Hashtag

A hashtag is a type of metadata tag used on social networks such as Twitter and other microblogging services, allowing users to apply dynamic, user-generated tagging which makes it possible for others to easily find messages with a specific theme or content. Users create and use hashtags by placing the number sign or pound sign # usually in front of a word or unspaced phrase in a message. The hashtag may contain letters, digits, and underscores.[1] Searching for that hashtag will yield each message that has been tagged with it. A hashtag archive is consequently collected into a single stream under the same hashtag.[2] For example, on the photo-sharing service Instagram, the hashtag #bluesky allows users to find all the posts that have been tagged using that hashtag.

The use of hashtags was first proposed by Chris Messina in a 2007 tweet[3] that, although initially decried by Twitter as a "thing for nerds"[4], eventually led to their use rapidly becoming widespread throughout the platform. Messina, who made no attempt to copyright the use because he felt "they were born of the internet, and owned by no one"[5], has subsequently been credited as the godfather of the hashtag.[6][7][8] By the end of the decade hashtags could be seen in most emerging as well as established social media platforms including Instagram, Facebook, Reddit, and YouTube — so much so that Instagram had to officially place a "30 hashtags" limit on its posts to prevent people from abusing their use,[9] a limit which Instagrammers eventually circumvented by posting hashtags in the comments section of their posts.[10] As of 2018 more than 85% of the top 50 websites by traffic on the Internet use hashtags[11] and their use is common by millennials, Gen Z, politicians, influencers, and celebrities worldwide. Because of its widespread use, hashtag was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014.[12][13] The term hashtag is sometimes erroneously used to refer to the hash symbol itself when used in the context of a hashtag.[14] Formal taxonomies can be developed from the folk taxonomy rendered machine-readable by the markup that hashtags provide. This process is called folksonomy.

Chris Messina - South by Southwest 2010 (1)
Chris Messina, the inventor of the hashtag.

Origin and use

The US pound sign, number sign or hash symbol "#" is often used in information technology to highlight a special meaning. ("Pound sign" in the UK means "£"; "#" is called hash, gate, and occasionally octothorpe.) In 1970, for example, the number sign was used to denote immediate address mode in the assembly language of the PDP-11[15] when placed next to a symbol or a number. In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie used # in the C programming language for special keywords that had to be processed first by the C preprocessor.[16] In the 1986 SGML standard, ISO 8879:1986 (q.v.), # is a reserved name indicator (rni) which precedes keyword syntactic literals, --e.g., the primitive content token #PCDATA, used for parsed character data.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) approved in November 1988 recommendation E.161 that put the pound sign on the right side of the 0 in the 4 x 3 button arrangement for push buttons on telephones. This same arrangement is still used today in most software phones (see Android dialer for example). The ITU recommendation had 2 design options for the pound sign: a European version where the hash sign was built with a 90-degree angle and a North-American version with an 80-degree angle. The North-American version seems to have prevailed as most pound signs in Europe now follow the 80-degree inclination.[17]

The pound sign was adopted for use within internet relay chat (IRC) networks circa 1988 to label groups and topics.[18] Channels or topics that are available across an entire IRC network are prefixed with a hash symbol # (as opposed to those local to a server, which use an ampersand '&').[19]

The use of the pound sign in IRC inspired[20] Chris Messina to propose a similar system to be used on Twitter to tag topics of interest on the microblogging network.[21] He posted the first hashtag on Twitter:

How do you feel about using # (pound) for groups. As in #barcamp [msg]?

— Chris Messina, ("factoryjoe"), August 23, 2007[22]
Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict (14203190979)
A sign suggesting the use of a #TimeToAct hashtag at a 2014 conference

Messina’s suggestion to use the hashtag was not adopted by Twitter, but the practice took off after hashtags were widely used in tweets relating to the 2007 San Diego forest fires in Southern California.[23][24]

According to Messina, he suggested use of the hashtag to make it easy for "lay" users to search for content and find specific relevant updates; they were for people who do not have the technological knowledge to navigate the site. Therefore, the hashtag "was created organically by Twitter users as a way to categorize messages." [25] Today they are for anyone, either with or without technical knowledge, to easily impose enough annotation to be useful without needing a more formal system or adhering to many technical details.

Internationally, the hashtag became a practice of writing style for Twitter posts during the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests; Twitter users inside and outside Iran used both English- and Persian-language hashtags in communications during the events.[26]

The first published use of the term "hash tag" was in a blog post by Stowe Boyd, "Hash Tags = Twitter Groupings,"[27] on August 26, 2007, according to lexicographer Ben Zimmer, chair of the American Dialect Society's New Words Committee.

Beginning July 2, 2009,[28] Twitter began to hyperlink all hashtags in tweets to Twitter search results for the hashtagged word (and for the standard spelling of commonly misspelled words). In 2010, Twitter introduced "Trending Topics" on the Twitter front page, displaying hashtags that are rapidly becoming popular. Twitter has an algorithm to tackle attempts to spam the trending list and ensure that hashtags trend naturally.[29]

Although the hashtag started out most popularly on Twitter as the main social media platform for this use, the use has extended to other social media sites including Instagram, Facebook, Flickr, Tumblr, and Google+.[30]

Style

A hashtag must begin with a hash character followed by other characters, and is terminated by a space or end of message. It is always safe to precede the “#” with a space, and to include letters without diacritics, digits, and underscores.[1] In many cases, other characters are also allowed, in particular, accented characters used in many languages, but handling may vary from one client to another and from time to time as standards evolve. A discussion of hashtag standards suggests that if #Romeo&Juliet is used, different Twitter clients might link to #Romeo, #Romeo&, or #Romeo&Juliet.[31] Hashtags are not case sensitive; a search for “#hashtag” will find “#HashTag”. The use of embedded capitals (CamelCase) increases legibility and avoids confusion; a (real) pen shop would be advised to use #PenIsland rather than all lower-case.[32] On microblogging and social networking sites hashtags can be inserted anywhere within a text, often at the beginning or the end, but also within the text, usually as a word (e.g. “It is #sunny today”).

Languages which do not use letters are handled slightly differently. In China, microblogs Sina Weibo and Tencent Weibo use a double-hashtag-delimited #HashName# format, since the lack of spacing between Chinese characters necessitates a closing tag. Twitter uses a different syntax for Chinese characters and orthographies with similar spacing conventions: the hashtag contains unspaced characters, separated from preceding and following text by spaces (e.g. '我 #爱 你' instead of '我#爱你')[33] or by zero-width non-joiner characters before and after the hashtagged element, to retain a linguistically natural appearance (displaying as unspaced '我‌#爱‌你', but with invisible non-joiners delimiting the hashtag).[34]

It is considered acceptable to tag a post once when contributing to a specific conversation. Two hashtags are considered acceptable when adding a location to the conversation. Three hashtags are seen by some as the "absolute maximum", and any contribution exceeding this risks "raising the ire of the community."[35]

As well as frustrating other users, the misuse of hashtags can lead to account suspensions. Twitter warns that adding hashtags to unrelated tweets, or repeated use of the same hashtag without adding to a conversation, could cause an account to be filtered from search, or suspended.[36]

Jimmy Fallon and Justin Timberlake performed a sketch parodying the often incorrect and misunderstood use of hashtags on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon in September 2013.[37]

Function

Seguir hashtags
Search bar in the header of a social networking site, searching for most recent posts containing the hashtag #science

Hashtags are mostly used in unmoderated, ad hoc discussion forums; any combination of characters led by a hash symbol is a hashtag, and any hashtag, if promoted by enough individuals, can "trend" and attract more individual users to discussion. On Twitter, when a hashtag becomes extremely popular, it will appear in the "Trending Topics" area of a user's homepage. The trending topics can be organized by geographic area or by all of Twitter. Hashtags are neither registered nor controlled by any one user or group of users. They cannot be "retired" from public usage, meaning that any given hashtag can theoretically be used in perpetuity. They do not contain any set definitions, meaning that a single hashtag can be used for any number of purposes, as chosen by the creators of them.

Hashtags intended for discussion of a particular event tend to use an obscure wording to avoid being caught up with generic conversations on similar subjects, such as a cake festival using #cakefestival rather than simply #cake. However, this can also make it difficult for topics to become "trending topics" because people often use different spelling or words to refer to the same topic. For topics to trend, there has to be a consensus, whether silent or stated, that the hashtag refers to that specific topic.

Hashtags also function as beacons in order for users to find and "follow" (subscribe) or "list" (organize into public contact lists) other users of similar interest.

Television broadcasters such as Channel 4 have employed the hashtag during the transmission of programmes such as First Dates and The Undateables. Research has shown that audience numbers go up when individuals can be interactive by tweeting while viewing a programme.

Hashtags can be used on the social network Instagram, by posting a picture and hashtagging it with its subject. As an example, a photo of oneself and a friend posted to the social network can be hashtagged #bffl or #friends. Instagram has banned certain hashtags, some because they are too generic, such as #photography #iPhone #iphoneography, and therefore do not fulfill a purpose. They have also blocked hashtags that can be linked to illegal activities, such as drug use.[38] The ban against certain hashtags has a consequential role in the way that particular subaltern communities are built and maintained on Instagram. Despite Instagram's content policies, users are finding creative ways of maintaining their practices and ultimately circumventing censorship.[39]

Famous Youtube bloggers often use hashtags to promote their videos to a wide audience. Thus, by leaving various hashtags under the video, they are trying to increase their views and gain as many likes as possible. Usually, hashtags are left under the video itself in a special line. By clicking on the hashtag you go directly to the link to the video, which are similar in topic.

Hashtags are also used informally to express context around a given message, with no intent to categorize the message for later searching, sharing, or other reasons. One of the functions of the hashtag is to serve as a reflexive meta-commentary, which contributes to the idea of how written communication in new media can be paralleled to how pragmatic methodology is applied to speech.[40]

This can help express contextual cues or offer more depth to the information or message that appears with the hashtag. "My arms are getting darker by the minute. #toomuchfaketan". Another function of the hashtag can be used to express personal feelings and emotions. For example, with "It's Monday!! #excited #sarcasm" in which the adjectives are directly indicating the emotions of the speaker. It can also be used as a disclaimer of the information that the hashtag accompanies, as in, "BREAKING NEWS: US GDP growth is back! #kidding". In this case, the hashtag provides an essential piece of information in which the meaning of the utterance is changed entirely by the disclaimer hashtag. This may also be conveyed with #sarcasm, as in the previous example. Self-mockery is another informal function of the hashtag used by writers, as in this tweet: "Feeling great about myself till I met an old friend who now races at the Master's level. Yup, there's today's #lessoninhumility," where the informality of the hashtag provides commentary on the tweet itself.[41]

Other uses

The feature has been added to other, non-short-message-oriented services, such as the user comment systems on YouTube and Gawker Media. In the case of the latter, hashtags for blog comments and directly submitted comments were used to maintain a more constant rate of user activity even when paid employees were not logged into the website.[42][43] Real-time search aggregators such as the former Google Real-Time Search also support hashtags in syndicated posts, meaning that hashtags inserted into Twitter posts can be hyperlinked to incoming posts falling under that same hashtag; this has further enabled a view of the "river" of Twitter posts that can result from search terms or hashtags.

Uses

Broadcast media

The use of hashtags has extended to television‍—‌a concept that began rising in prominence in the early 2010s. Broadcasters may display a hashtag as an on-screen bug, encouraging viewers to participate in a backchannel of discussion via social media prior to, during, or after the program. Television commercials have sometimes contained hashtags for similar purposes.[44] Hashtag bugs appear on either corner of the screen, or they may appear at the end of an advertisement.[45]

While personalities associated with broadcasts, such as hosts and correspondents, also promote their corporate or personal Twitter usernames to receive mentions and replies to posts, usage of related or "branded" hashtags alongside Twitter usernames (e.g., #edshow as well as @edshow) is increasingly encouraged as a microblogging style to "trend" the hashtag (and, hence, the discussion topic) in Twitter and other search engines. Broadcasters also make use of such a style to index select posts for live broadcast. Chloe Sladden, Twitter's director of media partnerships, identified two types of television-formatted usage of hashtags: hashtags which identify a series being broadcast (i.e. #SunnyFX) and instantaneous, "temporary" hashtags issued by television personalities to gauge topical responses from viewers during broadcasts.[46] Some have speculated that hashtags might take the place of (or co-exist with) the Nielsen television ratings system.[47]

An example of trending "temporary" hashtags garnering viewers during broadcasts is observed on The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon, a variety talk show on NBC. Every Wednesday, Fallon hosts a segment on his show called "Tonight Show Hashtags," which engages viewers by inviting them via Twitter to post humorous stories based on a specific hashtag topic, such as #WhydidIsaythat, #Worstfirstdate, to #Onetimeinclass, reflecting on funny experiences in daily life. By using hashtags, Fallon creates a sense of community and solidarity among his viewers and draws a wider range of viewers through an online platform while they watch a classic, non-interactive television program. Because of its popularity, the "Tonight Show Hashtags" are usually the 'most tweeted hashtag' on Twitter, which promotes the show. By engaging viewers with a lighthearted subject and simple hashtags, Fallon can gauge topical responses from viewers during broadcasts and also use the hashtags to brand his show.

The increased usage of hashtags as brand promotion devices has been compared to the promotion of branded "keywords" by AOL in the late 1990s and early 2000s, as such keywords were also promoted at the end of television commercials and series episodes.[48]

The late-night television comedy game show @midnight with Chris Hardwick on Comedy Central features a daily game entitled "Hashtag Wars," in which three comedians compete against one another to come up with phrases based on a given hashtag theme.

Some hashtags have become famous worldwide. For instance the slogan "Je suis Charlie," which was first used on Twitter as the hashtag #jesuischarlie and #iamcharlie to indicate solidarity with Charlie Hebdo offices attacked in Paris, spread to the internet at large.

Purchasing

Since February 2013 Twitter and American Express have collaborated to enable users to pay for discounted goods online by tweeting a special hashtag.[49] American Express members can sync their card with Twitter and pay for offers by tweeting; American Express tweets a response to the member that confirms the purchase.[50]

Event promotion

Occupy for Rights
Stencil graffiti promoting the hashtag #OccupyForRights

Organized real-world events have used hashtags and ad hoc lists for discussion and promotion among participants. Hashtags are used as beacons by event participants to find each other, both on Twitter and, in many cases, during actual physical events.

Companies and advocacy organizations have taken advantage of hashtag-based discussions for promotion of their products, services or campaigns.

Political protests and campaigns in the early 2010s, such as #OccupyWallStreet and #LibyaFeb17, have been organized around hashtags or have made extensive usage of hashtags for the promotion of discussion. Hashtags have also been used to promote official events; the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially titled the 2018 Russia–United States summit as the "#HELSINKI2018 Meeting".[51]

Consumer complaints

Hashtags are often used by consumers on social media platforms to complain about the customer service experience with large companies. The term "bashtag" has been created to describe situations in which a user refers to a corporate social media hashtag to criticise the company or to tell others about poor customer service. For example, in January 2012, McDonald's created the #McDStories hashtag so that customers could share positive experiences about the restaurant chain. But, the marketing effort was cancelled after two hours when McDonald's received numerous complaint tweets rather than the positive stories they were anticipating.[52]

Sentiment analysis

The use of hashtags also reveals what feelings or sentiment an author attaches to a statement. This can range from the obvious, where a hashtag directly describes the state of mind, to the less obvious. For example, words in hashtags are the strongest predictor of whether or not a statement is sarcastic[53]—a difficult AI problem.[54]

Sports

The YouTuber Spencer FC used the hashtag for the name and crest of his YouTube-based association football team, Hashtag United F.C..

The hashtag is also used in reference to the name of performance action-sports brand, Hashtag Board Co.[55]

Since the 2012–13 season, the National Basketball Association (NBA) has allowed fans to vote players in as All-Star Game starters on Twitter and Facebook using #NBAVOTE. The tweets and Facebook posts must include #NBAVOTE along with the player's first and last name or Twitter handle.[56]

In popular culture

Armandas
Two young men displaying the hashtag hand gesture.

During the April 2011 Canadian party leader debate, Jack Layton, then-leader of the New Democratic Party, referred to Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper's crime policies as "a hashtag fail" (presumably #fail).[57][58]

The term "hashtag rap", coined by Kanye West,[59] was developed in the 2010s to describe a style of rapping which, according to Rizoh of the Houston Press, uses "three main ingredients: a metaphor, a pause, and a one-word punch line, often placed at the end of a rhyme".[60] Rappers Nicki Minaj, Big Sean, Drake, and Lil Wayne are credited with the popularization of hashtag rap, while the style has been criticized by Ludacris, The Lonely Island,[61] and various music writers.[62]

On September 13, 2013, a hashtag, #TwitterIPO, appeared in the headline of a New York Times front-page article regarding Twitter's initial public offering.[63][64]

Bird's Eye foods released in 2014 a shaped mashed potato food that included forms of @-symbols and hashtags, called "Mashtags".[65]

Hashtags have been used verbally to make a humorous point in informal conversations,[66] such as "I’m hashtag confused!"[41] In August 2012, British journalist Tom Meltzer wrote in The Guardian that a new hand gesture mimicked the hashtag, sometimes called the "finger hashtag", in which both hands form a peace sign, and then the fingers are crossed to form the symbol of a hashtag.[67] The emerging gesture was reported in Wired by Nimrod Kamer,[68] and during 2013, it was seen on TV as used by Jimmy Fallon, and on The Colbert Report, among other programs.[69] Writing in 2015, Paola Maria Caleff considered this usage a fad, but noted that people talking the way that they write was a consequence of computer-mediated communication.[41]

Adaptations

  • Hashflags: In 2010, Twitter introduced "hashflags" during the 2010 World Cup in South Africa.[70] They reintroduced the feature on June 10, 2014, in time for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil,[71][72] and then again on April 10, 2015, with UK political party logos for the 2015 UK General Election.[73] When a user tweets a hashtag consisting of the three letter country code of any of the 32 countries represented in the tournament, Twitter automatically embeds a flag emoticon for that country. A similar system was implemented for the 2015 Eurovision Song Contest in Vienna, Austria.[74]
  • Cashtags: In 2009, StockTwits used ticker symbols preceded by the dollar sign to create "cashtags".[75][76] In July 2012, Twitter adapted the hashtag style to make company ticker symbols preceded by the dollar sign clickable (as in $AAPL), a method that Twitter dubbed the "cashtag".[77][78] This is intended to allow users to search posts discussing companies and their stocks. This is also used for discussion of currency pairings on Twitter[79], e.g. using #USDGBP or $USDGBP, when mentioning the US Dollar's level expressed in Pounds Sterling.

See also

References

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External links

1Lib1Ref

#1Lib1Ref is a Wikipedia campaign inviting every librarian on Earth to participate in the online encyclopedia project, specifically improving articles by adding citations.

The first #1Lib1Ref campaign coincided with the 15th anniversary of the founding of Wikipedia in January 2016. Based on the premise of One Librarian, One Reference, organizers estimated that if each librarian on the planet spent 15 minutes adding a citation, the combined effort would eliminate English Wikipedia's backlog of 350,000 [citation needed] notices. The inaugural, weeklong event ran from 15-23 January 2016, and employed the hashtag #1lib1ref on various social media platforms.

@midnight

@midnight with Chris Hardwick (shortened to and formerly exclusively titled @midnight) is an American late night Internet-themed panel game show hosted by Chris Hardwick, that aired Monday through Thursday nights between October 21, 2013 and August 4, 2017 on Comedy Central. @midnight with Chris Hardwick premiered on October 21, 2013. It was syndicated internationally in Australia on SBS2 and The Comedy Channel, in the United Kingdom on Comedy Central Extra, and in Canada formerly on MuchMusic and later on The Comedy Network.

@midnight received a nomination for Outstanding Interactive Program at the 66th Primetime Emmy Awards. It received a nomination and win for Outstanding Social TV Experience at the 67th Primetime Emmy Awards.On July 18, 2017, Comedy Central, Chris Hardwick, and Funny or Die mutually agreed to end @midnight with Chris Hardwick. The final episode, the 600th, aired on August 4, 2017.

Bebo

Bebo was a social networking website launched in 2005, that now describes itself as "a company that dreams up ideas for fun social apps". Grant Denholm, the man behind the Bebo relaunch, has confirmed that the site will not be returning as a social network but as a company that makes social apps. The company launched the app Blab in early 2014, which closed in 2016. In December 2014 a new version of Bebo launched as an avatar hashtag messaging app.As of July 2013, it is owned and operated by its founders Michael Birch and Xochi Birch, who took over from Criterion Capital Partners after the company declared bankruptcy. As of 2019, Bebo is currently pivoting to be a High School e-sports company, and is currently hosting a High School Fortnite league.

Black Twitter

Black Twitter is a cultural identity consisting of "Black" Twitter users from around the world on the Twitter social network focused on issues of interest to the black community, particularly in the United States. Feminista Jones described it in Salon as "a collective of active, primarily African-American Twitter users who have created a virtual community ... [and are] proving adept at bringing about a wide range of sociopolitical changes." A similar Black Twitter community grew in South Africa in the early 2010s. Although Black Twitter has a strong Black American user base, other people and groups are able to be a part of this social media circle through commonalities in shared experiences and reactions to such online.

C Sharp (programming language)

C# (pronounced C sharp) is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed around 2000 by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2018). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.

C# was designed by Anders Hejlsberg, and its development team is currently led by Mads Torgersen. The most recent version is C# 7.3, which was released in 2018 alongside Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7.2.

Chris Messina (open-source advocate)

Christopher Reaves Messina (born January 7, 1981) is the inventor of the hashtag as it is currently used on social media platforms. In a 2007 tweet Messina proposed vertical/associational grouping of messages, trends, and events on Twitter by the means of hashtags. Simply put the hashtag was to be a type of metadata tag that allowed users to apply dynamic, user-generated tagging which made it possible for others to easily find messages with a specific theme or content; it allowed easy, informal markup of folk taxonomy without need of any formal taxonomy or markup language. Hashtags have since been referred to as the "eavesdroppers", "wormholes", "time-machines", and "veins" of the internet. How do you feel about using # (pound) for groups. As in #barcamp [msg]?

Although Twitter's initial response to Messina's proposed use of hashtags was negative "these things are for nerds" a series of events, including the devastating fire in San Diego County later that year, saw the first widespread use of #sandiegofire to allow users to easily track updates about the fire. The use of hashtags itself then eventually spread like wild-fire on Twitter, and by the end of the decade could be seen in most emerging as well as established social media platforms including Instagram, Facebook, Reddit, and YouTube. So much so that Instagram had to officially place a "30 hashtags" limit on its posts to prevent people from abusing the use of hashtags. A limit which Instagrammers eventually circumvented by posting hashtags in the comments section of their posts. As of 2018 more than 85% of the top 50 websites by traffic on the Internet use hashtags and their use is highly common with millennials, Gen Z, politicians, influencers, and celebrities worldwide.

Messina subsequently went on to become the Developer Experience Lead at Uber from 2016 to 2017. And as of 2018 ranks as the No. 1 hunter on ProductHunt.com. He is a technology evangelist who is an advocate for open source, open standards, microformats, and OAuth. Messina is also known for his involvement in helping to create the BarCamp, Spread Firefox, and coworking movements.

Gamergate controversy

The Gamergate controversy stemmed from a harassment campaign conducted primarily through the use of the hashtag #GamerGate. The controversy centered on issues of sexism and progressivism in video game culture. Gamergate is used as a blanket term for the controversy as well as for the harassment campaign and actions of those participating in it.

Beginning in August 2014, a harassment campaign targeted several women in the video game industry; notably game developers Zoë Quinn and Brianna Wu, as well as feminist media critic Anita Sarkeesian. After Eron Gjoni, Quinn's former boyfriend, wrote a disparaging blog post about her, #gamergate hashtag users falsely accused Quinn of an unethical relationship with journalist Nathan Grayson. Harassment campaigns against Quinn and others included doxing, threats of rape, and death threats.

Gamergate proponents ("Gamergaters") have stated that they were a movement, but had no official leaders or manifesto. Gamergate supporters organized anonymously or pseudonymously on online platforms such as 4chan, Internet Relay Chat, Twitter, and Reddit. Statements claiming to represent Gamergate have been inconsistent, making it difficult for commentators to identify goals and motives. Gamergate supporters said there was unethical collusion between the press and feminists, progressives, and social critics. These concerns have been dismissed by commentators as trivial, conspiracy theories, groundless, or unrelated to actual issues of ethics. As a result, Gamergate has often been defined by the harassment its supporters engaged in. Gamergate supporters have frequently responded to this by denying that the harassment took place or by falsely claiming that it was manufactured by the victims.

The controversy has been described as a manifestation of a culture war over cultural diversification, artistic recognition, and social criticism in video games, and over the social identity of gamers. Many supporters of Gamergate oppose what they view as the increasing influence of feminism on video game culture; as a result, Gamergate is often viewed as a right-wing backlash against progressivism. Industry responses to the harassment campaign have focused on ways to minimise harm and prevent similar events. Gamergate has led figures both inside and outside the industry to focus on methods of addressing online harassment.

Gorham's Cave

Gorham's Cave is often mistaken for a natural sea cave, but is in fact a sea level cave, in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is considered to be one of the last known habitations of the Neanderthals in Europe. It gives its name to the Gorham's Cave complex, which is a combination of four distinct caves of such importance that they are combined into a UNESCO World Heritage site, the only one in Gibraltar. The three other caves are Vanguard Cave, Hyaena Cave, and Bennett's Cave.It is located at Governor's Beach on the southeastern face of the Rock of Gibraltar. When first inhabited some 55,000 years ago, it would have been approximately 5 kilometres from the shore, but, due to changes in sea level, it is now only a few metres from the Mediterranean Sea.

Hashtag United F.C.

Hashtag United Football Club is a semi-professional football club based in Tottenham, London, England, that competes in the Eastern Counties League Division One South. The club play their home matches at Coles Park Stadium.

Founded in 2016 by Youtube personality Spencer Owen, the club originally played exhibition matches against professional football clubs' staff teams, Sunday league teams and non-league teams. The games were filmed and highlights were uploaded to their Youtube channel, where they quickly gained a significant online following. In 2017 Owen began talks with the FA over the possibility of Hashtag joining the non-league pyramid. The club subsequently entered the league system at the beginning of the 2018–19 season, joining the Eastern Counties League.

Hashtag activism

Hashtag activism is a term coined by media outlets which refers to the use of Twitter's hashtags for Internet activism. The term can also be used to refer to the act of showing support for a cause through a like, share, etc. on any social media platform, such as Facebook or Twitter. The point of hashtag activism is arguably to share certain issues with one's friends and followers in the hopes that they will also share the same information. This leads to a widespread discussion and allows for change to occur. However, hashtags have also been used to debate and make people aware of social and political issues. They can be seen as a way to help or start a revolution by increasing the number of supporters from across the world who have not been in contact with the issue. It allows people to discuss and comment around one hashtag. Hashtag activism is a way to expand the usage of communication and make it democratic in a way that everyone has a way to express their opinions.The concept of hashtag activism has received critique from both critics and supporters. Some supporters argue that using social media for activism is a good idea because it allows one to connect with people from all over the world in a short amount of time. Critics, on the other hand, question whether hashtag activism leads to real change as users are simply indicating that they care, rather than taking specific action to make a difference.

Me Too movement

The Me Too movement (or #MeToo movement), with a large variety of local and international alternative names, is a movement against sexual harassment and sexual assault. The movement began to spread virally in October 2017 as a hashtag on social media in an attempt to demonstrate the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment, especially in the workplace. It followed sexual-abuse allegations against Harvey Weinstein. Tarana Burke, an American social activist and community organizer, began using the phrase "Me Too" as early as 2006, and the phrase was later popularized by American actress Alyssa Milano, on Twitter in 2017. Milano encouraged victims of sexual harassment to tweet about it and "give people a sense of the magnitude of the problem". A number of high-profile posts and responses from American celebrities Gwyneth Paltrow, Ashley Judd, Jennifer Lawrence, and Uma Thurman, among others, soon followed.

Number sign

The symbol # is most commonly known as the number sign, hash, or pound sign. The symbol has historically been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois (having been derived from the now-rare ℔).Since 2007, widespread usage of the symbol to introduce metadata tags on social media platforms has led to such tags being known as "hashtags" and from that, the symbol itself is sometimes called a "hashtag".The symbol is defined in Unicode and ASCII as U+0023 # NUMBER SIGN (HTML #) and # in HTML5. It is graphically similar to several other symbols, including the sharp (♯) from musical notation and the equal-and-parallel symbol (⋕) from mathematics, but is distinguished by its combination of level horizontal strokes and right-tilting vertical strokes.

Small Business Saturday

Small Business Saturday is an American shopping holiday held during the Saturday after US Thanksgiving during one of the busiest shopping periods of the year. This Saturday is always the last one in November, so falls between November 24 and November 30.

Throwback Thursday

Throwback Thursday is a popular internet trend used among social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. Users will often post nostalgic pictures of their past accompanied by the hashtag #TBT or ThrowbackThursday. It is used by people all over the world to share and relive their past experiences with anyone they want. While a majority of posts reflect positive moments in someone's past, the term throwback can be attributed to anything in the past.

Tom Williams (footballer)

Thomas Andrew Williams (born 8 July 1980) is a professional footballer who plays for Hashtag United of the Eastern Counties League Division One South. A defender or midfielder, he made nearly 300 appearances in the Football League playing for numerous different clubs.

Born in England, he represented Cyprus at international level.

Twitter

Twitter () is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled to 280 for all languages except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software ("app"). Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams and launched in July of that year. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet". As of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users. Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) that day.

White Hart Lane Community Sports Centre

White Hart Lane Community Sports Centre, also known as the New River Stadium is a rugby league and athletics stadium in Wood Green, Haringey, north London, England that is home to London Skolars rugby league club, Enfield and Haringey Athletic Club, Wood Green Weightlifting Club, Haringey Rhinos rugby union club, Haringey Cycling Club, and the Next Level Football League.

The New River Stadium also hosts the Middlesex 9s rugby league nines tournament. The stadium is within walking distance of White Hart Lane football stadium. The grandstand at the ground holds approximately 1,000 people, while the ground itself has a capacity of 5,000.

YOLO (aphorism)

YOLO is the acronym of "you only live once". Along the same lines as the Latin "carpe diem" ("seize the day"), it is a call to live life to its fullest extent, even embracing behavior which carries inherent risk.

YesAllWomen

#YesAllWomen is a Twitter hashtag and social media campaign in which users share examples or stories of misogyny and violence against women. First used in online conversations about misogyny following the 2014 Isla Vista killings, the hashtag was popular in May 2014, and was created partly in response to the Twitter hashtag #NotAllMen. #YesAllWomen reflected a grassroots campaign in which women shared their personal stories about harassment and discrimination. The campaign attempted to raise awareness of sexism that women experience, often from people they know.

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