The Hawaii Board of Education was formed on October 15, 1840. Founded by King Kamehameha III, it is the oldest public school system west of the Mississippi. Hawaii state law requires children to attend school from ages 6–18. Hawaii has one statewide school district. The total public school enrollment is approximately 180,000 students. The average number of pupils per teacher is 20:1 in K-2, and 26:1 for grades 3-12. There are 13,000 classroom teachers in Hawaii's public schools.
Cecil Landau Heftel (September 30, 1924 – February 4, 2010), popularly known as Cec Heftel, was an American politician and businessman from Hawai'i. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1986 for the First Congressional District, encompassing most of urban Honolulu.Hawaii
Hawaii ( (listen) hə-WY-ee; Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi [həˈvɐjʔi]) is a state of the United States of America. It is the only state located in the Pacific Ocean and the only state composed entirely of islands.
The state encompasses nearly the entire Hawaiian archipelago, 137 islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). The volcanic archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are, in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group; it is often called the "Big Island" or "Hawaiʻi Island" to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago.
Hawaii is the 8th smallest geographically and the 11th least populous, but the 13th most densely populated of the 50 states. It is the only state with an Asian American plurality. Hawaii has over 1.4 million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. The state capital and largest city is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. The state's ocean coastline is about 750 miles (1,210 km) long, the fourth longest in the U.S., after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida, and California. Hawaii is the most recent state to join the union, on August 21, 1959. It was an independent nation until 1898.
Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists. Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is strongly influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture.Hawaii House Bill 444
House Bill 444 (abbreviated H.B. 444) was a 2009 bill of the Hawaii State Legislature, passed in April 2010 and vetoed by Governor of Hawaii Linda Lingle, that would have legalized civil unions for couples in the state of Hawaii. Its legislative process was accompanied by controversy over the bill's content and effects and rallies were held by supporters and opponents.
The bill passed the Hawaii House of Representatives in February 2009 in a form specific to same-sex couples, was passed in amended form including opposite-sex couples by the Hawaii Senate in May 2009, and was carried over in the 2010 session, where it passed the Senate again in January 2010 with a veto-proof majority. The bill moved back to the House but was indefinitely postponed by a voice vote initiated by House Speaker Calvin Say, requiring a vote of two-thirds of Representatives to be taken up again in 2010, and was considered dead. In April 2010, on the last day of the legislative session, the House suspended the rules on the Senate bill and passed it with a majority, sending the bill to Governor Linda Lingle, who vetoed it in July 2010.
Hawaii did not allow same-sex marriages or civil unions, but two unmarried people can register for a reciprocal beneficiary relationship, which provides some of the rights and benefits that come with marriage. The bill was written to become law on January 1, 2010, would allow all couples to obtain rights equal to those of married couples, and make Hawaii the only state in the Western United States to allow civil unions instead of domestic partnerships.Hawaii State Public Library System
The Hawaiʻi State Public Library System (HSPLS) is the only statewide public library system in the United States. The flagship Hawaiʻi State Library, built in 1911 and designed by architect Henry D. Whitfield, was funded in part by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. It is a historic downtown Honolulu building. The system has 51 libraries on all the major Hawaiian Islands: Big Island of Hawaiʻi, Kauaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui, Molokaʻi and Oʻahu. The system's collection of books and other library materials totals over three million. There is one library for the blind and physically handicapped, located on Oʻahu. The Hawaiʻi State Public Library System is headed by the Hawaiʻi State Librarian, currently Stacey Aldrich, who reports to the Hawaii Board of Education.Hermann A. Widemann
Hermann Adam Widemann (December 24, 1822 – February 7, 1899) was a businessman from Germany who was a judge and member of the cabinet of the Kingdom of Hawaii.History of transgender people in the United States
This article addresses the history of transgender people in the United States from prior to western contact until the present. European transgender people have been present in the land now known as the United States at least since the early 1600s. Before Western contact, some Native American tribes had third gender people whose social roles varied from tribe to tribe. People dressing and living differently from their sex assignment at birth and contributing to various aspects of American history and culture have been documented from the 17th century to the present day. In the 20th and 21st centuries, advances in sex reassignment surgery as well as transgender activism have influenced transgender life and the popular perception of transgender people in the United States.John R. Leopold
For other people named John Leopold, see John Leopold (disambiguation)John Robinson Leopold (born February 4, 1943) is an American politician who served as Anne Arundel County Executive from 2006 to 2013. Leopold served as a Hawaii State Senator from 1974-1978 and as a Hawaii State Representative from 1970-1974. As a Republican, he served as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates for 20 years (1982-1990 and 1994-2006). Mr. Leopold was convicted of a common law misdemeanor-misconduct in office and served a 30-day sentence in county jail and received a fine. He resigned on February 1, 2013 and was succeeded by Laura Neuman, after a vote by the Anne Arundel County Council.Kim Coco Iwamoto
Kim Coco Iwamoto (born May 26, 1968) is a Japanese-American Hawaiian politician. She was one of the Democratic primary candidates for the position of Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii in the 2018 election. Iwamoto previously served as a commissioner on the Hawaii Civil Rights Commission and was previously elected to serve two terms on the Hawaii Board of Education. She was recognized as a Champion of Change by President Barack Obama in 2013, and in 2018 Newsweek listed her as one of fifty need-to-know pioneers for LGBTQ rights.List of LGBT firsts by year
This list of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) firsts by year denotes pioneering LGBT endeavors organized chronologically. Openly LGBT people remain a demographic minority in most places. In areas that historically are not known for having (or being friendly to) LGBT people who do not remain closeted, a "first" can make it easier for other openly LGBT persons to enter the field or for those who are closeted to come out. Openly LGBT people being visible in society affects societal attitudes toward homosexuality, bisexuality, and the transgender community on a wider level.
One commonly cited example is Harvey Milk, the first openly gay person to be elected to political office in California, becoming the most visible LGBT politician in the world in the 1970s, after decades of resistance to LGBT people by mainstream culture. Milk encouraged LGBT people to "come out of the closet" during his speeches; as a result of his work and his assassination—along with San Francisco mayor George Moscone—thousands of ordinary people did so. In 2002, Milk was called "the most famous and most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States".List of transgender political office-holders
Over the last few decades, transgender individuals have been able to obtain elected and appointed political office in many parts of the world. Transgender individuals have different life experiences and thus policy goals, ranging from access to restrooms and health care, to protection from discrimination and violence. Because of this, the election and appointment of transgender officials can potentially change discriminating legislation. As of 2018, only 16 openly transgender individuals have been elected to office in the United States. A few transgender individuals who have been elected, were not open about their gender identity, and were later outed.Oahu Interscholastic Association
The Oahu Interscholastic Association (OIA) is an athletic conference composed of all public secondary schools on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, U.S.A. The OIA was first founded in 1940 as the Rural Oahu Interscholastic Association (ROIA). The five founding schools were Castle High School, Kahuku High School, Leilehua High School, Waialua High & Intermediate School and Waipahu High School. The OIA originally comprised all the rural schools on Oahu, which were all of the schools that were not situated in the main city of Honolulu. This changed however in 1970 with the addition of the five former public school members of the Interscholastic League of Honolulu - Farrington High School, Kaimuki High School, McKinley High School, Roosevelt High School and Kalani High School. After the public Honolulu schools joined, the league changed its identity from the ROIA to simply OIA to reflect the integration of all of the public high schools on the island.
The OIA now has 24 member schools who compete in 19 different junior varsity and varsity level sports. The league produces a number of quality athletic teams in a number of sports, especially football. The OIA concurs with the Hawaii Board of Education and Hawaii Department of Education in recognizing athletics as an integral part of the educational program of the high school and holds its athletes to a number of academic and behavioral standards.Rose C. Davison
Rosalie Compton Kahipuleokalaniahumanu Davison, known as Rose C. Davison, (September 22, 1868 – May 26, 1913) was a part Native Hawaiian female educator, philanthropist and governmental social worker. She served as assistant secretary of the Board of Education of the Territory of Hawaii and represented Hawaii in the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.Transgender history
Transgender history begins with transgender (in the broad sense, including non-binary and third-gender) people in ancient civilizations on every inhabited continent and continues to the present. Sumerian and Akkadian texts from 4500 years ago document transgender priests, and Assyrian texts document trans prostitutes; evidence suggests these gender roles go back to prehistoric times and may have a common origin with third gender roles that were accepted in America before European colonization, some of which (like Navajo nádleehi and Zuni lhamana) survived colonizers' hostility. Graves of trans- or third-gender people in Europe and America have been identified from 4500 years ago, and likely depictions occur in art around the Mediterranean from 9000 to 3700 years ago. In Ancient Greece, Phrygia, and Rome, there were trans-female galli priests, and records of women dressing as men to vote, fight, or study; Roman emperor Elagabalus (d. 222) preferred to be called a lady not a lord, sought sex reassignment surgery, and has been seen as an early trans figure. Hijras on the Indian subcontinent and kathoeys in Thailand have formed trans-feminine third genders since ancient times, documented for thousands of years; today, at least half a million hijras live in India and as many as another half million live in Bangladesh, legally recognized as a third gender, and many trans people are accepted in Thailand. In Arabia, khanith today (like earlier mukhannathun) fulfill a third gender role attested since the 600s. In Africa, many societies have traditional roles for trans women and trans men, some of which survive in the modern era amid recent widespread hostility.
In the Middle Ages, accounts around Europe document trans men, while Kalonymus ben Kalonymus's lament for being born a man instead of a woman has been seen as an early account of gender dysphoria. Eleanor Rykener, a male-bodied Briton arrested in 1394 while living and doing sex work as a woman, has been seen as a trans woman. In the Balkans since the 1400s, female-assigned people have transitioned to live as men called sworn virgins. In Japan, accounts of trans people go back to the Edo period. In colonial America, Thomas(ine) Hall in the 1600s adopted clothes and roles of both men and women, while in 1776 Jemima Wilkinson became the genderless Public Universal Friend. In the 1800s, some people used military service to begin new lives as men, like Albert Cashier and James Barry, or otherwise transitioned, like Joseph Lobdell; trans women like Frances Thompson also transitioned. In 1895, trans autobiographer Jennie June and others organized the Cercle Hermaphroditos; in the 1900s, musician Billy Tipton lived as a man, while Lucy Hicks Anderson was supported by her parents and community in being a woman. Karl M. Baer (in 1906), Alan L. Hart (1917) and Michael Dillon (1946) had early female-to-male sex reassignment surgeries, while in 1930 and 1931, Dora Richter and Lili Elbe had early male-to-female reassignment surgeries including (for Elbe) an ovary and uterus transplant. Baer, Richter and Elbe were aided by Magnus Hirschfeld, whose pioneering work at the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft for trans medicine and rights the Nazis destroyed in 1933.
In 1952, Christine Jorgensen's transition brought widespread awareness to reassignment surgery. The modern fight for trans rights began with trans and gay people rising up in the 1959 Cooper Do-nuts Riot, 1966 Compton's Cafeteria Riot, and 1969 Stonewall Riots. In 1970s, Lou Sullivan began what became FTM International, while some feminists began to feud over excluding or including trans women. In Iran, the government started partially funding sex reassignment, and now carries out more surgeries than anywhere besides Thailand. In Indonesia, there are millions of trans-/third-gender waria, and the Bugis of Sulawesi recognize five genders. In Oceania, trans-/third-gender roles like the akava'ine, fa'afafine and fakaleiti exist among the Cook Island Maori, Samoans, and Tongans. In the 1990s and 2000s, the Transgender Day of Remembrance was started and trans marches around the time of Pride became more common, trans people like Georgina Beyer (in New Zealand), Shabnam Mausi (India), Tomoya Hosoda (Japan) and Danica Roem (US) were elected to some public offices, and legislative and court actions began recognizing trans people's rights in some countries around the world (especially in the West, India, and southern Africa). At the same time, other countries (especially in the rest of Africa, Central Asia, and Arabia) are hostile and abridge trans people's rights.