Harry Warner

Harry Morris Warner (born Hirsz Mojżesz Wonsal;[1] December 12, 1881 – July 25, 1958) was an American studio executive, one of the founders of Warner Bros., and a major contributor to the development of the film industry. Along with his three younger brothers (Albert, Sam and Jack) Warner played a crucial role in the film business and played a key role in establishing Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc, serving as the company president until 1956.[2]

Harry Warner
Harry Warner - Feb 1919 MPW
February 1919 photograph
Born
Hirsz Mojżesz Wonsal

December 12, 1881
DiedJuly 25, 1958 (aged 76)
Resting placeHome of Peace Cemetery, East Los Angeles
OccupationFilm executive
Co-founder of Warner Brothers
Years active1903–1958
Spouse(s)Rea Levinson
Children3

Early life

Warner was born Hirsz Mojżesz "Wonsal"[3] or "Wonskolaser"[4] to a family of Polish Jews from the village of Krasnosielc. The village was a short distance from Warsaw in the part of Poland that had been subjugated to the Russian Empire following the 18th-century partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[3][5][6] He was the son of Benjamin Wonsal, a shoemaker born in Krasnosielc, and Pearl Leah Eichelbaum. His given name was Mojżesz (Moses), however, he was called Hirsz (Anglicized to Hirsch) in the United States. In October 1889, he came to Baltimore, Maryland with his mother and siblings on the steamship Hermann from Bremen, Germany. Their father had preceded them, immigrating to Baltimore in 1888 in order to pursue his trade in shoes and shoe repair. It was at that time that he changed the family name to Warner which was used thereafter. As in many Jewish immigrant families, some of the children gradually acquired anglicized versions of their Yiddish-sounding names. Hirsz became Harry,[1] and his middle name Morris was likely a version of Mojżesz.

In Baltimore, the money Benjamin Warner earned in the shoe repair business was not enough to provide for his growing household.[7] He and Pearl had another daughter, Fannie, not long after they arrived. Benjamin moved the family to Canada, inspired by a friend's advice that he could make an excellent living bartering tin wares with trappers in exchange for furs.[7] Sons Jacob and David Warner were born in London, Ontario.[7][8] After two arduous years in Canada, the Warners returned to Baltimore.[9] Two more children, Sadie and Milton, were added to the household there.[10] In 1896, the family relocated to Youngstown, Ohio, following the lead of Harry, who had established a shoe repair shop in the heart of the emerging industrial town.[11] Benjamin worked with Harry in the shoe repair shop until he secured a loan to open a meat counter and grocery store in the city's downtown area.[12][13]

In 1899, Harry[14] opened a bicycle shop in Youngstown, Ohio with his brother, Abraham.[15]

Eventually, Harry and Abe also opened a bowling alley together.[14] The bowling alley failed and closed shortly after it opened.[14] Harry eventually accepted an offer to become a salesman for a local meat franchise,[14] and sold meat in the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania.[14] However, by his nineteenth birthday, Harry was reduced to living in his parents crowded household.[16]

Business career in films

In 1903, Harry's brothers, Abe and Sam, began to exhibit The Great Train Robbery at carnivals across Ohio and Pennsylvania. In 1905, Harry sold his bicycle shop and joined his brothers in their fledgling film business.[17] With the money Harry made from selling the bicycle shop, the three brothers were able to purchase a building in New Castle, Pennsylvania. They would use this building to establish their first theater, the Cascade.[18] The Cascade was so successful that the brothers were able to purchase a second theater in New Castle.[19] This makeshift theatre, called the Bijou, was furnished with chairs borrowed from a local undertaker.[20]

In 1907, the Warners expanded the business further and purchased fifteen theaters in Pennsylvania. Harry, Sam, and Albert then formed a new film exchange company, The Duquesne Amusement Supply Company,[19] and rented an office in the Bakewell building in downtown Pittsburgh.[19] Harry sent Sam to New York to purchase, and ship, films for their Pittsburgh exchange company,[19] while he and Albert remained in Pittsburgh to run the business.[19] In 1909, the brothers sold the Cascade Theater and established a second film exchange company in Norfolk, Virginia. Harry agreed to let younger brother Jack be a part of the company, sending him to Norfolk to serve as Sam's assistant.[21] A serious problem threatened the Warners' film company with the advent of Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), which charged distributors exorbitant fees.[22] In 1910, the Warners sold the family business to the General Film Company for "$10,000 in cash, $12,000 in preferred stock, and payments over a four-year period for a total of $52,000".[23]

After they sold their business, Harry and his three brothers joined forces with independent filmmaker Carl Laemmle's Independent Motion Picture Company, and began distributing films from his Pittsburgh film exchange division. In 1912, the brothers earned a $1,500 profit with the film Dante's Inferno. In the wake of this success, Harry and the brothers broke with Laemmle and established their own film production company.[24] They named their new company Warner Features.[25] Once Warner Features was established, Harry acquired an office in New York with his brother Albert, sending Sam and Jack to run the new corporation's film exchange divisions in San Francisco and Los Angeles.[26] In 1917, Harry won more capital for the studio when he was able to negotiate a deal with Ambassador James W. Gerard to make Gerard's book My Four Years In Germany into a film.[27]

In 1918, after the success of My Four Years In Germany, the brothers were able to establish a studio near Hollywood, California.[22] In the new Hollywood studio, Sam became co-head of production along with his younger brother, Jack.[28] They were convinced that they would have to make movies themselves if they were to ever generate a profit. Between the years 1919 and 1920, the studio did not turn a profit.[29] During this time, banker Motley Flint, who was, unlike most bankers at the time, not anti-semitic, helped the brothers pay off their debts.[29] The four brothers then decided to relocate their studio from Culver City, California to the Sunset Boulevard section of Hollywood.[30]

During this time, Warner decided to focus on making only dramas for the studio.[29] The studio rebounded in 1921 with the success of the studio's film Why Girls Leave Home;[29] The film's director, Harry Rapf, became the studio's new head producer.[30] On April 4, 1923, following the success of the studio's film The Gold Diggers, Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc. was officially established, with help from a loan given to Harry by Montly Flint. Harry became company president, with Albert as treasurer and Jack and Sam as co-heads of production.[31] Harry and his family moved to Hollywood.[32]

Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.

The studio discovered a trained German Shepherd named Rin Tin Tin in 1923. The canine made his starring debut in Where the North Begins, a film about an abandoned pup who is raised by wolves and befriends a fur trapper. According to one biographer, Jack Warner's initial doubts about the pro

Godfather of Talkies

The success of Warner Bros.' early talkie films (The Jazz Singer, The Lights of New York, The Singing Fool and The Terror) catapulted the studio into the ranks of the major studios. Flush with cash, the Warners abandoned their old location in the Poverty Row section of Hollywood and acquired a big studio in Burbank, California.[33] As a result of this success, Warner was able to acquire the Stanley Corporation, which controlled most of the first-run theaters on the East Coast.[34] This purchase gave them a share in rival First National Pictures, of which Stanley owned one-third.[35] After this purchase, Warner was soon able to acquire William Fox's one third remaining share in First National and was now officially the majority stockholder of the company.[35] After success of the studio's 1929 First National film Noah's Ark,[36] Harry Warner also agreed to make Michael Curtiz a major director at the Burbank studio as well.[37]

Warner, after purchasing a string of music publishers,[38] was even able to establish a music subsidiary-Warner Bros. Music- and buy out additional radio companies, foreign sound patents, and a lithograph company as well;[39] he even was able to produce a Broadway musical Fifty Million Frenchmen.[40] By the time the 1st Academy Awards took place, Warner was recognized as the second most powerful figure in the movie industry, just behind MGM head Nicholas Schenck.[41] In the wake of the success of Gold Diggers of Broadway, journalists had dubbed Warner "the godfather of the talking screen."[36] The studio's net profit was now over $14,000,000.00.[36] During this time, Warner soon also grew tired of the Hollywood atmosphere and acquired a twenty-two acre ranch in Mount Vernon, New York.[32] Once Warner returned to New York, he and Albert found work together once again.[42]

The Great Depression Following Albert's advice, Jack and Harry Warner acquired three Paramount stars (William Powell, Kay Francis and Ruth Chatterton) for salaries doubled from their previous ones. This move proved to be a success, and stockholders maintained confidence in the Warners.[43] The first year of the Great Depression, 1930, did not damage the studio badly,[44] and Warner was even able to acquire more theaters for the studio in Atlantic City.[45] During this time, Warner was also engaged in a lawsuit with a Boston stockholder who accused him of trying use money from the studio's profitable businesses to try to purchase his vast 300 shares of stock about declare monopoly.[46] The company would, however, suffer a minor financial blow during the year after Motley Flint, the longtime banker for the studio, and by now also a close friend of the Warners, was murdered by an angry investor.[47]

In the latter part of 1929, much to Harry's dismay, younger brother Jack would hire sixty-one-year-old actor George Arliss to star in the studio's film Disraeli.[48] To Warner's surprise,[48] the film Disraeli would go to be a success at the box office,[48] and Warner was convinced to make Arliss a top star for the studio as well.[48] During the Depression era, the studio also produced a series of gangster films; Warner Bros. soon became known as "gangster studio."[49] The studio's first gangster film Little Caesar was a great success at the box office.[50] Following Little Caesar, the studio agreed to cast Edward Robinson in a wave of gangster pictures.[51] The studio's second gangster film, The Public Enemy,[52] would also make James Cagney arguably the studio's new top star,[53] and the Warners were now further convinced to make more gangster films as well.[52] Another gangster film the studio released during the Depression era was the critically acclaimed I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang.[54] The film made Paul Muni a top studio star,[54] and also got audiences in the United States to question the legal system as well.[55]

However, they would begin to feel the effects of the Depression in 1931.[44] As ticket prices became unaffordable, the studio would lose money. By the end of 1931, the studio suffered a net loss of reportedly $8,000,000.00,[44] During this time, Warner rented the Teddington Studio in London, England.[56] To help fight off the financial problems the Depression gave the studio, Warner Bros was now focused on making films for the London market[56] and Irving Asher was appointed as the Teddington Studio's head producer.[56] Unfortunately, the Teddington studio could not bring in additional profit to the Warners, and the Burbank studio would lose an additional $14,000,000 in 1932 as well.[44] In 1934, Warner officially bought out the struggling Teddington Studio.[56]

However, relief would also come for the studio after Franklin Roosevelt became US President in 1933 and the New Deal revived the US Economy. Movie tickets became affordable once again.[57] During the year, the studio was able to make a very profitable musical, 42nd Street. which revived the studio's musical films.[58] However, in 1933, a blow would also occur as the studio's longtime head producer Darryl F. Zanuck would quit, because: (1) Harry was strongly against allowing his film Baby Face to step outside the Hays Code boundaries;[59] and 2) the studio reduced his salary as a result of the financial woes the studio temporarily faced from President Roosevelt's bank holiday,[60] and Harry still refused to raise his salary in the wake of the New Deal's economic rebound.[61] Following Zanuck's resignation, studio director Hal B. Wallis took his place as the studio's executive producer,[62] and Harry—who, along with his brother Jack, was a notable "penny-pincher"—[63] finally agreed to bring salaries back up to government expectations once again.[61]

In 1933, the studio was also able to bring newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst's Cosmopolitan films into the Warner Bros. fold.[64] Hearst had previously been signed with MGM,[65] but he ended his ties with the company after a dispute with the company's head producer Irving Thalberg over the treatment of Marion Davies;[66] Davies was a longtime mistress of Hearst,[66] and was now struggling to draw box office success.[66] Through the studio's partnership with Hearst, Harry's younger brother Jack was also able to sign Davies to a studio contract as well.[64] However, Hearst's company and Davies' films could not increase the studio's net profits.[65]

In 1934, the studio had a net loss of over $2,500,000. $500,000 of this loss was the result of physical damage to the Warner Bros. Burbank studio that occurred after a massive fire that broke out in the studio around the end of 1934, and destroyed twenty years' worth of early Warner Bros. films.[67] The following year, Hearst's film adaption of William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream would fail at the box office and the studio's net loss increased.[68] During this time, Warner was also indicted, along with six other Hollywood studio figures who owned movie theaters, of conspiracy to violate the Sherman Antitrust Act,[67] through an attempt to gain a monopoly over theaters in the St. Louis area.[69] In 1935, Warner, along with executives at RKO and Paramount,[70] were put on trial for this charge.[67] After a mistrial occurred, Warner sold the company's movie theaters, at least for a short time, and the case was never reopened. One problem that remained for Warner, however, was the studio's projectionist labor union, which was now controlled by the Mafia.[71]

In 1935, the studio's revived musicals would also suffer a major blow after director Busby Berkeley was arrested after killing three people while driving drunk one night.[72] During the studio's union crisis, Warner received a threatening phone call from a union member, stating that he would seize Warner's daughter Betty and adopted daughter Lita within a forty-eight-hour period. Warner then agreed to accept the union's demands, and the kidnapping threat ended. However, 1935 also saw some relief for Harry as the studio rebounded with a year-end net profit of $674,158.00. Around this time, a depressed Warner—seeing that the newly rebounded Warner studio no longer needed loans to pay off debts—decided to move to California, and acquired 3,000 acres (12 km2) of ranch land just northwest of Hollywood in Calabasas, California. He later moved into a 1,100-acre ranch in the San Fernando Valley.[71][73]

During 1936, the studio's film The Story of Louis Pasteur was a success at the box office.[74] In addition to the film's box office success, Paul Muni won the Oscar for Best Actor in March 1937 for his performance as the title role.[74] The studio's film The Life of Emile Zola (1937) gave the studio its first Oscar for Best Picture.[74]

World War II

Warner occupied a central place in the Hollywood-Washington wartime propaganda effort during the Second World War, and by the end of 1942, served as a frequent, anti-Axis spokesman for the movie industry.[75] Despite his conservative viewpoint[76] and longtime affiliation with the Republican Party,[65] Warner was also a close friend of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and supported him during the early 1930s.[57] During Roosevelt's fight for the Democratic nomination in early 1932, the Warners made an effort to make his name known throughout the state of California.[77] After Roosevelt was nominated, the three brothers asked their friends to contribute to his campaign.[77] Jack Warner even staged a "Motion Picture and Electrical Parade Sports Pageant" at L.A. Stadium Franklin Roosevelt's honor in 1932.[77] During Roosevelt's 1932 campaign, Warner and the studio also contributed $10,000.00 to the Democratic National Committee.[78] In the wake of Nazi Germany's rise to power, Warner became a key proponent of US intervention in Europe.[79]

Prior to the beginning of the war in Europe, Warner had produced a series of film shorts which glorified America's fight against Germany during World War I; Warner later received an honorary award for producing these shorts.[80] By the fall of 1938, Warner had gradually helped block the distribution of Warner Bros. films in Nazi Germany and its ally Italy.[81] Prior to the war's beginning in Europe, Warner supervised the production of two anti-German feature films, The Life of Emile Zola (1937)[82] and Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1939).[83] He spent large sums of money to get many of his relatives and employees out of Germany when the war officially began in the latter part of 1939.[84] Before the U.S. officially entered World War II, Warner supervised the production of three more anti-German films: The Sea Hawk (1940), which mirrored Spain's King Phillip II as an equivalent to Adolf Hitler, Sergeant York (1941) and You're in the Army Now (1941). After America's entry into the war, Warner decided to focus on making just war films.[85]

Among the war films Warner made during the duration of the war were Casablanca, Yankee Doodle Dandy, This Is the Army and the controversial film Mission to Moscow.[86] At the premieres of Yankee Doodle Dandy (in Los Angeles, New York and London), audiences for the film would purchase an altogether total of $15,600,000.00 in war bonds for the governments of England and the United States.[86] By the middle of 1943, however, it became clear that audiences were tired of war films.[86] Despite the growing pressure to abandon production of war films, Warner continued to produce them, losing money in the process.[86] Eventually, in honor of studio contributions to the war cause, the United States Government would name a Liberty Ship after the brothers' father, Benjamin Warner, and Warner would be the one who was given the honor to christen the ship during its first voyage.[86] By the time the war ended, $20,000,000.00 worth of war bonds would be purchased through the studio,[86] the Red Cross collected 5,200 pints of plasma from studio employees,[86] with 763 of the studio's employees, as well as Warner's son-in-law Milton Sperling and nephew Jack Warner Jr., would be recognized with having the honor of having served as in the armed forces.[86]

Following a dispute over ownership of Casablanca's Oscar for Best Picture, head producer Hal B. Wallis broke with Warner and resigned from the studio.[87] Following Casablanca, Humphrey Bogart became arguably the studio's top star[88] In 1943, Olivia de Havilland (whom Warner was now loaning to different companies) sued Jack Warner for breach of contract.[89] de Havilland cited that the government laws only required employee contracts to reach a maximum of seven years;[89] de Havilland had been employed under her studio contract since won her case, and many of the studio's longtime actors were now free of their contracts. To help keep these actors at the studio, Harry now decided to give up the studio's suspension policy.[90]

Postwar era

In 1947, Warner, who was by now exhausted from all his years of arguing with his brother Jack, decided to spend more time at his San Fernando Valley ranch and to expand his interest in horse racing.[91] Along with brother Jack, in 1938, Harry Warner became one of the founders of Hollywood Park Racetrack. In partnership with Mervyn Le Roy, he created the W-L Ranch Co. Thoroughbred racing stable. In 1947, the Warner-LeRoy stable was able to acquire a valuable racehorse named "Stepfather."[92] Warner had a bitter rivalry with his brother Jack over the years, particularly due to Jack's longtime infidelities[93][94] (as Jack had been engaged in affairs with a wide range of various women since Warner Bros. Inc. was established in 1923)[95] and waste of the Burbank studio's money.[96] In the 1930s Harry, like most of his relatives, also refused to accept Jack's second wife, actress Ann Paige - with whom Jack had an affair while still married to his first wife Irma Solomon - as a member of the Warner clan.[97] When Jack and Ann officially got married in January 1936, Harry and the rest of the Warner family refused to attend the ceremony.[98] In a letter Harry sent to Jack on his wedding day to Ann, Harry stated "the only thing that could come from this day was that our parents didn't live to see this."[98]

Throughout the early years of the studio's existence, various people, including Warner's younger brother Sam, had served as buffers between Harry and Jack.[99] The last person to serve as a buffer between the two, father Benjamin Warner, died on November 5, 1935.[100] Following Benjamin's death, Jack and Harry were now barely on speaking terms, and were merely just business partners to one another.[101] Jack's marriage to Ann was also arguably a huge turning point in the two brothers' fragile relationship as well;[102] Harry's arguments with Jack were now practically on a daily basis.[102]

By the early 1950s, the brothers' long-simmering feud had risen to new heights, as Jack began spending a lot of his time in France, occasionally ignored managing the studio in favor of vacationing, gambling, and socializing with royalty,[96] and spent studio money lavishly on 3-D films.[96] On one occasion during this period, studio employees claimed they saw Warner chase Jack through the studio with a lead pipe, shouting "I'll get you for this, you son of a bitch".[103]

The studio prospered post-war time, and by 1946, company payroll had reached $600,000 a week for studio employees,[104] and the studio's net profit would reach $19,424,650.00 by the end of the year as well.[105] During this time, Warner hired his son-in-law, Milton Sperling, to head an independent film production company for the studio.[104] In 1947, Harry also tried to move Warner Bros. headquarters from the longtime New York building to the Burbank area, but was unsuccessful.[106] By the end of 1947, the studio had a record net profit of $22,000,000.00,[107] although the following year, the studio profits would decrease by 50%.[107]

During this time, the studio was a party to the United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. anti-trust case. This action, brought by the Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission, claimed that the five integrated studio-theater chain combinations restrained competition. The Supreme Court heard the case in 1948, and ruled for the government. As a result, Warner and four other major studios were forced to separate production from exhibition. In early 1953, the brothers finally fulfilled their end of the bargain and sold their theater chain to Fabian Enterprises.[108] In 1948, Bette Davis, now fed up with Jack Warner, would serve as a big problem for Harry after she, and a number of her colleagues, departed from the studio after completing the film Beyond the Forest.[109] By 1949, the studio's net profit had fallen to $10,000,000.00, and the studio would soon suffer more losses with the rise of television.[107]

In 1949, Warner, seeing the threat of television grow, decided to shift his focus towards television production. However, the Federal Communications Commission would not allow Warner to do so. After an unsuccessful attempt to convince other movie studio bosses to switch their focus to television, he abandoned his television efforts. As the threat of television grew in the early 1950s, Warner's younger brother, Jack, decided to try a new approach to help regain profits for the studio.[110]

In the wake of United Artist's successful 3-D film Bwana Devil, Jack decided to expand into 3-D films with the studio's film House of Wax (1953). While the film proved successful for the studio, 3-D films soon lost their appeal among moviegoers.[111] After the downfall of 3-D films, Warner decided to use CinemaScope in future Warner Bros. films. One of the studio's first CinemaScope films, The High and Mighty, brought the studio some profit.[112]

In 1954, Warner and his brother Jack were finally able engage in the new television medium, providing ABC with a weekly show, Warner Bros. Presents.[113] Warner Bros. Presents was not a success. In 1955, the studio was able debut a very successful western television drama, Cheyenne[114] The studio then followed up with a series of Western dramas such as Maverick, Bronco and Colt .45.[114] The studio's television westerns would, indeed, help accumulate for the net losses that the studio was now given at the box office[114] Within a few years, Warner, who was accustomed to dealing with actors in a high-handed manner, provoked hostility among emerging television stars like James Garner, who filed a lawsuit against Warner Bros. over a contract dispute. Jack Warner was angered by the perceived ingratitude of television actors who seemed to show more independence than film actors, and this deepened his contempt for the new medium.[115] Through this success, Warner began to be known as the "Strategic Generalissimo" by his employees.[116]

By 1956, the studio's profits had dropped to new lows.[112] Warner and Jack's tumultuous relationship worsened when Warner learned of Jack's decision to sell the Warner Bros.' pre-1949 films to United Artists Television for the modest sum of $21 million. "This is our heritage, what we worked all our lives to create, and now it is gone," Warner exclaimed, upon hearing of the deal.[117] Shortly after doing this, Jack took a long vacation in southern France. The brothers' fragile relationship was now worsening even more.[118]

Retirement

In May 1956, the brothers announced they were putting Warner Bros. on the market.[119] Jack, however, had secretly organized a syndicate, headed by Boston banker Serge Semenenko, which purchased 90% (800,000 shares) of the company's stock;[120] Harry had at first rejected Semenenko's earlier offer to purchase his stock in February 1956,[119] but later accepted the offer after Semenenko increased his bid and agreed to make Simon Fabian-the head of Fabian Enterprises who had also become a friend of the Warners- the new Warner Bros. President.[119] After the three brothers sold their stock, Jack (through his under-the-table deal with Sememenko) joined Semenenko's syndicate and bought back all his stock, which consisted of 200,000 shares.[121] The deal was completed in July 1956[2] After which, Jack, who was now the company's largest stockholder, officially appointed himself as the new company President.[122]

Warner found out about Jack's dealing while reading an article in Variety magazine on May 31, 1956[122] and collapsed after reading the news.[123] The next day, he checked into Cedars of Lebanon Hospital and doctors told him he had a suffered a minor heart attack the previous day. While at the hospital, Warner also suffered a stroke that impaired his walking ability and forced him to use a cane for the rest of his life.[123] Six days after his stroke, he left the hospital and decided to sell forty-two of his thoroughbred racehorses.[121] This subterfuge proved too much for Warner and he and his family never spoke to Jack again;[2] when Jack made a surprise appearance at Harry's San Fernadino ranch, to attend Harry's 1957 wedding anniversary to Rea Levinson, nobody in the Warner family attending the event spoke to Jack.[124] All Warner was now dedicated to doing was raising horses.[125]

Shortly after this, when Jack was away one day, Warner made one last visit to the studio to take $6,000,000.00 out of his old studio account. He gave $3,000,000.00 to his wife Rea, and $1,500,000.00 each to his two daughters Doris and Betty. In the meantime, he sold a large portion of the remaining studio stock he had to Semenenko and made sure he would never come near the Burbank studio ever again.[126]

Personal life

On August 23, 1907, Warner married his girlfriend, Rea Levinson.[127] It has been reported by family members that Harry dedicated a huge chunk of his life to make Rea happy.[128] Together, the couple also had three children: Lewis Ethan (b. October 10, 1908),[129] Doris (b. September 13, 1913),[26] and Betty Leah (b. May 4, 1920).[47] Harry and his family were also very faithful to Jewish customs and traditions.[130]

On April 5, 1931, Warner's son Lewis, whom he appointed as head of Warner Bros. Music, died following the extraction of an infected, impacted wisdom tooth, which led to sepsis and then double pneumonia.[131] Following Lewis' death, Warner, who was now left without a recognized heir to his empire,[132] landed into an extreme state of depression.[132] The following year, the Warners donated a theater in Lewis' honor to Worcester Academy, Lewis' alma mater.[133]

Warner also felt his brother Sam's widow, actress Lina Basquette, was a tramp and not worthy of raising a child with the last name Warner.[57] While Jack didn't mind that Lina was Catholic, Harry and the rest of the Warner family did.[134] They refused to have any part in Lina's life,[134] and did not acknowledge her as a member of the Warner clan.[134]

In 1930, Basquette went broke and Warner decided to file for guardianship over Sam and Lina's daughter, Lita.[57] On March 19, 1930, Warner and his wife Rea became the legal guardians of Lita through a 300,000 settlement in Lita's trust fund. Basquette was never financially able to take care of or regain custody of Lita and in 1931, she tried to commit suicide by poison. Following her suicide attempt, Basquette would only see her daughter on two occasions in the next twenty years.[135] In 1947, Basquette filed for a large share of Sam's estate, which was by now worth $15,000,000 in stocks alone. Basquette claimed that the Warner brothers reorganized Sam's will under New York statutes, while Sam died while living in the state of California, where, at the time of Sam's death in 1927, laws gave widows a larger share in their husband's wills. The lawsuit eventually ended when Basquette settled for a $100,000 trust fund from Harry's fortune.[136]

Warner's daughter, Doris, was married to director Mervyn LeRoy on January 3, 1934. Because of their wedding, Warner, with no male heir to his studio after Lewis died, made LeRoy his new heir to the Warner Bros. studio. Together, the couple gave Harry two grandchildren, Warner Lewis LeRoy (b. 1935) and Linda LeRoy (b. 1939).[79] On one occasion, in the late 1930s, Doris read a copy of Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind and became interested making a film adaption of the book for the studio as well;[79] Doris then offered Mitchell $50,000 for the book's screen rights.[79] However, Uncle Jack refused to allow the deal to take place, after seeing how expensive the film's budget would have been for the studio.[79][137] The couple would later divorce on August 12, 1945, and Warner was left without an heir again. Two months after her divorce from LeRoy, Doris would marry director Charles Vidor.[138] Together the couple had three sons, Michael, Brian and Quentin.[139] The two remained married until Vidor's death in 1959.[138]

In 1936, Betty Warner began an affair with one of Darryl F. Zanuck's assistants Milton Sperling. The two would marry on July 13, 1939. Through this marriage, the couple would also give Warner four more grandchildren, Susan (b. December 4, 1941),[85] Karen (b. April 8, 1945), and Cass (b. March 8, 1948),[107] and Matthew.[140] The two remained married for twenty-four years.[139] His great-grandson, through Betty, is actor Cole Hauser.

Death

Warner died on July 27, 1958 from a cerebral occlusion. Some people close to Harry, however, believed he died of a broken heart; Harry's wife Rea even stated, after Harry's funeral took place, that "he didn't die, Jack killed him."[141] He was entombed at Home of Peace Cemetery in East Los Angeles, California.[142] He left an estate valued at $6,000,000 with 50% bequeathed to his wife and 25% to each of his daughters, Doris and Betty.[143] For his contributions to the motion picture industry, Harry Warner has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6441 Hollywood Boulevard.

Legacy

In 2004, Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania dedicated a film institute to him.[144] The university also hosts an annual Harry Warner film festival.[145]

In popular culture

  • In an episode of Millionaire Hot Seat in Australia, contestant Barry Soraghan had a question for $1 million, which was about the Warner Brothers and which one of them had died on the eve of "The Jazz Singer". Harry Warner was incorrectly identified as the Warner brother who died on the eve of "The Jazz Singer" (Sam was the correct answer).

References

  1. ^ a b "Wielcy Polacy - Warner Bros czyli bracia Warner: Aaron (Albert), Szmul (Sam) i Hirsz (Harry) Wonsal oraz Jack (Itzhak) Wonsal - Białczyński". 22 April 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 226. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  3. ^ a b Doug Sinclair, "The Family of Benjamin and Pearl Leah (Eichelbaum) Warner: Early Primary Records," (2008), published at Doug Sinclair's Archives <http://dougsinclairsarchives.com/benjaminwarnerfamily.htm>
  4. ^ According to Bette-Ann Warner, a second cousin to the Warner brothers, in The Brothers Warner, 2008 documentary written and directed by Cass Warner, viewed on Turner Classic Movies March 8, 2010. Bette-Anne Warner's grandfather was a brother of the Warner brothers' father.
  5. ^ Walter L. Hixson, The American Experience in World War II. Quote: "Harry and Jack Warner were the sons of Polish Jews who had earlier fled their homeland to escape persecution"
  6. ^ Michael E. Birdwell, in Celluloid Soldiers, speaks of his background: "Harry was a Polish-Jewish immigrant" in America (page 59, last paragraph).
  7. ^ a b c Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 11. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  8. ^ Sinclair (2008), citing the 1910 US census.
  9. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 23–24.
  10. ^ Sinclair (2008), citing the 1900 and 1910 US censuses.
  11. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 24–25.
  12. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 12–13.
  13. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 12.
  14. ^ a b c d e Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 15. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  15. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 26. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  16. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 16, 17. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  17. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 32, 33. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  18. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 34. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  19. ^ a b c d e Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 22. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  20. ^ "Jack L. Warner's Death Closes Out Pioneer Clan of 'Talkies'". Variety. September 13, 1978. p. 2.
  21. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 40–42. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  22. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  23. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 45–46. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  24. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 46–48. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  25. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 51. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  26. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 54. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  27. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 62. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  28. ^ Warner, Jack L.; Jennings, Southern (1965). My First Hundred Years in Hollywood. Random House. pp. 100–101.
  29. ^ a b c d Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 71–73. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  30. ^ a b Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 38. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  31. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 76, 77. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  32. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 152. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  33. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 142–151. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  34. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 146. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  35. ^ a b Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 65. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  36. ^ a b c Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 151. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  37. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 127. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  38. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 66. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  39. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 147. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  40. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 148. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  41. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 149. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  42. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 173. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  43. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 75, 76. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  44. ^ a b c d Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 160. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  45. ^ "Warner Week". Time. 1930-06-09.
  46. ^ "Deals & Developments". Time. 1930-09-01.
  47. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 72. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  48. ^ a b c d Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 77. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  49. ^ "The mobster and the movies". CNN. 2004-08-24.
  50. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 184. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  51. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 77–79. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  52. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 185. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  53. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 81. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  54. ^ a b Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 83. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  55. ^ "Fugitive". Time. 1932-12-26.
  56. ^ a b c d Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 110. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
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  58. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 85. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  59. ^ "Musicomedies of the Week". Time. 1933-07-03. p. 2.
  60. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 182, 183. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  61. ^ a b "New Deal in Hollywood". Time. 1933-05-01. p. 2.
  62. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 88. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
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  68. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 99. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  69. ^ "St. Louis Suit". Time. 1935-01-21.
  70. ^ "Lawsuit in St. Louis". Time. 1935-10-14.
  71. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 211. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
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  76. ^ Schochet, Stephen (February 2004). "Tales of the Warner Brothers". Jewish Magazine.
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  78. ^ "Carrying the Country". Time. 1932-11-14.
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  81. ^ "Items". Time. 1938-10-31.
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  92. ^ "Winners For Sale". Time. 1947-03-10. p. 2.
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  101. ^ Freedland, Michael. The Warner Brothers. St. Martin's Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-312-85620-2.
  102. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 285. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
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  104. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 258–279. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  105. ^ "WARNER BROS. NET PUT AT $19,424,650; Earnings for Year Ended Aug. 31 Compare With Profit of $9,901,563 for 1945". New York Times. December 30, 1946. p. 28.
  106. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 181, 182. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  107. ^ a b c d Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 279. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  108. ^ "Divorce Granted". Time. 1953-03-02. p. 2.
  109. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 175, 176. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  110. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 286, 287. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  111. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 191. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  112. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 287–288. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
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  115. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 196–199. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  116. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 296. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  117. ^ Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 225. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  118. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 299. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  119. ^ a b c "Boston to Hollywood". Time. 1956-05-21. p. 2.
  120. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 303. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  121. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 308. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
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  124. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 311, 312. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  125. ^ "Milestones". Time. 1958-08-04. p. 2.
  126. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 309, 310. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  127. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 38. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  128. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 75. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  129. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 44. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  130. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 176, 177, 178. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  131. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 179. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  132. ^ a b Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 172, 173. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  133. ^ Sargent, Porter (1956). The Handbook of Private Schools. P. Sargent. p. 198.
  134. ^ a b c Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 48, 49. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
  135. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 163. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  136. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 264, 265, 266. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  137. ^ Gone with the Wind would be made in 1939 by Selznick International Pictures-which would later be owned by Tuner Entertainment who ironically enough also owns Warner Brothers
  138. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 200. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  139. ^ a b Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 341. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  140. ^ "Milton Sperling, Screenwriter, Is Dead at 76". New York Times. 1988-08-29.
  141. ^ Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 312, 313. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
  142. ^ Harry Warner at Find a Grave
  143. ^ "Harry M. Warner's $6,000,000 Estate". Variety. September 3, 1958. p. 2. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  144. ^ "Movie Producer to Launch Harry M. Warner Film Institute at SRU". sru.edu. 2004-04-15. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
  145. ^ "Harry M. Warner Film Festival Opens This Week; 23 Entries to be shown". sru.edu. 2006-04-17. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.

Further reading

  • Freedland, Michael. The Warner Brothers. New York: St Martin's Press, 1983. ISBN 0-312-85620-2.
  • Higham, Charles. Warner Brothers. New York: Scribner, 1975. ISBN 0-684-13949-9.
  • Thomas, Bob. Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990. ISBN 0-07-064259-1
  • Warner, Jack and Dean Jennings. My First Hundred Years in Hollywood. New York: Random Books, 1964.
  • Higham, Charles. Warner Brothers. Scribner, 1975 ISBN 0-684-13949-9

External links

29th World Science Fiction Convention

The 29th World Science Fiction Convention, also known as Noreascon I, was held September 2–6, 1971, at the Sheraton-Boston Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

The chairman was Tony Lewis. The guests of honor were Clifford D. Simak (pro) and Harry Warner, Jr. (fan). The toastmaster was Robert Silverberg. Total attendance was approximately 1,600.

The convention is mentioned in the preface to The Ringworld Engineers for the MIT students who pointed out that the Ringworld would be unstable.

Albert Warner

Abraham "Albert" Warner (July 23, 1884 – November 26, 1967) was an American film executive who was one of the founders of Warner Bros. He established the production studio with his brothers Harry, Sam, and Jack L. Warner. He served as the studio's treasurer, until he sold his stock in 1956.

Current Shortland Street characters

Shortland Street is a long-running New Zealand soap opera that has been broadcast on TVNZ 2 since May 25, 1992. The show centers on the title hospital and its staff and their families. The following is a list of characters and cast members who are currently appearing in the show or who are upcoming, returning and departing. Characters who have been portrayed by more than one actor, are listed, with the most recent actor at the top of the list.

Harry Farnall

Harry Warner Farnall (18 December 1838 – 5 June 1891) was a New Zealand politician, emigration agent and labour reformer. He was a Member of Parliament from Auckland.

He was born in Burley Park, Hampshire, England on 18 December 1838.He represented the Northern Division electorate from 1869 to 1870, and then the Rodney electorate from 1871 to 1872, when he resigned.Farnall contested the 1886 Waitemata by-election and was beaten by Richard Monk. He contested the 1890 election in the City of Auckland electorate. Of seven candidates, he came last.

Harry Warner (Shortland Street)

Harry Warner (previously Thompson-Warner) is a fictional character on the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street who first appeared onscreen in May 2002. Being born on screen during the shows 10th anniversary, Harry has been portrayed by several child actors and by Reid Walker since 2009. In May 2017 Harry left for an exchange program in Japan.

Harry Warner (baseball)

Harry Clinton Warner (December 11, 1928 – April 11, 2015) was an American coach in Major League Baseball and a former first baseman and manager at the minor league level. He served as a coach for the Toronto Blue Jays during their first three seasons (1977–79) in the American League, and was a member of the Milwaukee Brewers' staff in 1982, the first and only Brewer team to win an American League pennant.

Warner's 17-year playing career (1946–62) peaked at the Double-A level. He spent much of his active career in the farm systems of the Boston Braves/Milwaukee Braves and the Washington Senators. In his finest season, 1954, he batted .317 with 17 home runs for the Salem Senators of the Class A Western International League. Overall, he hit .279 in 1,671 minor league games with 147 home runs. Warner batted left-handed and threw right-handed, stood 6 feet 2 inches (1.88 m) tall and weighed 195 pounds (88 kg).

His managing career began in 1960 with the Class D Erie Sailors of the New York–Penn League, a Washington affiliate. He remained with the organization (the Minnesota Twins after the 1960 campaign) and managed at all levels of the minor leagues through 1976. The following season, he joined the coaching staff of the first Blue Jay manager, Roy Hartsfield, and worked with him for three seasons. In 1980, Hartsfield was succeeded by Bobby Mattick as Toronto's manager, and Warner managed the Jays' Triple-A Syracuse Chiefs farm club of the International League before rejoining the Toronto coaching staff for the final month of the season.

In 1981, he became the third-base coach of the Brewers and in his two seasons in that post the Brewers made the 1981 playoffs, then won the 1982 AL pennant. His managing career concluded with a return to the Twins' organization in 1983, when he led the Class A Visalia Oaks of the California League to a division title. One of his players that season with future Twins star Kirby Puckett.

All told, Warner accumulated 1,129 wins and 1,067 losses (.514) in 19 seasons as a minor league manager. Later in the 1980s, Warner scouted for the Twins and then the San Diego Padres, based in Reeders, Monroe County, Pennsylvania. He died at age 86 in Reeders.

Harry Warner (disambiguation)

Harry Warner (1881–1958), co-founder of Warner Bros.

Harry Warner may also refer to:

Harry Warner Jr. (1922–2003), journalist, science fiction fan and historian

Harry Warner (baseball) (1928–2015), American baseball outfielder, coach and manager

Harry Warner (Shortland Street), a character on the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street

Harry Warner Jr.

Harry Warner Jr. (December 19, 1922 – February 17, 2003) was an American journalist. He spent 40 years working for the Hagerstown, Maryland, Herald-Mail.He was also an important science fiction fan and historian of fandom and Washington County, Maryland, as well as a classical musician.

Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer

The Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer is the Hugo Award given each year for writers of works related to science fiction or fantasy which appeared in low- or non-paying publications such as semiprozines or fanzines or in generally available electronic media during the previous calendar year. There is no restriction that the writer is not also a professional author, and several such authors have won the award for their non-paying works. The award was first presented in 1967 and has been awarded annually.

During the 60 regular and retro nomination years, 101 writers have been nominated; 21 of these have won, including ties. David Langford has received the largest number of awards, with 21 wins out of 31 nominations. He was nominated every year from 1979 through 2009, and won 19 times in a row from 1989 through 2007. The other writers to win more than once are Richard E. Geis, with seven wins out of sixteen nominations; Mike Glyer, with four wins out of twenty-five nominations; Susan Wood Glicksohn, with three of eight; Harry Warner, Jr., with two out of eight; Wilson Tucker, with two out of eight; Bob Shaw, who won both times he was nominated; Forrest J Ackerman, with two out of five Retro Hugos; and Ray Bradbury, who won both Retro Hugos he was nominated for. The writers with the most nominations without winning are Evelyn C. Leeper, who was nominated twelve times in a row from 1990 through 2001, and Steven H Silver, whose twelve nominations span 2000-2013.

List of Shortland Street characters (2002)

The following is a list of characters that first appeared in the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street in 2002, by order of first appearance.

Mimosa (magazine)

Mimosa was a science fiction fanzine edited by Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch. It won six Hugo Awards for Best Fanzine (in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998 and 2003) and was nominated a total of 14 times (1991-2004).

Published from 1982 until 2003, Mimosa focused on discussions of the history and impact of science fiction fandom. Contributors included Forrest J Ackerman, Ron Bennett, John Berry, Vin¢ Clarke, Sharon N. Farber, Dave Kyle, Mike Resnick, Bob Shaw, Harry Warner, Jr., Ted White and Walt Willis.

Paul Ashley Chase

Paul Ashley Chase (February 5, 1878 – April 17, 1946) was one of the founding executives, first auditor, Assistant Secretary of the corporation, and comptroller for Warner Brothers Pictures. He was previously the traveling auditor for the Erie Railroad. In 1912 Harry Warner and Paul Chase were staying at the same boarding house in New York City. Harry Warner told Chase he was starting a new motion picture company and offered him the auditorship of the concern, which Chase immediately accepted.

Sam Warner

Samuel Louis "Sam" Warner (born Szmuel Wonsal, August 10, 1887 – October 5, 1927) was an American film producer who was the co-founder and chief executive officer of Warner Bros. He established the studio along with his brothers Harry, Albert, and Jack L. Warner. Sam Warner is credited with procuring the technology that enabled Warner Bros. to produce the film industry's first feature-length talking picture, The Jazz Singer. He died in 1927, the day before the film's enormously successful premiere.

Storylines of Shortland Street (2007)

This article details the storylines that took place on TVNZ Shortland Street in 2007.

Toonami (France)

Toonami is a television channel that launched in France on 11 February 2016. It is operated and distributed in France by Warner Bros. France. It is named after the late Saturday night programming block seen in the United States, using the logo introduced in 2004 but with different branded promos, also using in Asia.

On 3 February, it was confirmed by Toonami Squad in an Email with Turner that Toonami would be launching in France on 11 February 2016.

W-L Ranch Co.

W-L Ranch Co. was an American Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding partnership between Hollywood film studio executive Harry M. Warner and film director Mervyn LeRoy. Warner's daughter, Doris, was married to Mervyn LeRoy.

In 1938, Harry Warner, along with his brother Jack, and Mervyn LeRoy were founding investors in Hollywood Park Racetrack in Inglewood, California. LeRoy was a member of the track's Board of Directors from 1941 until his death in 1987.

In addition to competing at the own racetrack, W-L Ranch Co. raced horses at Santa Anita Park and Del Mar Racetrack in California as well as at other racetracks throughout the United States until 1958 when Harry Warner died. They had two starters in the 1947 Kentucky Derby and another in 1955. Among their graded stakes race wins, the stable won the 1944 Narragansett Special, the 1948 Top Flight Handicap, the 1949 and 1957 editions of the Santa Catalina Handicap, and the 1955 Malibu Stakes, 1955 Bing Crosby Handicap, and 1956 San Diego Handicap.One of their most famous thoroughbreds was Paperboy.

Warner Bros.

Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (formerly Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.), commonly referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film, television and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

Warner Family (Shortland Street)

The Warner Family is a fictional family in the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street. They have appeared in the show from 1992 to 1996, and since 2000. The most well known member of this family is Dr. Chris Warner, and he is one of the longest-running characters on the show.

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