Hassum

Hassum (also given as Khashshum, Ḫaššum, Hassu, Hassuwa or Hazuwan) was a Hurrian city-state,[1] located in southern Turkey most probably on the Euphrates river north of Carchemish.[2]

History

The city was a vassal to Ebla, it was mentioned in the Tablets of Ebla as Hazuwan, and was governed by its own king.[3] it came under the influence of Mari for a short period of time in the 24th century BC,[4] before Irkab-Damu of Ebla regained influence over the area,[5] the city survived the Akkadians conquests in 2240 BC and flourished as a trade center in the first half of the 2nd millennia BC.[6]

In the beginning of 18th century BC, Hassum allied with Yamhad against Yahdun-Lim of Mari,[7] it later helped Yamhad against a kingdom in Zalmakum (a marshy region between the Euphrates and lower Balikh),[8] but then shifted alliance to Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria after he annexed Mari and sent him a 1000 troops to attack Sumu-Epuh of Yamhad.[9][10] later, Yarim-Lim I of Yamhad brought Hassum under his hegemony, the city remained subjugated to Yamhad until the Hittite conquest.[11]

Hittite Conquest

In the course of his war against Yamhad, Hattusili I of the Hittites, having destroyed Alalakh and Urshu, headed toward Hassum in his sixth year (around 1644 BC, middle chronology), Yarim-Lim III of Yamhad sent his army under the leadership of General Zukrassi the heavy-armed troops leader accompanied by General Zaludis the commander of the Manda troops, they united with the army of Hashshum,[12] then the battle of Atalur mountain ensued (Atalur is located north of Aleppo not very far from the Amanus, it can be identified with the Kurd-Dagh Mountains),[13][14] Hattusili destroyed his enemies and moved on to burn and loot Hassum. The citizens rallied their forces three times against the Hittites,[15] but Hattusili sacked the city and seized the statuses of the god Teshub, his wife Hebat and a pair of silver bulls that were the bulls of Teshub,[16] and carried them to Hattusa,[17] where they were kept in the temple of Arinna.[18]

The king of Hassum was captured and humiliated, he was harnessed to one of the wagons used to transport the loots of his city and taken to the Hittite capital.[19] a century later, Hittite king Telipinu (fl. c. 1500 BC) mentions Hassum as his chief enemy and his destruction of the city.[2][20][21]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Roland de Vaux. The early history of Israel, Volume 2. p. 65.
  2. ^ a b Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia. p. 295.
  3. ^ Pelio Fronzaroli. Lingua di Ebla e la linguistica semitica. p. 237.
  4. ^ Mario Liverani. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 202.
  5. ^ Horst Klengel. Syria, 3000 to 300 B.C.: a handbook of political history. p. 28.
  6. ^ E. J. Peltenburg. Euphrates River Valley Settlement: The Carchemish Sector in the Third Millennium Bc. p. 157.
  7. ^ Yuhong Wu. A Political History of Eshnunna, Mari and Assyria During the Early Old Babylonian Period: From the End of Ur III to the Death of Šamši-Adad. p. 131.
  8. ^ Sidney Smith. Anatolian Studies: Journal of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. Special number in honour and in memory of John Garstang, 5th May, 1876 - 12th September, 1956, Volume 6. p. 38.
  9. ^ J. R. Kupper. The Cambridge Ancient History Northern Mesopotamia and Syria. p. 19.
  10. ^ Jack M. Sasson. The Military Establishments at Mari. p. 44.
  11. ^ Gordon Douglas Young. Ugarit in Retrospect: Fifty Years of Ugarit and Ugaritic. p. 7.
  12. ^ Robert Drews. The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C. p. 106.
  13. ^ Shigeo Yamada. The Construction of the Assyrian Empire. p. 105.
  14. ^ Michael C. Astour. Hellenosemitica: an ethnic and cultural study in west Semitic impact on Mycenaean Greece. p. 388.
  15. ^ Trevor Bryce. Hittite Warrior. p. 43.
  16. ^ Roland de Vaux. The early history of Israel, Volume 2. p. 66.
  17. ^ J. R. Kupper. The Cambridge Ancient History Northern Mesopotamia and Syria. p. 38.
  18. ^ William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 287.
  19. ^ Trevor Bryce. The Kingdom of the Hittites. p. 83.
  20. ^ Harry A. Hoffner; Gary M. Beckman; Richard Henry Beal; John Gregory McMahon. Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner Jr. p. 10.
  21. ^ Albrecht Götze. Kizzuwatna and the problem of Hittite geography. p. 72.
1992 in Norway

Events in the year 1992 in Norway.

Alexander Groven

Alexander Groven (born 2 January 1992) (né Hassum) is a Norwegian football defender who currently plays for KA in Úrvalsdeild in Iceland.He started his career in Frigg Oslo FK. He later joined Lyn Oslo's junior team. He made his senior debut on 4 October 2009 against Lillestrøm, as a substitute in the 82nd minute.In July 2015 Groven sign a deal with Tippeligaen side Sarpsborg 08.

Até que a Sorte nos Separe

Até que a Sorte nos Separe (English: Till Luck Do Us Part) is a 2012 Brazilian comedy film directed by Roberto Santucci and starring Leandro Hassum and Danielle Winits. The film is inspired by the best selling book Casais Inteligentes Enriquecem Juntos by Gustavo Cerbasi. Its sequel, Até que a Sorte nos Separe 2, was released in Brazilian theaters on 27 December 2013. The film received generally negative reviews, with critics pointing out the acting, the lack of originality and forced humor.

Até que a Sorte nos Separe 2

Até que a Sorte nos Separe 2 (English: Till Luck Do Us Part 2) is a 2013 Brazilian comedy film directed by Roberto Santucci and written by Paulo Cursino and Chico Soares. It is a sequel of the 2012 film Até que a Sorte nos Separe. Leandro Hassum who had played the protagonist in the previous film, back to reprise his role, while Danielle Winits who had played Jane in the previous film, was replaced by Camila Morgado. The film features a special participation of American actor Jerry Lewis.

Dança dos Famosos (season 6)

Dança dos Famosos 6, also taglined as Dança dos Famosos 2009 is the sixth season of the Brazilian reality television show Dança dos Famosos which premiered April 19, 2009, with and the competitive live shows beginning on the following week on April 26, 2009 on the Rede Globo television network.

Ten celebrities were paired with ten professional ballroom dancers. The celebrities did not know their professional partners until they were introduced to each other at the launch show. Fausto Silva and Adriana Colin were the hosts for this season. This was Adriana Colin's last season as co-hostess.Actress Paolla Oliveira won the competition over Zorra Total comedian Leandro Hassum and Malhação cast member Jonatas Faro.

Domingão do Faustão

Domingão do Faustão (literally Big Fausto's Big Sunday) is a Brazilian TV show aired every Sunday since 1989. Produced by Rede Globo and hosted by Fausto Silva (also known as Faustão), it features live music performances (usually by the most popular artists in Brazil at the time) as well as special segments, such as the Dança dos Famosos (Brazilian version of Dancing with the Stars) and the more recent Dança no Gelo (Dancing on Ice). It is one of the oldest and most famous of Globo's television shows since its first broadcast in 1989.

Eu Não Faço a Menor Ideia do que eu Tô Fazendo Com a Minha Vida

Eu Não Faço a Menor Ideia do que eu Tô Fazendo Com a Minha Vida is a 2012 Brazilian comedy-drama film directed by Matheus Souza. The film opened the competitive exhibition at the 40th Gramado Film Festival.

Hamid Raja Shalah

Hamid Raja Shalah (Arabic: حامد رجا شلاح‎), also known as Hamid Raja-Shalah Hassan al-Tikriti or Hamid Raja-Shalah Hassum al-Tikriti (born 1950 in Baiji, Salah al-Din Governorate, Iraq) was a commander of the Iraqi Air Force under Saddam Hussein.

During Shalah's air force career, he served as a pilot. In the 1980s, during the Iran–Iraq War, Shalah commanded several air bases, including the Kirkuk air base. He rose to three-star rank and was appointed commander-in-chief of the Iraqi Air Force in the mid-1990s.He was reported by the United States Central Command to be in coalition custody on June 14, 2003. Prior to his capture, Shalah was number 17 (ten of spades) on the Most-wanted Iraqi playing cards.. He was held as a prisoner of war until his release in 2007.

Ibal-pi-el II

Ibal pi’el II was a king of the city kingdom of Eshnunna in ancient Sumer. He reigned c. 1779–1765 BC).He was the son of Dadusha and nephew of Naram-Suen of Eshnunna.

He conquered the cities of Diniktum and Rapiqum. With Ḫammu-rāpi of Babylon, and the Amorite king Shamshi-Adad I he besieged the kingdom of Malgium until its ruler bought them off with 15 talents of silver.

He was a contemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari, and formed powerful alliances with Yarim-Lim I Amud-pi-el of Qatanum, Rim-Sin I of Larsa and most importantly Hammurabi of Babylon, to appose the rise of Shamshi-Adad I in Assyria (on his northern border) who himself had alliances with Charchemish, Hassum and Urshu and Qatna.

Some scholars have suggested the biblical king Amraphel may have been Ibal Pi-El II of Esnunna. While others consider Ameraphel to be Hammurabi.

He was killed by Siwe-palar-huppak of Elam, who captured Eshnunna, and he was succeeded by Silli-Sin.

Leandro Hassum

Leandro Hassum Moreira (born September 26, 1973), better known as Leandro Hassum, is a Brazilian actor, comedian, writer, producer, comedian and voice actor.

He is well known for having played the fun and unlucky fat Jorginho in the TV Show humorous Zorra Total and Os Caras de Pau.

In 2012 he starred in the franchise Até que a Sorte nos Separe us that reached 320,000 box office in its first weekend of exhibition and became the best opening of a national film of that year gaining two more sequels.

List of Brazilian films of 2014

This is a list of Brazilian films scheduled for theater release in 2014.

Marcius Melhem

Marcius Melhem (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈmaʁ.sius 'mɛ.ʎẽ]; born February 8, 1972), is a Brazilian actor and comedian. He also works as a writer of television programs and author of plays.

Degree in journalism from Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. He is director of journalism at Agência Leia de Notícias that produces content in real time to the domestic financial market.

In 2012, while he was recording for the new TV show of Fátima Bernardes, one of her guests died after a football match.

Melhores do Ano

Melhores do Ano Troféu Domingão, or just Melhores do Ano (Best of the Year), is an annual awards ceremony hosted on the Brazilian television program Domingão do Faustão, on Rede Globo. Viewers vote on three artists who have been brilliant and successful during the year on the network, in music and in sports. Nominees are previously chosen by the network's executives and the top three go to the public vote. The prize is equivalent to a Golden Globe Award in Brazil.

Os Caras de Pau

Os Caras de Pau (in English, The Barefaceds) is a Brazilian comedy program aired by Rede Globo on Sunday. Created by Chico Soares and directed by Márcio Trigo and starring Leandro Hassum, Marcius Melhem.

Se Puder... Dirija!

Se Puder... Dirija! is a 2013 Brazilian comedy film directed by Paulo Fontenelle and starring Luís Fernando Guimarães. It's the first Brazilian live action 3D format movie.

Xuxa Abracadabra

Xuxa Abracadabra is a 2003 Brazilian fantasy adventure children's filmis, written by Flávio de Souza, directed by Moacyr Góes, produced by Diler Trindade and distributed by Warner Bros. and Globo Filmes. Starring the Xuxa Meneghel with the participation of Márcio Garcia, Cláudia Raia, Brunno Abrahão, Maria Mariana Azevedo, Heloísa Périssé, Leandro Hassum, Lúcio Mauro Filho, Sérgio Mamberti. The film follows Sofia is a librarian who works only with children's books. About to go out with her best friend, she receives a request from Matheus to take care of her children, Lucas and Julia. Sofia attends to the request, because besides being very fond of the children she has a secret passion for Matheus, who has been a widower for three years. She then departs to the home of the children's great-uncle, who is a sorcerer astronomer and possesses a magical book that takes people to the land of fairy tales.

Abracadabra was developed based on an old desire of Xuxa to produce a film with children's language. Abracadabra, is a fantasy for children. Xuxa always wanted to make a movie that combined fairy tale and folklore in a fun way. The idea was to put together, in a single script, several characters of children's stories.

The film premiered on December 18, 2003, grossing 11 million reais, he performed well at the box office, 2 million box offices. Abracadabra received negative reviews from critics, but was considered an improvement in quality compared to previous ones.

Xuxa só para Baixinhos Vol. 11 - Sustentabilidade

Xuxa só para Baixinhos 11 or Sustentabilidade (also known as XSPB 11) (transl. Only For Children Eleven - Sustainability) is the thirty-fourth studio album and the twenty-seventh Portuguese album of Brazilian singer and TV host Xuxa Meneghel. It was released by Sony Music on September 18, 2011. The album is the eleventh in the collection Só Para Baixinhos.

Yamhad

Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria. The kingdom emerged at the end of the 19th century BC, and was ruled by the Yamhadite dynasty kings, who counted on both military and diplomacy to expand their realm. From the beginning of its establishment, the kingdom withstood the aggressions of its neighbors Mari, Qatna and Assyria, and was turned into the most powerful Syrian kingdom of its era through the actions of its king Yarim-Lim I. By the middle of the 18th century BC, most of Syria minus the south came under the authority of Yamhad, either as a direct possession or through vassalage, and for nearly a century and a half, Yamhad dominated northern, northwestern and eastern Syria, and had influence over small kingdoms in Mesopotamia at the borders of Elam. The kingdom was eventually destroyed by the Hittites, then annexed by Mitanni in the 16th century BC.

Yamhad's population was predominately Amorite, and had a typical Bronze Age Syrian culture. Yamhad was also inhabited by a substantial Hurrian population that settled in the kingdom, adding the influence of their culture. Yamhad controlled a wide trading network, being a gateway between the eastern Iranian plateau and the Aegean region in the west. Yamhad worshiped the traditional Northwest Semitic deities, and the capital Halab was considered a holy city among the other Syrian cities as a center of worship for Hadad, who was regarded as the main deity of northern Syria.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.