Considered one of the "founding fathers" of the unifying theory of plate tectonics, Rear Admiral Harry Hammond Hess was born on May 24, 1906, in New York City. He is best known for his theories on sea floor spreading, specifically work on relationships between island arcs, seafloor gravity anomalies, and serpentinized peridotite, suggesting that the convection of the Earth's mantle was the driving force behind this process. This work provided a conceptual base for the development of the theory of plate tectonics.
Harry Hammond Hess
|Born||May 24, 1906|
New York City
|Died||August 25, 1969 (age 63)|
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
|Alma mater||Princeton University|
|Awards||Penrose Medal (1966)|
|Doctoral advisor||Arthur Francis Buddington|
|Doctoral students||Eugene Merle Shoemaker|
John Tuzo Wilson
|Influences||F. A. Vening-Meinesz|
Harry Hess taught for one year (1932–1933) at Rutgers University in New Jersey and spent a year as a research associate at the Geophysical Laboratory of Washington, D. C., before joining the faculty of Princeton University in 1934. Hess remained at Princeton for the rest of his career and served as Geology Department Chairman from 1950 to 1966. He was a visiting professor at the University of Cape Town, South Africa (1949–1950), and the University of Cambridge, England (1965).
Hess accompanied Dr. Felix Vening Meinesz of Utrecht University on board the US Navy submarine USS S-48 to assist with the second U.S. expedition to obtain gravity measurements at sea. The expedition used a gravimeter, or gravity meter, designed by Meinesz. The submarine traveled a route from Guantanamo, Cuba, to Key West, Florida, and return to Guantanamo through the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos region from 5 February through 25 March 1932. The description of operations and results of the expedition were published by the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office in The Navy-Princeton gravity expedition to the West Indies in 1932.
Hess joined the United States Navy during World War II, becoming captain of the USS Cape Johnson, an attack transport ship equipped with a new technology: sonar. This command would later prove to be key in Hess's development of his theory of sea floor spreading. Hess carefully tracked his travel routes to Pacific Ocean landings on the Marianas, Philippines, and Iwo Jima, continuously using his ship's echo sounder. This unplanned wartime scientific surveying enabled Hess to collect ocean floor profiles across the North Pacific Ocean, resulting in the discovery of flat-topped submarine volcanoes, which he termed guyots, after the nineteenth century geographer Arnold Henry Guyot. After the war, he remained in the Naval Reserve, rising to the rank of rear admiral.
In 1960, Hess made his single most important contribution, which is regarded as part of the major advance in geologic science of the 20th century. In a widely circulated report to the Office of Naval Research, he advanced the theory, now generally accepted, that the Earth's crust moved laterally away from long, volcanically active oceanic ridges. He only understood his ocean floor profiles across the North Pacific Ocean after Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen (1953, Lamont Group) discovered the Great Global Rift, running along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Seafloor spreading, as the process was later named, helped establish Alfred Wegener's earlier (but generally dismissed at the time) concept of continental drift as scientifically respectable. This triggered a revolution in the earth sciences. Hess's report was formally published in his History of Ocean Basins (1962), which for a time was the single most referenced work in solid-earth geophysics. Hess was also involved in many other scientific endeavours, including the Mohole project (1957–1966), an investigation onto the feasibility and techniques of deep sea drilling.
Hess died from a heart attack in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 25, 1969, while chairing a meeting of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences. He was buried in the Arlington National Cemetery and was posthumously awarded the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Distinguished Public Service Award.
The American Geophysical Union established the Harry H. Hess medal in his memory in 1984 to "honor outstanding achievements in research of the constitution and evolution of Earth and sister planets."
Arville Irving Levorsen (1894–1965) was an American geologist. He served as the dean of the School of Mineral Sciences at Stanford University.Cape Johnson Guyot
Cape Johnson Guyot is a guyot in the Pacific Ocean, more precisely in the Mid-Pacific Mountains, and the type locality of guyots. It is of middle Cretaceous age and a number of fossils have been dredged from it.Charles L. Drake
Charles Lum Drake (July 13, 1924 – July 8, 1997) was an American geologist who was Professor of Geology at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire.Eliot Blackwelder
Eliot Blackwelder (June 4, 1880 – January 14, 1969) was an American geologist who from 1922 to 1945 was head of the Stanford University department of geology. He served as President of the Geological Society of America in 1940 and of the Seismological Society of America from 1947 to 1949.Geology of Antigua and Barbuda
The geology of Antigua and Barbuda is part of the Lesser Antilles volcanic island arc. Both islands are the above water limestone "caps" of now inactive volcanoes. The two islands are the surface features of the undersea Barbuda Bank and have karst limestone landscapes.
Barbuda is primarily flat and formed from coral reefs. The Middle Miocene Highlands Formation has limestones which are the oldest rocks on the island, rising 120 feet above sea level. The Beazer Formation and the Codrington Formation are both from the Pleistocene and comprise reef and lagoon related rocks.The geologic record of Antigua indicates a transition from island arc volcanism to limestone deposition in the Late Oligocene. Hence the island is characterized by a Basal Volcanic Suite (BVS) on the mountainous southwest, a Central Plain Group (CPG) extending from St. Johns to the southeast, and the Antigua Formation on the northeast portion of the island in the direction of regional dip. The CPG consists of siliciclastic and limestone, marine and non-marine sedimentary rocks, containing petrified wood and gastropods within chert. The Antigua Formation includes benthic foraminifers and molluscs, scleractinian corals, echinoids, crabs, bryozoans, crinoid columns and sponges. The limestone Devil's Bridge, is an example of this formation.On Antigua, the south of the island is mainly calc-alkaline volcanic rock such as dacite and quartz basalt or andesite, along with limestone lenses, agglomerate and tuff formed during the Oligocene. Generally andesite dominated volcanism across the island gave way to limestone and chert formation.Between 200 and 500 CE, native peoples on Antigua were active in lapidary, working local diorite, shells and carnelian as well as imported nephrite, amethyst, turquoise and serpentinite.George A. Thompson (geologist)
George A. Thompson (June 5, 1919 – May 12, 2017) was an American geologist.Guyot
In marine geology, a guyot (pronounced ), also known as a tablemount, is an isolated underwater volcanic mountain (seamount) with a flat top more than 200 m (660 ft) below the surface of the sea. The diameters of these flat summits can exceed 10 km (6.2 mi). Guyots are most commonly found in the Pacific Ocean, but they have been identified in all the oceans except the Arctic Ocean.Harry Hammond (disambiguation)
Harry Hammond (c. 1932–2002) was a British street evangelist.
Harry Hammond may also refer to:
Harry Hammond (footballer) (1868–1921), English footballer
Harry S. Hammond (1884–1960), American football player and businessman
Happy Hammond (Harry Hammond, 1917–1998), Australian comedian and children's show hostHarry Hess (disambiguation)
Harry Hess (born 1968) is a Canadian singer and guitarist.
Harry Hess may also refer to:
Harry Hammond Hess (1906–1969), American geologist and United States Navy officer during World War II
Harry Hess (American football), American college football coachHess-Apollo (crater)
Hess-Apollo is a feature on Earth's Moon, a crater in Taurus–Littrow valley. Astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt landed north of it in 1972, on the Apollo 17 mission, but did not visit it. The astronauts referred to it simply as Hess during the mission.
Hess is adjacent to the similarly-sized crater Mackin. To the north is Camelot, to the northwest are Shorty and Lara, and to the west is Nansen. To the northeast is Emory.
The crater was named by the astronauts after geologist Harry Hammond Hess.Hess (surname)
Hess or Heß, a German and Ashkenazic surname, meaning somebody originally from the region of Hesse. Two alternative origins have been reported. Usage in the south of Germany may arise from a contraction of the personal name Matthäus, whereas appearance in Germany or The Netherlands may arise from a modification of the personal name Hesso.Notable people who share this surname include:
Adam Hess (born 1981), American basketball player
Adam Hess (Comedian), British Comedian
András Hess, Hungarian printer
Beat W. Hess (born 1949), Swiss businessman
Bernhard Hess (born 1966), Swiss politician
Bernhard von Hess (1792–1869), Bavarian Lieutenant General and War Minister
Carl von Hess (1863–1923), German ophthalmologist
Catherina Hess, (born 1985), German actress
Damian Hess aka MC Frontalot, nerdcore rapper
Dean Hess (1917-2015), American Air Force Colonel
Derek Hess, (born 1964), American artist
Elizabeth Hess (born 1953), Canadian actress
Elmar Hess (born 1966), German artist
Eric Hess, American wrestler
Erika Hess (born 1962), Swiss alpine skier
Fred Hess (1944–2018), American jazz musician
Fred Hess (Wisconsin) (1858-1925), American politician
Fred J. Hess (1848-1928), American politician
Germain Henri Hess (1802–1850), Russian-Swiss chemist
Gregory Hess (born 1962), 16th President of Wabash College
Hans-Georg Hess (1923-2008), German U-boat captain
John Jacob Hess (1584-1639), Swiss-German Anabaptist minister and martyr
Harry Hammond Hess (1906–1969), American geologist best known for his theories on sea floor spreading
Harry Hess, American college sports coach
Harvey Hess (1939-2012), American lyric poet
Heinrich von Heß (1788–1870), Austrian fieldmarshall
Heinrich Maria von Hess, German painter
Hieronymus Hess, Swiss drawer, painter, caricaturist (1799-1850)
Ilse Hess, German writer (1900-1995)
Jake Hess, American southern gospel vocalist
Jared Hess (born 1979), American writer and director of Napoleon Dynamite
Johann Hess (Hesse), (1490–1547), German theologian
Karl Hess (1923–1994), American speechwriter and author
Karl Hess (painter) (1801-1874), German painter
Leon Hess Founder, Chairman of the Board & CEO of Hess Corporation and the New York Jets NFL Football franchise until his death
Markus Hess, German hacker
Michael A. Hess (1952-1995), American lawyer
Moses Hess (1812–1875), Jewish philosopher and proto-Zionist
Myra Hess (1890–1965), British pianist
Nigel Hess, British composer
Ortwin Hess, British optician and physicist
Orvan Hess (1906–2002), doctor who invented the fetal heart monitor
Peter von Hess, German painter
Robert Hess (college president) (1938-1994), American President of Brooklyn College
Rudolf Hess (1894–1987), Deputy Führer of Nazi Germany
Rudolf Hess (1903–1986), Californian painter and art critic
Sara Whalen Hess (born 1976), American Olympic soccer player
Ursula Hess (born 1946), Swiss archer
Ursula Hess (psychologist) (born 1960), German psychologist
Victor Francis Hess (1883–1964), Austrian-American physicist who discovered cosmic rays
Walter Rudolf Hess (1881–1973), Swiss physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949
Willy Hess (violinist) (1859–1939), German famous violin virtuoso
Willy Hess (composer) (1906–1997), Swiss musicologist, composer, and famous Beethoven scholar
Wolf Rüdiger Hess (Heß) (1937–2001), German architect, right extremist and son of Rudolf HessHistory of geophysics
The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors. One of these is the research curiosity of humankind related to planet Earth and its several components, its events and its problems. The second is economical usage of Earth's resources (ore deposits, petroleum, water resources, etc.) and Earth-related hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, tides, and floods.John Rodgers (geologist)
John Rodgers (11 July 1914 – 7 March 2004) was an American geologist who was Silliman Professor of Geology at Yale University.Julian Goldsmith
For the British politician see Sir Julian Goldsmid, 3rd BaronetJulian Royce Goldsmith (1918–1999) was a mineralogist and geochemist at the University of Chicago (Moore, 1971). Goldsmith, along with colleague Fritz Laves, first defined the crystallographic polymorphism of alkali feldspar (Newton, 1989). Goldsmith also experimented on the temperature dependence of the solid solution between calcite and dolomite (Newton, 1989). Goldsmith’s research also led him to experiment with the determination of the stability of intermediate structural states of albite (Newton, 1989). For his outstanding contributions to the study of mineralogy and geochemistry, Goldsmith was awarded the prestigious Roebling Medal by the Mineralogical Society of America in 1988 (Newton, 1989). The mineral julgoldite was named for him.Laurence L. Sloss
Laurence L. Sloss (August 26, 1913 – November 2, 1996) was an American geologist. He taught geology at Northwestern University from 1947 until his retirement in 1981.He was president, Geological Society of America (GSA), with his tenure beginning in 1980. The GSA's Laurence L. Sloss Award is named in his honor. He was also president of the Society for Sedimentary Geology and American Geosciences Institute.Robert S. Dietz
Robert Sinclair Dietz (September 14, 1914 – May 19, 1995) was a scientist with the US Coast and Geodetic Survey. Dietz was a marine geologist, geophysicist and oceanographer who conducted pioneering research along with Harry Hammond Hess concerning seafloor spreading, published as early as 1960–1961. While at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography he observed the nature of the Emperor chain of seamounts that extended from the northwest end of the Hawaiian Island–Midway chain and speculated over lunch with Robert Fisher in 1953 that something must be carrying these old volcanic mountains northward like a conveyor belt.In later work he became interested in meteorite impacts, was the first to recognize the Sudbury Basin as an ancient impact event, and discovered a number of other impact craters. He championed the use of shatter cones as evidence for ancient impact structures. He received the Walter H. Bucher Medal from the American Geophysical Union in 1971, the Barringer Medal from the Meteoritical Society in 1985 and the Penrose Medal from the Geological Society of America in 1988.
Dietz was an outspoken critic of creationism, and was the faculty advisor of two student groups at Arizona State University in 1985, Americans Promoting Evolution Science (APES) and the Phoenix Skeptics. Dietz spoke on evolution and creationism at meetings of these groups, and debated creationist Walter Brown and Christian apologist William Lane Craig at Arizona State University.Ronald Oxburgh, Baron Oxburgh
Ernest Ronald Oxburgh, Baron Oxburgh, (born 2 November 1934) is a British geologist, geophysicist, and politician. Lord Oxburgh is well known for his work as a public advocate in both academia and the business world in addressing the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and develop alternative energy sources as well as his negative views on the consequences of current oil consumption.Samuel Calvin (geologist)
Samuel Calvin (February 2, 1840 – April 17, 1911) was Iowa's first systematic geologist, helping to make the first bedrock and landform maps of Iowa, as well as leading geological research throughout the state. He was born in Scotland, attended Lenox College (now defunct) in Hopkinton, Iowa, where he later taught. One of his collaborators was Thomas Huston Macbride, the notable Iowa naturalist. Calvin became a University of Iowa professor in 1873 and the Iowa State Geologist in 1892, and led the Iowa Geological Survey from 1892 until his death. Calvin documented the Devonian and Aftonian beds of Iowa, and was an expert on Pleistocene fauna. He was a founder of the American Geologist journal. Calvin Hall at the University of Iowa is named for him. His photographic collection of Iowa scenes is an important collection for historians and geologists. Calvin was president of the Geological Society of America in 1908.W. Jason Morgan
William Jason Morgan (born October 10, 1935) is an American geophysicist who has made seminal contributions to the theory of plate tectonics and geodynamics. He retired as the Knox Taylor Professor emeritus of geology and professor of geosciences at Princeton University. He currently serves as a visiting scholar in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University.