

Service began with inaugural $5 fares. The inaugural voyages were sold out. The voyage to Maui was smooth and uneventful with a few environmental protesters observing peacefully at Kahului Harbor. However, about a dozen protesters on surfboards blockaded the ferry at Nawiliwili Harbor on Kauaʻi. The Coast Guard cleared the ferry's path after 90 minutes.[17] Upon docking, protesters confronted passengers, including Kauaʻi residents, and some vandalized cars. Several protesters were arrested.[18][19][20][21]

Suspension of service

On August 27, 2007, Judge Cardoza issued a temporary restraining order barring the Superferry from accessing Kahului Harbor, causing Maui service to be suspended.[22] Meanwhile, the Superferry was forced to turn back from its second trip to Kauaʻi after protestors again blockaded the Nawiliwili Harbor resulting in several more arrests. Superferry passengers were forced to remain on board for 9 hours, while Kauaʻi residents were denied the ability to board the ferry. The company subsequently suspended services to Kauaʻi.[23]

The protesters' concerns were that a ferry of this size traveling at speeds of about 40 mph (64 km/h) could strike and kill whales during its voyages despite this never occurring during the years the faster (50 mph) Seaflite interisland ferries operated. Other concerns included the potential to import invasive species between islands, and the potential to bring drugs and homeless people to Kauaʻi although it is unclear whether such risk was any different from the interisland airlines.[24]

In a meeting with State Senate President Colleen Hanabusa on September 14, 2007, the company stated that it may have to find another home for the ferry in order to pay operating expenses, repay debt, and provide return on the investments made. Describing their meeting, Hanabusa commented that they would have staying power for "a month—outside, a month and a half." Superferry officials, while declining to elaborate, did not dispute this.[25]

On October 9, 2007 Maui Judge Joseph Cardoza ruled the ferry could not resume service while the state conducts an environmental impact assessment. Two days later Superferry CEO John Garibaldi announced that the company would lay off 249 employees. Fifty-nine workers remained on the job to handle administrative and operational duties. The maritime community was disturbed by the loss of jobs for U.S. mariners.[26]

Special legislative session

In mid October 2007, Governor Linda Lingle met with the leaders of the Hawaii State Legislature to propose a special legislative session to allow the ferry to operate while the state completed an environmental impact assessment. Senate and House leaders agreed. Governor Lingle called the Legislature into special session on October 24, 2007.[27] In preparation for the session, legislators made trips to Kauaʻi, Maui, and The Big Island to get reactions. On Kauaʻi, the meeting was calm, but on Maui the meeting was more emotionally charged.[28]

On Monday October 29, 2007 the State Senate approved a bill to allow "large capacity ferry vessels" to operate between ports in the Hawaiian Islands while an environmental statement is prepared.[29]

The House passed the bill on October 31 on a vote of 39-11.[30] Governor Lingle signed the bill into law on November 2, 2007.[31]

Restarting service

On Wednesday November 14, 2007, Maui Court Judge Cardoza lifted the injunction banning the ferry from sailing to Kahului Harbor consistent with the new law. Hawaii Superferry's CEO John Garibaldi released this statement: "On behalf of Hawaii Superferry's family of employees, we are pleased with the judge's decision today. We are grateful for the support shown by the governor, legislature, and residents of Hawaii and look forward to commencing service soon."[32] Superferry restarted daily round trip service to Maui on December 14.[33]

Re-suspension of service

In December 2008, environmental groups and the company returned to court for an appeal of the previous ruling. On March 16, 2009 the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that allowing the Superferry to operate prior to completion of the environmental study was unconstitutional.[34] The company immediately suspended service and laid off its 236 employees.[2][35]


On May 30, 2009, two months after suspending service, Hawaii Superferry filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy protection.[36][37] The company would then abandon the vessels ending all possibilities to return service.[4]

Revival attempts

On February 8, 2010 state lawmakers announced the introduction of a bill that would buy or lease both Alakai and Huakai and possibly start a state-run ferry service;[38] the bill was killed two months later.[39] The revival resurfaced in July 2010 when former Honolulu Mayor Mufi Hannemann introduced a "10-point action plan to boost the state's economy if he is elected governor." Hannemann said he was in talks with a group of investors interested in buying both Alakai and Huakai.[40][41]

On March 21, 2011, the Hawaii State senate committee approved a planned proposal to establish a state-run ferry authority with the power to borrow money and purchase a high-speed ferry for interisland service. House Bill 1239, introduced by state Rep. Joe Souki of Maui, would set up the Hawaii State Ferry System and a special fund for its operation. However, there were mixed reaction as to how it will be structured and to how it will be run.[42]

On February 4, 2016, the Honolulu Advertiser reported that lawmakers have directed the Department of Transportation to conduct a feasibility study to establish a ferry system.

See also


  1. ^ Wilson, Christie (2009-01-09). "Study reveals ups, downs of ferry-related harbor projects". The Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu, HI, USA: Black Press. Archived from the original on 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2013-02-09.
  2. ^ a b Hawaii Supreme Court Rules Superferry Legislation Unconstitutional
  3. ^ Hawaii Superferry to Leave Hawaii
  4. ^ a b c Dicus, Howard (2009-07-01). "Hawaii Superferry abandons ship, and other bankruptcies in the news". KGMB9.com. Howzit Howard. Honolulu, HI, USA: KGMB9. Archived from the original on 2009-10-09. Retrieved 2013-02-09.
  5. ^ "Hawaii Superferry's Bankruptcy = US Navy Opportunity". Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  6. ^ "U.S. Navy Buys Hawaii Superferries". Marine Link. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  7. ^ "Superferry!". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Cataluna, Lee (2005-12-23). "Nothing Smooth On Seaflite". The Honolulu Advertiser.
  10. ^ "Next exit, Kahului". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2003-09-21. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
  11. ^ "Two ferries to be built for interisland service". Honolulu Advertiser. 2004-01-13. Archived from the original on 2004-08-23. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
  12. ^ "Maui Land & Pine invests in ferry". Honolulu Advertiser. 2004-05-20. Archived from the original on 2004-08-23. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
  13. ^ "Grove Farm gets stake in Hawaii Superferry". Honolulu Advertiser. 2004-06-04. Archived from the original on 2004-09-21. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
  14. ^ "Hawaii Superferry risk to whales raised in 2005". Honolulu Advertiser. October 4, 2007. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  15. ^ Honolulu Star-Bulletin. "starbulletin.com - News - /2007/08/24/". starbulletin.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  16. ^ Honolulu Star-Bulletin. "starbulletin.com - News - /2007/08/25/". starbulletin.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  17. ^ "Superferry takes passengers by hundreds". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
  18. ^ "Letters for Sunday, September 2, 2007". Thegardenisland.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  19. ^ "Kauai's 'Silent Majority' Weighs In on Superferry Controversy". khnl.com. 8 November 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  20. ^ khon hawaii superferry news. YouTube. 30 August 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  21. ^ YouTube. youtube.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  22. ^ "Ferry blocked". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2007-08-28. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
  23. ^ "Protesters' flotilla halts vessel off Nawiliwili". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2007-08-28. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
  24. ^ "Superferry protesters to rally in port". Thegardenisland.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  25. ^ "Superferry considers pulling out of Hawaii". Honolulu Advertiser. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
  26. ^ Keefe, Joseph. "Profiles in Stupidity: Hawaii Superferry Idled by Courts". The Maritime Executive. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
  27. ^ "Special session opens on Superferry bill". Pacific Business News. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  28. ^ Maui Meeting Gets Heated
  29. ^ "Senate Bill 1, S.D.1" (PDF). State of Hawaii.
  30. ^ House gives final OK to Hawaii Superferry bill
  31. ^ "Act 2, Session Laws of Hawaii (Second Special Session 2007)" (PDF).
  32. ^ Advertiser Staff (2007-11-14). "Judge clears Hawaii Superferry to sail". The Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu, HI, USA: Black Press. ISSN 1072-7191. Archived from the original on 2013-02-10. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  33. ^ "Cruising anew; Ferry's Maui relaunch a success despite some protest". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2007-12-14. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
  34. ^ Sierra Club v. Dep't of Transp., 120 Hawai`i 181, 202 P.3d 1226 (2009)
  35. ^ Many affected by loss of Hawaii Superferry
  36. ^ Hawaii Superferry files for bankruptcy
  37. ^ Hawaii Superferry Goes Bankrupt
  38. ^ "Lawmakers Consider Interisland Ferry Revival - Honolulu News Story - KITV Honolulu". Kitv.com. 2010-02-08. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  39. ^ "Senators Sink Ferry Service Study - Politics News Story - KITV Honolulu". Kitv.com. 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  40. ^ "Hannemann Wants To Revive Hawaii Superferry - Honolulu News Story - KITV Honolulu". Kitv.com. 2010-07-26. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  41. ^ "Hannemann describes economic plan - Hawaii News". Staradvertiser.com. 2010-07-27. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  42. ^ "Senate committee approves measure for state-run ferries" from Honolulu Star-Advertiser (March 22, 2011)

External links

2007 in the United States

Events from the year 2007 in the United States.


Austal is an American, Australian-Domiciled global ship building company and defence prime contractor that specialises in the design, construction and support of defence and commercial vessels. Austal's product range includes naval vessels, high-speed passenger and vehicle ferries and specialist utility vessels such as offshore windfarm and crew transfer vessels.Austal has three major ship building facilities. Defence vessels are designed and constructed in Henderson, Western Australia and Mobile, Alabama. Commercial vessels are constructed in Balamban, Philippines. Vessel support is provided through service centres located in Darwin, Cairns and Henderson in Australia; San Diego, California; Balamban, Philippines and Muscat, Oman. Corporate headquarters are co-located at Austal's Australian ship building facility in Henderson.As of early 2017, Austal has designed and constructed over 260 vessels for numerous defence forces and commercial fleet operators. Customers include the Australian Border Force, Condor Ferries, Mols Linien of Denmark, the Royal Australian Navy, the Royal Navy of Oman and the United States Navy.

Austal USA

Austal USA is the American branch of operations for Australian shipbuilder Austal. The facility, based on Blakeley Island in Mobile, Alabama employed more than 3,100 workers in early 2012, and has since grown to a little over 4,000 employees and contractors as of 2016. Due to expanded shipbuilding contracts from the United States Navy, the company announced in March 2012 that it planned to invest an additional $160 million in upgrades to its facilities and to increase its workforce to roughly 4,000 employees in the next few years.

David C. Cole

David C. Cole (born September 24, 1952) is an entrepreneur and philanthropist. He first became successful in the publishing, communications, software, online services, and consumer products industries. Then he organized several efforts for local agriculture.

Environmental issues in Hawaii

The majority of environmental issues affecting Hawaii today are related to pressures from increasing human and animal population and urban expansion both directly on the islands as well as overseas. These include tourism, urbanization, climate change implications, pollution, invasive species, etc.


HSF may refer to:

"Han shot first", a phrase used when referring to a since altered scene in the first Star Wars movie

Hazara Student Federation, in Pakistan

Hawaii Superferry, a defunct American transportation company

Heat shock factor, a protein transcription factor

Heat sink and fan, components used for cooling computers

Heimler method of Human Social Functioning

Hellenic Sailing Federation, in Greece

Herbert Smith Freehills, an Anglo-Australian international law firm

High Seas Fleet, of the Imperial German Navy

High Sierra Format, a filesystem

Home Service Force, of the British Army

Homer Stryker Field, a stadium in Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States

Hornbaek Sportsforening, a Danish football club

Houston Shakespeare Festival, in Texas, United States

Human spaceflight

Southeastern Huastec language (retired ISO 639-3 code: hsf)

Hangö Segelförening, a yacht club in Finland

Hyundai Santa Fe, an SUV crossover


HST-2, formerly USNS Puerto Rico (HST-2), formerly Alakai, is a vessel currently owned by the United States Navy Military Sealift Command. She was originally Hawaii Superferry's first high-speed ferry. The vessel is currently chartered by Bay Ferries Limited to operate a ferry service between Portland, Maine and Yarmouth, Nova Scotia.

The design of the Spearhead-class expeditionary fast transport is similar to the two high-speed ferries operated by Hawaii Superferry, both built by Austal USA.


Hawaii ( (listen) hə-WY-ee; Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi [həˈvɐjʔi]) is a state of the United States of America. It is the only state located in the Pacific Ocean and the only state composed entirely of islands.

The state encompasses nearly the entire Hawaiian archipelago, 137 islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). The volcanic archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are, in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group; it is often called the "Big Island" or "Hawaiʻi Island" to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago.

Hawaii is the 8th smallest geographically and the 11th least populous, but the 13th most densely populated of the 50 states. It is the only state with an Asian American plurality. Hawaii has over 1.4 million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. The state capital and largest city is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. The state's ocean coastline is about 750 miles (1,210 km) long, the fourth longest in the U.S., after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida, and California. Hawaii is the most recent state to join the union, on August 21, 1959. It was an independent nation until 1898.

Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists. Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is strongly influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture.

High-speed craft

A high-speed craft (HSC) is a high-speed water vessel for civilian use, also called a fastcraft or fast ferry. The first high-speed craft were often hydrofoils or hovercraft, but in the 1990s catamaran and monohull designs become more popular and large hydrofoils and hovercraft are no longer built. Most high-speed craft serve as passenger ferries, but the largest catamarans and monohulls also carry cars, buses, large trucks and freight.

In the 1990s there were a variety of builders, but many ship builders have withdrawn from this market so the construction of the largest fast ferries, up to 127 metres, has been consolidated to two Australian companies, Austal of Perth and Incat of Hobart. There is still a wide variety of builders for smaller fast catamaran ferries between 24 and 60 metres.

Hulled designs are often powered by pump-jets coupled to medium-speed diesel engines. Hovercraft are usually powered by gas turbines or diesel engines driving propellers and impellers.

The design and safety of high-speed craft is regulated by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, Chapter 10, High-Speed Craft (HSC) Codes of 1994 and 2000, adopted by the Maritime Safety Committee of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

In accordance with SOLAS Chapter 10 Reg. 1.3, high-speed crafts are crafts capable of a maximum speed, in metres per second (m/s), equal to or exceeding:

where = volume of displacement in cubic metres corresponding to the design waterline, excluding craft of which the hull is supported clear above the water surface in non-displacement mode by aerodynamic forces generated by ground effect.

John Lehman

John Francis Lehman Jr. (born September 14, 1942) is an American investment banker and writer who served as Secretary of the Navy (1981–1987) in the Ronald Reagan administration where he promoted the creation of a 600-ship Navy. From 2003 to 2004 he was a member of the 9/11 Commission.

Lehman currently serves on the National Security Advisory Council for the Center for Security Policy (CSP), and on the board of trustees for the think tank Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI). Lehman was also a member of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, commonly called the 9/11 Commission, and has signed some policy letters produced by the Project for the New American Century. He also served as an advisor to Sen. John McCain for the 2008 presidential race, and for Mitt Romney in his 2012 bid.

Linda Lingle

Linda Lingle (née Cutter; June 4, 1953) is an American politician, who was the sixth governor of Hawaii from 2002 until 2010. She was the first Republican governor of Hawaii since 1962. Lingle was also the first female governor of Hawaii and its first Jewish governor. Prior to serving as governor, Lingle served as Maui County mayor, council member, and chair of the Hawaii Republican Party.

During the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City, Lingle served as chair of the convention during the absence of permanent chair Dennis Hastert from the convention floor. In 2012, she was the Republican nominee for the United States Senate, vying unsuccessfully for an open seat vacated by retiring U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka.In January 2015, Lingle was appointed as a senior adviser to Illinois Governor Bruce Rauner, and left the position in July 2016. She also served on the Governors’ Council of the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, D.C. Lingle moved back to Hawaii in the second quarter of 2017 and became a member of Hawaii Pacific University's board of trustees in June 2017.

List of Hawaii companies

The following list of Hawaii companies includes notable companies that are, or once were, headquartered in Hawaii.

List of vehicles and machines powered by MTU engines

Vehicles powered by MTU engines


The island of Maui (; Hawaiian: [ˈmɐwwi]) is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei (including Wailea and Makena in the Kihei Town CDP, the island's second-most-populated CDP), Lahaina (including Kāʻanapali and Kapalua in the Lahaina Town CDP), Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.


Megastructures is a documentary television series appearing on the National Geographic Channel in the United States and the United Kingdom, Channel 5 in the United Kingdom, France 5 in France, and 7mate in Australia.

Each episode is an educational look of varying depth into the construction, operation, and staffing of various structures or construction projects, but not ordinary construction products.

Generally containing interviews with designers and project managers, it presents the problems of construction and the methodology or techniques used to overcome obstacles. In some cases (such as the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge and Petronas Towers) this involved the development of new materials or products that are now in general use within the construction industry.

Megastructures focuses on constructions that are extreme; in the sense that they are the biggest, tallest, longest, or deepest in the world. Alternatively, a project may appear if it had an element of novelty or are a world first (such as Dubai's Palm Islands). This type of project is known as a megaproject.

The series follows similar subjects as the History Channel's Modern Marvels and Discovery Channel's Extreme Engineering, covering areas of architecture, transport, construction and manufacturing.

Portland, Maine

Portland is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maine and the seat of Cumberland County. Portland's population was 67,067 as of 2017. The Greater Portland metropolitan area is home to over half a million people, more than one-third of Maine's total population, making it the most populous metropolitan area in northern New England (an area comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont). Portland's economy relies mostly on the service sector and tourism. The Old Port district is known for its 19th-century architecture and nightlife. Marine industry still plays an important role in the city's economy, with an active waterfront that supports fishing and commercial shipping. The Port of Portland is the largest tonnage seaport in New England.The city seal depicts a phoenix rising from ashes, which is a reference to the recoveries from four devastating fires. Portland was named after the English Isle of Portland, Dorset. In turn, the city of Portland, Oregon was named after Portland, Maine. Portland itself comes from the Old English word Portlanda, which literally means "land surrounding a harbor".

Spearhead-class expeditionary fast transport

The Spearhead-class expeditionary fast transport (EPF) is a United States Navy–led shipbuilding program to provide "a platform intended to support users in the Department of the Navy and Department of the Army. The Expeditionary Fast Transport (EPF) program is a cooperative effort for a high-speed, shallow draft vessel intended for rapid intratheater transport of medium-sized cargo payloads. The EPF will reach speeds of 35–45 knots (65–83 km/h; 40–52 mph) and will allow for the rapid transit and deployment of conventional or special forces as well as equipment and supplies." The vessels are a part of Military Sealift Command's Sealift Program. The class was previously designated as "Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV)", but was changed in September 2015.

Transportation in Hawaii

The transportation system of Hawaii is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure.

USNS Guam (T-HST-1)

USNS Guam (T-HST-1), formerly Hawaii Superferry's Huakai, is a United States Navy high-speed transport vessel. The ship was completed in September 2008 and was intended to start Hawaiian service in May 2009, though delivery postponements saw that planned service canceled. In the Hawaiian language, huakaʻi means "journey".

The design of the Spearhead-class expeditionary fast transport is 70 percent in common with the Hawaii Superferries, both built by Austal USA.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.