Hauling-out

Hauling-out is a behaviour associated with pinnipeds (true seals, sea lions, fur seals and walruses) temporarily leaving the water.[1][2] Hauling-out typically occurs between periods of foraging activity.[1][3][4] Rather than remain in the water, pinnipeds haul-out onto land or sea-ice for reasons such as reproduction and rest.[4][2] Hauling-out is necessary in seals for mating (with the exception of the Baikal seal[1]) and giving birth (although a distinction is generally made between reproductive aggregations, termed "rookeries", and non-reproductive aggregations, termed "haul-outs").[4][5] Other benefits of hauling-out may include predator avoidance, thermoregulation, social activity, parasite reduction and rest.[4][2][5][6]

There is much variation in haul-out patterns among different seal species.[1] Haul-out sites may be segregated by age and sex within the same species.[3] Many species of pinniped have only a few localized rookeries where they breed, but periodically occupy hundreds of haul-out sites throughout the range.[5] For example, the Australian fur seals breed on only nine islands in Bass Strait but also occupy up to 50 haul-out sites in south-east Australian waters,[4] and Steller sea lions have around 50 rookeries throughout their range, but several hundred haul-out sites.[5] Hauling-out behaviour provides numerous benefits to pinnipeds besides reproduction. This behaviour has been shown to be used for activities such as thermoregulation, predator avoidance, moulting, nursing, and resting.[2] Haul-out frequency, duration, and site location (ie. sea-ice, floating-ice, and terrestrial) are all influenced by physical constraints (ie. air temperature, wind speed, and time of day) and biological constraints (ie. moulting, age, and sex).[2][7][6][8][9] Variations in hauling-out behaviour exist among pinnipeds for reasons such as geographical location.[7]

Sea lion group at haulout
Sea lion group at haulout
Harbor seals at haulout
Harbor seals at haulout

Examples

Weddell seals

Weddell Seal (js)1
Weddell seal on terrestrial haul-out site.

Haul-out sites of Weddell seals are not necessarily geographically distinct from one another and vary due to physical factors (ie. food availability) and biological factors (ie. age).[7] Weddell seals are high latitude Antarctic inhabitants, allowing them to haul-out onto ice as adults year round for foraging.[7] Similar to other pinnipeds, Weddell seals haul-out for reasons such as feeding, rest, avoidance of predators, and thermoregulation.[7][10] Seasonal variation has been indicated to influence the haul-out patterns of this species, environmental factors such as air temperature and wind speed trigger a shift from long-duration diurnal haul-outs to short-duration nocturnal patterns.[7] Following moulting season the number of haul-outs performed increases allowing the seals to benefit from the increased air temperature and thus decreasing the energetic cost of growing new hair.[7][10] The haul-out patterns of female Weddell seal are heavily influenced by the age of their pups.[10][6] In the first week post parturition, haul-out frequency is high and females remain hauled-out for longer periods prior to the pups starting to swim. Haul-out frequency decreases as the pups are weaned and mating begins.[7][10][6]

Walruses

Noaa-walrus9
Group of walruses on sea-ice haul-out.

Walruses tend to occupy both terrestrial and sea ice haul-out sites, alternating between the two depending on resource availability.[8] Walruses haul-out onto land primarily for birthing, moulting, nursing, and resting, meanwhile using sea-ice haul-out sites for foraging and predator avoidance.[8][11] These physiological factors are correlated with both the duration and frequency of haul-outs among walruses.[8] Sea ice sites are more commonly used for shorter and more frequent haul-outs compared to terrestrial sites, which are commonly used to fulfill more time consuming requirements (ie. breeding and birthing).[8][11] Hauling-out is also used as a method of thermoregulation, therefore it is influence by various environmental factors such as wind speed, temperature, and even time of day.[8] Accounting for these environmental factors, walruses more frequently haul-out from late morning to early evening and avoid hauling-out during weather periods of intense cold or high winds.[8][11] Haul-out frequency is at a maximum for walruses during the summer using terrestrial haul-out sites as sea ice sites are then further from foraging grounds.[8][11] As female walruses haul-out for parturition, the males are territorial of the haul-out site surrounding the female herd.[11] In these instances, hauling-out provides an opportunity for more aggressive and territorial males to mate.[12]

Ringed seal

Pusa hispida hispida NOAA 1
Ringed seal on sea-ice haul-out.

Ringed seal hauling-out occurs throughout any point in the year, however it reaches a maximum during the spring.[9] In comparison to other pinniped species, ringed seals haul-out with a shorter duration year round.[9] Ringed seals have a diel haul-out pattern in which they spend more time hauled-out out during the night, an uncommon feature among pinnipeds.[9][13] Hauling-out spikes an increase in the herding behaviour of ringed seals, particularly in the Ladoga subspecies.[14] Subspecies of the ringed seal prefer different haul-out sites depending on their geographical location and environmental constraints.[15] For example, 5 subspecies of ringed seals prefer hauling-out onto land-fast ice, however Phoca hispida ochotensis prefers drifting pack ice, meanwhile Phoca hispida hispida occupies both land-fast ice and far offshore areas of relatively stable ice.[15] The majority of ringed seals however use terrestrial haul-out sites to create birth layers in the snow for newborn seal pups.[15]

Harbour seal

Harbour seals are the most abundant pinniped in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.[2] Much like other pinnipeds, harbour seals haul-out for reasons such as thermoregulation, breeding, mating, moulting, resting, and foraging.[16][2] They commonly haul-out onto intertidal ledges, mudflats, beaches, and ice floes year round.[16] Haul-out sites are often revisited on a regular basis by the same herd[2] and are heavily affected by tide height.[2][16] Harbour seals are likely to move haul-out sites in response to inclement weather conditions (ie. wind chill and wave size) to more favourable sites in rocky reefs, mudflats, and beaches that are exposed during lower tides.[2][16] Frequency and duration of the behaviour is at a maxima during early afternoon when lower tides and higher air temperatures are prevalent.[2][16] During parturition and weaning, females spend more time hauled-out ashore until their pups begin to swim, meanwhile males spend less time hauled-out and maintain aquatic territories instead.[2] Moulting and predation risk also increase the time spent hauled-out.[2] Despite the increased time ashore for females and decreased time ashore or males during birthing and weaning, biological constraints such as age and sex have not been shown to effect harbour seal haul-outs.[2] Both male and female harbour seals of all ages are consistent with time spent hauled-out.[2][16] Harbour seals commonly inhabit regions susceptible to human disturbances (ie. industries such as the fishery), a factor that has been studied and shown to alter haul-out patterns.[17] Human disturbances negatively influence the duration and frequency of harbour seal haul-outs, decreasing the occurrence of this behaviour as human interference increases.[17]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Hoelzel, A. Rus. (2002). Marine Mammal Biology: An Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-632-05232-5. p. 197.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o London, Josh M.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Jefferies, Steven J.; Lance, Monique M.; Boveng, Peter L. (June 18, 2012). "Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Hood Canal, Washington" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 7 (6): e38180. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038180. PMC 3377645. PMID 22723851. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b Kovacs, Kit M.; Jonas, Krista M.; Welke, Sylvia E. (1990). "Sex and age segregation by Phoca vitulina concolor at haul-out sites during the breeding season in the Passamaquoddy Bay region, New Brunswick". Marine Mammal Science. 6 (3): 204–214. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1990.tb00244.x.
  4. ^ a b c d e Gales, Nick; Gales, Nicholas; Hindell, Mark; & Kirkwood, Roger. (2003). Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 978-0-643-06953-4. p. 259.
  5. ^ a b c d Loughlin, Thomas R.; Rugh, David J.; Fiscus, Clifford H. (1984). "Northern Sea Lion Distribution and Abundance: 1956-80". The Journal of Wildlife Management. 48 (3): 729–740. doi:10.2307/3801420.
  6. ^ a b c d Thomas, Jeanette; DeMaster, Douglas (1983). "Diel haul-out patterns of Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli) females and their pups". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 61 (9): 2084–2086. doi:10.1139/z83-273.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Boeheme, Lars; Baker, Amy; Fedak, Mike; Ârthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin; Photopoulou, Theoni (2016). "Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea". PLoS ONE. 11 (5): e0155817. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155817. PMC 4873014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Udevitz, Mark; Chadwick, Jay; Fischbach, Anthony; Garlich-Miller, Joel (2009). "Modeling haul-out behavior of walruses in Bering Sea ice". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 87 (12): 1111–1128. doi:10.1139/Z09-098.
  9. ^ a b c d Born, E. W.; Teilmann, J.; Riget, F. (2002). "Haul-out activity of Ringed seals (Phoca hispida) determined form satellite telemetry". Marine Mammal Science. 18 (1): 167–181. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2002.tb01026.x.
  10. ^ a b c d Lake, S.E.; Burton, H.R.; Hindell, M.A. (1997). "Influence of time of day and month on Weddell seal haul-out patterns at the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica". Polar Biology. 18: 319–324. doi:10.1007/s003000050194.
  11. ^ a b c d e Hamilton, Charmain; Kovacs, Kit; Lydersen, Christian (2015). "Year-round haul-out behaviour of male walruses Odobenus rosmarus in the Northern Barents Sea". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 519: 251–263. doi:10.3354/meps11089.
  12. ^ Charrier, Isabelle; Burlet, Armandine; Aubin, Thierry (2011). "Social vocal communication in captive Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens". Mammalian Biology. 76: 622–627. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2010.10.006.
  13. ^ Smith, T. G. "Population dynamics of the ringed seal in the Canadian eastern Arctic". Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin. 181: 55.
  14. ^ Sipilä, Tero; Medvedev, Nikolai; Hyvärinen, Heikki (1996). "The Ladoga seal (Phoca hispida ladogensis Nordq.)". Hydrobiologia. 322: 193–198. doi:10.1007/bf00031827.
  15. ^ a b c Smith, Thomas; Stirling, Ian (1975). "The breeding habitat of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida). The birth lair and associated structures". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 53 (9): 1297–1305. doi:10.1139/z75-155.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Terhune, John (1987). "Meteorological influences on harbour seal haul-out". Aquatic Mammals. 13 (3): 114–118.
  17. ^ a b Härkönen, T. J. (1987). "Influence of feeding on haul-out patterns and sizes of sub-populations in harbour seals". Netherlands Journal of Sea Research. 21 (4): 331–339. doi:10.1016/0077-7579(87)90007-x.
Elephant seal

Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga. The two species, the northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris) and the southern elephant seal (M. leonina), were both hunted to the brink of extinction by the end of the 19th century, but the numbers have since recovered.

The northern elephant seal, somewhat smaller than its southern relative, ranges over the Pacific coast of the U.S., Canada and Mexico. The most northerly breeding location on the Pacific Coast is at Race Rocks, at the southern tip of Vancouver Island in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The southern elephant seal is found in the Southern Hemisphere on islands such as South Georgia and Macquarie Island, and on the coasts of New Zealand, South Africa, and Argentina in the Peninsula Valdés. In southern Chile, there is a small colony of 120 animals at Jackson Bay, Admiralty Sound (Seno Almirantazgo), Tierra del Fuego. The oldest known unambiguous elephant seal fossils are fragmentary fossils of an unnamed member of the tribe Miroungini described from the late Pliocene Petane Formation of New Zealand. Teeth originally identified as representing an unnamed species of Mirounga have been found in South Africa, and dated to the Miocene epoch; however Boessenecker & Churchill (2016) considered these teeth to be almost certainly misidentified odontocete teeth.Elephant seals breed annually and are seemingly faithful to colonies that have established breeding areas.

Five Islands Nature Reserve

The Five Islands Nature Reserve is a protected nature reserve located in the Tasman Sea, off the Illawarra east coast of the state of New South Wales, Australia. The 26-hectare (64-acre) reserve comprises five continental islands that are situated between 0.5 and 3.5 kilometres (0.31 and 2.17 mi) east of Port Kembla. The Five Islands are Flinders Islet (Toothbrush Island), Bass Islet, Martin Islet, Big Island (also called Rabbit or Perkins Island) and Rocky Islet.

Fowlsheugh

Fowlsheugh is a coastal nature reserve in Kincardineshire, northeast Scotland, known for its 70-metre-high (230 ft) cliff formations and habitat supporting prolific seabird nesting colonies. Designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) by Scottish Natural Heritage, the property is owned by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Fowlsheugh can be accessed by a public clifftop trail, or by boats which usually emanate from the nearby harbour at the town of Stonehaven. Tens of thousands of pelagic birds return to the site every spring to breed, after wintering at sea or in more southern climates, principal species being puffins, razorbills, kittiwakes, fulmars and guillemots.

Due to global warming, the planktonic species previously present that prefer cold water are not available in the quantity required to support the historically large sandeel population. Added to the problem has been overfishing of the Scottish sandeel, further reducing the numbers of this dietary staple for puffins and other local seabirds.

Fur seal

Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae. They are much more closely related to sea lions than true seals, and share with them external ears (pinnae), relatively long and muscular foreflippers, and the ability to walk on all fours. They are marked by their dense underfur, which made them a long-time object of commercial hunting. Eight species belong to the genus Arctocephalus and are found primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, while a ninth species also sometimes called fur seal, the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), belongs to a different genus and inhabits the North Pacific.

Goat Rock Beach

Goat Rock Beach is a sand beach in northwestern Sonoma County, California, United States.

This landform is a sub-unit of Sonoma Coast State Beach, owned and managed by the State of California. At the northern terminus of Goat Rock Beach is the mouth of the Russian River, and the southern end of this crescent shaped expanse is the massive Goat Rock, an iconic outcrop of the Sonoma Coast, which is barely attached to the mainland by a narrow isthmus.

Goat Rock Beach is frequented by beachcombing visitors but usually not in high numbers except in mid-summer; there is some wading and surfing activity, although these uses are moderated by the rip current generated by a steep gradient into the water that leads to an underwater trench parallel to the waterline. The beach is also a regular resting ground for seagulls, river otters, elephant seals, harbor seals, and sea lions, the latter three species often hauling out of the Pacific Ocean. The state of California recommends that a 50-yard (46 m) distance be preserved between human visitors and the seasonal marine mammals, especially in the pupping season.

Hard

Hard or hardness may refer to:

Hardness, resistance of physical materials to deformation or fracture

Hard (surname)

Hard (nautical), a beach or slope convenient for hauling out vessels

Hard (tennis), a type of court

Hard, Austria, a town

Hard (Zürich), a quarter of the city

Hayward Area Recreation and Park District

Consonants that are not palatalized, especially in certain Slavic languages

Haulage

Haulage is the business of transporting goods by road or rail. It includes the horizontal transport of ore, coal, supplies, and waste, also called cartage or drayage. The vertical transport of the same with cranes is called hoisting.

Hawaiian monk seal

The Hawaiian monk seal, Neomonachus schauinslandi (formerly Monachus schauinslandi), is an endangered species of earless seal in the family Phocidae that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.The Hawaiian monk seal is one of two remaining monk seal species; the other is the Mediterranean monk seal. A third species, the Caribbean monk seal, is extinct.The Hawaiian monk seal is the only seal native to Hawaii, and, along with the Hawaiian hoary bat, is one of only two mammals endemic to the islands.These monk seals are a conservation reliant endangered species. The small population of about 1,400 individuals is threatened by human encroachment, very low levels of genetic variation, entanglement in fishing nets, marine debris, disease, and past commercial hunting for skins. There are many methods of conservation biology when it comes to endangered species; translocation, captive care, habitat cleanup, and educating the public about the Hawaiian monk seal are some of the methods that can be employed.

Hippolyte Rocks

Hippolyte Rocks is a small granite island, with an area of 5.3 ha, in south-eastern Australia. It is part of the Tasman Island Group, lying close to the south-eastern coast of Tasmania around the Tasman Peninsula. It has a flat top and is surrounded by steep cliffs up to 65 m in height. It is part of the Tasman National Park.

Husky Pass

Husky Pass (71°40′S 163°34′E) is a pass between the Lanterman Range and Molar Massif in the Bowers Mountains of Victoria Land, Antarctica, located at the head of Sledgers Glacier and an unnamed tributary, leading to Leap Year Glacier. This mountain pass was so named by the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition, 1963–64, for the great efforts made here by dog teams in hauling out of the Rennick Glacier basin into that of Lillie Glacier. The pass lies situated on the Pennell Coast, a portion of Antarctica lying between Cape Williams and Cape Adare.

Kilauea Point National Wildlife Refuge

Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge on the northwest coast of the island of Kauaʻi in Hawaiʻi.

March Rapids, Wisconsin

March Rapids is an unincorporated community located in the town of Eau Pleine, Marathon County, Wisconsin, United States.

Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge

Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge is a 24-acre (9.7 ha) range and was established in 1973 for its "particular value in carrying out the national migratory bird management program." The refuge, which is cooperatively managed with The Trustees of Reservations, encompasses 24 acres (9.7 ha) at Great Point. Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge is an un-staffed unit of the Eastern Massachusetts National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge consists of the Northeast tip of Nantucket, known as Great Point. The Refuge has been managed informally by TTOR several decades. TTOR owns the land immediately adjacent to Great Point, known as the Coskata-Coatue Wildlife Refuge. Great Point is known as one of the best surfcasting locations in New England because of the rip tide which brings bluefish and striped bass to the point. The Refuge is also a destination for hundreds of visitors each year seeking to enjoy a Nantucket beach or a tour of the Great Point Lighthouse. More information about the adjacent TTOR property is available on their website.

The refuge is an important stopover site for migratory birds and protects habitat for the federally listed piping plover and roseate tern, as well as the State-listed common and least tern. Gray and harbor seals are also frequently seen hauling out on the refuge. A variety of gull species also inhabit the refuge which at times can be detrimental to the successful nesting of shorebirds

Palace of the Soviets

The Palace of the Soviets (Russian: Дворец Советов, Dvorets Sovetov) was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (present-day Russian Federation) near the Kremlin, on the site of the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The architectural contest for the Palace of the Soviets (1931–1933) was won by Boris Iofan's neoclassical concept, subsequently revised by Iofan, Vladimir Shchuko and Vladimir Gelfreikh into a skyscraper. If built, it would have become the world's tallest structure of its time. Construction started in 1937, and was terminated by the German invasion in 1941. In 1941–1942, its steel frame was disassembled for use in fortifications and bridges. Construction was never resumed. In 1958, the foundations of the Palace were converted into what would become the world's largest open-air swimming pool, the Moskva Pool. The Cathedral was rebuilt in 1995–2000.A nearby subway station, built in 1935 as Palace of the Soviets station, was renamed Kropotkinskaya in 1957.

Phillip Island Important Bird Area

The Phillip Island Important Bird Area comprises a 20 km2 strip of coastline along the south and west coasts of Phillip Island, Victoria, in south-eastern Australia.

Siren 17

The Siren 17 is a Canadian sailboat, that was designed by Hubert Vandestadt as trailer sailer and first built in 1974.

The Thumbs (Tasmania)

The Thumbs is a small and jagged island, with three prominent spires and an area of 4,500 square metres (1.1 acres), in south-eastern Australia. It is part of the Tasman Island Group, lying close to the south-eastern coast of Tasmania around the Tasman Peninsula, and is in the Tasman National Park.

USS Spuyten Duyvil

During the American Civil War, the Union Navy suffered heavy losses from the explosion of Confederate torpedoes. This experience prompted the Union Navy to design and build vessels capable of using this new weapon. One effort along this line resulted in a screw steam torpedo boat originally called Stromboli, but later called Spuyten Duyvil, after the Spuyten Duyvil area in New York City.

Worm shoe

A worm shoe is a strip of wood such as oak or pine which is fixed to the keel of a wooden boat to protect it from shipworms. The wood is sacrificed to the worms while the main structure is kept separate and safe using a layer of tar paper or creosoted felt, which the worms will not penetrate.

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