Hawaii's 1st congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The district is located entirely on the island of Oahu, encompassing the urban areas of the City and County of Honolulu, a consolidated city-county that includes Oahu's central plains and southern shores, including the towns of Aiea, Mililani, Pearl City, Waipahu and Waimalu. The district is smaller and more densely populated than the 2nd Congressional District (which includes the rest of the state).
|Hawaii's 1st congressional district|
Hawaii's 1st congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
When Hawaii and Alaska were admitted to the Union in 1959, both new states were granted one at-large Representative to Congress pending the next United States Census. In the reapportionment following the 1960 U.S. Census, Hawaii was entitled to a second U.S. Representative. Instead of creating two congressional districts, the state continued to elect its Representatives at-large. Two representatives were first elected in 1962 and Hawaii was first represented by two U.S. Representatives on January 2, 1963 upon the convening of the 88th Congress.
The 1st Congressional District was created in 1971 when Hawaii began electing its representatives from districts instead of electing at-large Representative statewide.
Election results from presidential races
|2000||President||Al Gore 55% – George W. Bush 39%|
|2004||President||John Kerry 53% – George W. Bush 47%|
|2008||President||Barack Obama 70% – John McCain 28%|
|2012||President||Barack Obama 70% – Mitt Romney 29%|
|2016||President||Hillary Clinton 63% – Donald Trump 30%|
|Electoral history||District map|
|Democratic||January 3, 1971 –
January 3, 1977
|Re-elected in 1970.
Re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
|1971 – 1981|
|Democratic||January 3, 1977 –
July 11, 1986
|Elected in 1976.|
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Re-elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Resigned to run for Governor of Hawaii.
|1981 – 1983|
|1983 – 1993|
|Vacant||July 11, 1986 –
September 20, 1986
|Democratic||September 20, 1986 –
January 3, 1987
|Elected to finish Heftel's term.|
|Republican||January 3, 1987 –
January 3, 1991
|Elected in 1986.|
Re-elected in 1988.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
|Democratic||January 3, 1991 –
February 28, 2010
|Elected in 1990.|
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Resigned to run for Governor of Hawaii.
|1993 – 2003|
|2003 – 2013|
|Vacant||February 28, 2010 –
May 22, 2010
|Republican||May 22, 2010 –
January 3, 2011
|Elected to finish Abercrombie's term.|
|Democratic||January 3, 2011 –
January 3, 2015
|Elected in 2010.|
Re-elected in 2012.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
|2013 – Present|
|Democratic||January 3, 2015 –
July 20, 2016
|114th||Elected in 2014.|
Announced retirement, then died.
|Vacant||July 20, 2016 –|
November 8, 2016
|Democratic||November 8, 2016 –
January 3, 2019
|Elected to finish Takai's term.|
Also elected to the next term in 2016.
Retired to run for Governor of Hawaii.
|Democratic||January 3, 2019 –
|116th||Elected in 2018.|
|Republican||Richard K. Cockey||31,764||27.11|
|Democratic win (new seat)|
|Democratic||Spark Matsunaga (incumbent)||73,826||54.70|
|Republican||Fred W. Rohlfing||61,138||45.30|
|Democratic||Spark Matsunaga (incumbent)||71,552||59.32|
|Republican||William B. Paul||49,065||40.68|
|Republican||Fred W. Rohlfing||53,745||39.06|
|Independents for Godly Government||Kathy Joyce Hoshijo||23,807||17.30|
|Democratic||Cecil Heftel (incumbent)||84,552||73.26|
|Republican||William D. Spillane||24,470||21.20|
|Libertarian||Peter David Larsen||4,295||3.72|
|Aloha Democratic Party||Debra Figueroa||2,095||1.82|
|Democratic||Cecil Heftel (incumbent)||98,256||79.77|
|Republican||Aloma Keen Noble||19,819||16.09|
|Libertarian||Rockne H. Johnson||5,106||4.14|
|Democratic||Cecil Heftel (incumbent)||134,779||89.91|
|Libertarian||Rockne H. Johnson||15,128||10.09|
|Democratic||Cecil Heftel (incumbent)||114,884||82.73|
|Republican gain from Democratic|
|Republican||Pat Saiki (incumbent)||96,848||54.71|
|Libertarian||Roger Lee Taylor||2,107||1.29|
|Democratic gain from Republican|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||129,332||72.87|
|Libertarian||Rockne H. Johnson||6,569||3.70|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||94,754||53.62|
|Best Party of Hawaii||Alexandria Kaan||2,815||1.59|
|Libertarian||Roger Lee Taylor||2,514||1.42|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||86,732||50.37|
|Natural Law||Nick Bedworth||1,295||0.75|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||116,693||61.56|
|Natural Law||Nick Bedworth||3,973||2.10|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||108,517||69.03|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||131,673||72.86|
|Libertarian||James H. Bracken||4,028||2.23|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||128,567||62.97|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||112,904||69.35|
|Republican||Richard (Noah) Hough||49,890||30.65|
|Democratic||Neil Abercrombie (incumbent)||154,181||77.14|
|No party||11 others||1,682||0.99%|
|Republican gain from Democratic|
|Republican||Charles Djou (incumbent)||82,723||46.77|
|Democratic gain from Republican|
|Democratic||Colleen Hanabusa (incumbent)||116,505||53.47|
|Republican||Shirlene D. (Shirl) Ostrov||44,090||20.65|
|Democratic||Angela Aulani Kaaihue||5,885||2.76|
|Libertarian||Alan J.K. Yim||5,559||2.60|
|Independent||Peter H. Plotzeneder||328||0.15|
|Republican||Shirlene D. (Shirl) Ostrov||45,958||21.52|
|Libertarian||Alan J.K. Yim||6,601||3.09|
As of November 2016, there are four former members of the House who are currently living. The most recent representative to die was Mark Takai (served 2015–2016), who died in office on July 20, 2016.
|Representative||Term of office||Date of birth (and age)|
|June 28, 1938|
|Pat Saiki||1987–1991||May 28, 1930|
|Charles Djou||2010–2011||August 9, 1970|
|May 4, 1951|
The 1986 United States House of Representatives elections was held on November 4, 1986, in the middle of President Ronald Reagan's second term in office while he was still relatively popular with the American public. As in most midterm elections, the President's party—in this case, the Republican Party — lost seats, with the Democratic Party gaining a net of five seats and cementing its majority. These results were not as dramatic as those in the Senate, where the Republicans lost control of the chamber to the Democrats.2006 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii
The 2006 congressional elections in Hawaii were held on November 4, 2006 to determine who was to represent the state of Hawaii in the United States House of Representatives for the 111th Congress. Hawaii has two seats in the House, apportioned according to the 2000 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms.2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii
The 2008 congressional elections in Hawaii were held on November 4, 2008 to determine who was to represent the state of Hawaii in the United States House of Representatives for the 111th Congress from January 3, 2009, until their terms of office expire on January 3, 2011. Incumbent Neil Abercrombie (D) was reelected in Hawaii's 1st congressional district. Incumbent Mazie Hirono (D) was reelected in Hawaii's 2nd congressional district.
Hawaii has two seats in the House, apportioned according to the 2000 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms. The election coincided with the 2008 U.S. presidential election.2010 Hawaii's 1st congressional district special election
The 2010 special election for the 1st congressional district of Hawaii was a special election to the United States House of Representatives that took place to fill the vacancy caused by Representative Neil Abercrombie's resignation on February 28, 2010 to focus on his campaign for Governor of Hawaii in the 2010 gubernatorial election. Abercrombie planned to not run for re-election in 2010, and many of the candidates that were running for his open seat transferred to the special election. The election was held on May 22, 2010 and Republican Charles Djou won, defeating five Democrats, four fellow Republicans, and four Independent candidates. The main reason for his win was because there were two Democratic candidates instead of one, which split the votes, allowing Djou to win, as Hawaii is an overwhelmingly Democratic state. As of 2019, this is the last time in which a Republican was elected to congress from Hawaii. Djou became the first Republican elected to Congress from Hawaii since Pat Saiki in 1988; Djou volunteered on Saiki's 1988 campaign, and Saiki served as Djou's campaign chair in 2010.2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii
The 2010 congressional elections in Hawaii was held on November 4, 2010 to determine who was to represent the state of Hawaii in the United States House of Representatives for the 112th Congress from January 2011, until their terms of office expire in January 2013.
Hawaii has two seats in the House, apportioned according to the 2000 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms. The election coincided with the 2010 gubernatorial election.2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii
The 2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii were held on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 to elect the two U.S. Representatives from the state of Hawaii, one from each of the state's two congressional districts. The elections coincided with the elections of other federal and state offices, including an election for Governor of Hawaii and a special election to the United States Senate.2016 Hawaii's 1st congressional district special election
U.S. Representative Mark Takai, who represented Hawaii's 1st congressional district, died July 20, 2016. A special election was held November 8, 2016. In special elections in Hawaii, all candidates run on one ballot with the highest vote recipient winning regardless of percentage. This is what allowed Charles Djou, a Republican, to win the 2010 special election for this district with 39.4% of the vote when two Democrats took 58.4% of the vote combined. However this special election is held concurrently with the 2016 general election.2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii
The 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii were held on Tuesday, November 6, 2018, to elect the two U.S. Representatives from the U.S. state of Hawaii; one from each of the state's two congressional districts. Primaries were held on August 11, 2018. The elections and primaries coincided with the elections and primaries of other federal and state offices.
With the 2018 election results, the Democratic Party easily retained both House seats and retained unitary control over the entirety of Hawaii's Congressional (both House and Senate) delegation.Allan Levene
Allan Levene (born 1949 or 1950) is a British American information technology specialist. He is the first person ever to run for Congress in multiple states simultaneously. He was planning to simultaneously run for the United States House of Representatives in four different districts: Hawaii's 1st congressional district, Minnesota's 6th congressional district, Michigan's 14th congressional district, and his home district, Georgia's 11th congressional district as a member of the Republican Party. Due to ballot difficulties, he ended up running in two districts, Georgia's 11th District and Hawaii's 1st, which makes him the first person to run for Congress in multiple states at the same time. On May 20, 2014, Levene was defeated in the Georgia Republican primary. On August 9, 2014, Levene was defeated in the Hawaii Republican primary.Beth Fukumoto
Beth Keiko Fukumoto (formerly Fukumoto Chang, born March 30, 1983) is an American politician who served in the Hawaii House of Representatives from 2013 to 2018, representing District 36.Fukumoto was first elected to the state House of Representatives in 2012 and was the youngest person to serve as the House Minority Leader. She was also the youngest person to serve as the House Minority Floor Leader and the Director of Research for the House Minority.
In March 2017, she announced plans to change her party identification from Republican to Democrat citing concerns about racism and sexism. Fukumoto remained an independent until approval of her request to join the Democratic Party on June 19, 2017.In 2018, Fukumoto ran in the Democratic primary for Hawaii's 1st congressional district in the 2018 elections to replace Colleen Hanabusa, who ran for Governor. The election was won by former Congressman Ed Case.Campbell Cavasso
Campbell "Cam" Cavasso (born October 14, 1950), is an American politician, businessman and member of the Republican Party. He served three consecutive terms in the Hawaii House of Representatives from January 1985 to January 1991, representing House District 51 in Windward Oahu. He ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii in 2002 and was the Republican nominee for the U.S. Senate in 2004 and 2010, losing on both occasions to Democratic incumbent Daniel Inouye. He was also the Republican nominee for the same seat in a 2014 special election, losing to Democrat Brian Schatz, who was appointed to the seat in 2012 after Inouye died. Cavasso was the 2018 Republican nominee for Hawaii's 1st congressional district and lost to Democrat Ed Case.Charles Djou
Charles Kong Djou (born August 9, 1970) is an American politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Hawaii's 1st congressional district in 2010–11. As a member of the Republican Party, Djou won his congressional seat in a May 2010 special election where the Democratic Party vote was split between several candidates, but was defeated in the general election in November after the Democratic primary provided a single opponent. Djou, who was previously in the Hawaii House of Representatives and the Honolulu City Council, was the first Thai American of any party and the first Chinese American Republican to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. In June 2016, Djou entered the race for Mayor of Honolulu, which he lost 48% to 52% to Democratic Party incumbent Kirk Caldwell. Djou left the Republican Party in March 2018 in part due to dissatisfaction with the policies of Donald Trump.Colleen Hanabusa
Colleen Wakako Hanabusa (born May 4, 1951) is an American politician who served as the U.S. Representative from Hawaii's 1st congressional district from 2011 to 2015 and again from 2016 to 2019. She is a member of the Democratic Party and ran for her party's nomination for governor of Hawaii in 2018, challenging and losing to incumbent Governor and fellow Democrat David Ige.
Before her election to the United States House of Representatives, Hanabusa was a member of the Hawaii Senate. She served as the Senate Majority Leader before being elected Hawaii's first female president of the state senate in 2007. On August 24, 2011, she announced her intention to run for reelection to Congress.On December 17, 2012, after the death of Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii, it was announced that Inouye had sent a letter shortly before his death to Hawaii Governor Neil Abercrombie, stating his desire that Hanabusa be appointed to the seat. Abercrombie decided against appointing Hanabusa and selected Lieutenant Governor Brian Schatz instead. Hanabusa challenged Schatz in the Democratic primary for the 2014 special election, but narrowly lost.In 2016 Hanabusa announced her intention to run in the 1st congressional district special election to fill the remaining term of Representative Mark Takai, who died in July 2016, and she won the Democratic primary for the race on August 13. Hanabusa also won the election on November 8, 2016, and was sworn in on November 14.In 2017 Hanabusa announced her decision to run for governor of Hawaii in 2018 rather than reelection to the House. She lost to incumbent Democratic Governor David Ige in the primary. Ige was subsequently reelected to a second term.Ed Case
Edward Espenett Case (born September 27, 1952) is an American Democratic politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Hawaii's 1st congressional district, which covers the urban core of Honolulu. He represented the 2nd district, which covers the rest of the state, from 2002 to 2007.
Case, a Blue Dog Democrat, first came to prominence in Hawaii as majority leader of the Hawaii State Legislature and in his 2002 campaign for governor of Hawaii.
First elected to the House of Representatives in 2002 in a special election to fill the seat of Patsy Mink, who died of pneumonia, Case represented Hawaii's 2nd congressional district until 2006, when he unsuccessfully challenged Daniel Akaka in the Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate.
In 2010 Case was one of two Democratic candidates in the special election for Hawaii's 1st congressional district. With the Democratic vote split, Republican Councilman Charles Djou's 39% of the vote earned him the seat. Case ran again in the Democratic primary for the November general election, but suspended his campaign in May. Colleen Hanabusa, Case's fellow Democrat in the special election, went on to win the primary and the general election against Djou. Case again ran for the Senate in 2012 after Daniel Akaka announced his retirement, but lost to Mazie Hirono.In July 2013 Case announced that he was joining Outrigger Enterprises Group and that his political career was "likely" over. In June 2018, Case reversed his decision and announced he would run again in Hawaii's 1st congressional district. Case won the crowded Democratic primary election in August 2018, and went on to win the general election. He took office in January 2019.Ikaika Anderson
Justin-Michael "Ikaika" Anderson (born February 5, 1978) is an American politician from the state of Hawaii and a member of the Democratic Party. Anderson serves as Chair & Presiding Officer of the Honolulu City Council and Councilmember for the City and County of Honolulu’s District 3 (which includes Waimānalo, Kailua and Kāneʻohe). He is a past vice chair and former chair of its Zoning and Planning Committee.Anderson announced his intention to run for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives (Hawaii’s 1st congressional district) in the 2014 election.Mark Takai
Kyle Mark Takai (July 1, 1967 – July 20, 2016) was an American politician from the state of Hawaii who served in the United States House of Representatives, representing Hawaii's 1st congressional district, from 2015 to 2016. He previously served in the Hawaii House of Representatives from 1994 to 2014.
A native of Honolulu, Hawaii, Takai last served in the Hawaii Army National Guard as a lieutenant colonel and took part in Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2009, concurrent to his political career. He became the Democratic Party nominee for the U.S. House of Representatives in the 2014 elections, defeating former Congressman Charles Djou to win the seat.
Takai announced in May 2016 that he would not seek re-election due to ill health; he died from cancer two months later.Neil Abercrombie
Neil Abercrombie (born June 26, 1938) is an American politician who served as the seventh governor of Hawaii from 2010 to 2014. He is a member of the Democratic Party.
Born in Buffalo, New York, Abercrombie is a graduate of Union College and the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. He began his political career in 1975, winning a seat in the Hawaii House of Representatives. He served in the Hawaii House until 1979, when he was elected to the Hawaii State Senate. Upon the resignation of Cecil Heftel, who resigned from the U.S. House of Representatives to run for governor, Abercrombie was elected to his vacant seat in a special election in 1986, but lost the Democratic primary for a full term on the same day. Abercrombie served the remainder of Heftel's term until January 1987. He served on the Honolulu City Council from 1988 to 1990 before returning to Congress in 1991. Abercrombie served nine consecutive terms in the House from 1993 to 2010, representing Hawaii's 1st congressional district, consisting of urban Honolulu.
With incumbent Governor Linda Lingle prevented by term limits from running for reelection, Abercrombie declared his candidacy for governor in March 2009. In September 2010 he won the five-candidate Democratic primary with 59% of the vote. Abercrombie went on to face Republican nominee, Lieutenant Governor Duke Aiona, in the general election.
On November 2, 2010, Abercrombie and running mate Brian Schatz defeated Aiona with 57% of the vote. Abercrombie was sworn into office on December 6, 2010. Issues he faced during his tenure included the aftermath of the great recession and restructuring labor union pensions. In 2014, he was defeated in the Democratic primary by state senator David Ige.Orson Swindle
Orson G. Swindle III (born March 8, 1937 in Thomasville, Georgia), a decorated Vietnam War prisoner of war, was a Commissioner of the Federal Trade Commission of the United States from December 18, 1997 to June 30, 2005. He had previously served as Assistant Secretary of Commerce during the Reagan Administration.
Swindle previously served as State Director for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In 1994 and in 1996 he was a Republican candidate for Congress in Hawaii's 1st Congressional District. In 1996 he held the incumbent, Democrat Neil Abercrombie, to 50% of the vote. Swindle served over twenty years as a Naval Aviator in the U.S. Marine Corps, and he retired as a lieutenant colonel.Prince Kuhio Federal Building
The Prince Kūhiō Federal Building, formally the Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Federal Building and United States Courthouse, is the official seat of the United States federal government and its local branches of various agencies and departments in the state of Hawaiʻi. Its address is 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Honolulu, Hawaii 96850.The building was completed in 1977 with a total of 929,857 square feet (86,386.5 m2) of working space.
It houses the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii. the United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (Honolulu Division), the offices of Hawaii's U.S. Senators, the offices of Hawaii's U.S. Representatives for Hawaii's 1st congressional district and Hawaii's 2nd congressional district, and branch offices of the United States Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security, United States Department of Justice, Central Intelligence Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Internal Revenue Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, among other entities.The building was named after Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole, heir to the throne of the overthrown Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, who served as Republican territorial delegate to the United States Congress from 1903 through 1922.
It was built on part of the former US Army Fort Armstrong, which was named for Samuel C. Armstrong (1839–1893), son of Hawaiian missionaries.
Across Ala Moana Boulevard is the Aloha Tower at the Honolulu harbor. Other parts of Fort Armstrong became a container terminal for military supplies.The Prince Kūhiō Building was constructed to replace the aging Federal Court, Customs House and Post Office building fronting ʻIolani Palace and adjacent to Aliʻiōlani Hale which had been built in 1922 and expanded in 1931. After being mostly vacant, the old building was renovated and put up for sale. The old building was given back to the state of Hawaiʻi and was renamed the King David Kalākaua Building in December 2003.Construction of the Prince Kūhiō Federal Building was not without controversy. The General Services Administration wanted a simple tall office tower, while local architects argued for a building more appropriate to Hawaii.
Statutes provided that all buildings between the shoreline and the foot of Punchbowl Crater could not be taller than the Hawaiʻi State Capitol. The federal government, not legally limited by local statutes, defied the statutes and constructed the building as the tallest structure in the path of the capitol building's view of the shoreline. The complex includes ten stories of offices (including a penthouse level), connected by an enclosed bridge to a six-story courthouse building (including basement).The Prince Kūhiō Federal Building was designed by Joseph G.F. Farrell's firm Architects Hawaii. Other government buildings designed by the firm include the capitol building of Palau, which opened in 2006.
The building was selected for $121 million of renovations as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The plan is to make the building more efficient by upgrading its mechanical, electrical, fire-safety, and plumbing systems.
It had already been cited as an efficient building by the Energy Star program.
Traces of asbestos were discovered during the first phase.
The second phase of construction was approved in March 2011.