Harold Roe Bartle

Harold Roe Bennett Sturdevant Bartle (June 25, 1901 – May 9, 1974) was a businessman, philanthropist, Boy Scout executive, and professional public speaker who served two terms as mayor of Kansas City, Missouri. After Bartle helped lure the Dallas Texans American Football League team to Kansas City in 1962, owner Lamar Hunt renamed the franchise the Kansas City Chiefs after Bartle's nickname, "The Chief."

H. Roe Bartle
Harold Roe Bartle sculpture
47th Mayor of Kansas City, Missouri
In office
Preceded byWilliam E. Kemp
Succeeded byIlus W. Davis
Personal details
BornJune 25, 1901
Richmond, Virginia
DiedMay 9, 1974 (aged 72)
Kansas City, Missouri
Resting placeForest Hill Cemetery
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Margaret Ann Caroline Jarvis
ChildrenMargaret Roe "Jimmy" Bartle Taylor
Alma materUniversity of Chattanooga
Professionexecutive, philanthropist, educator, public speaker

Early life and education

Bartle was born in Richmond, Virginia, the only child of Samuel Dunn Bartle, a Presbyterian minister and an immigrant from Cornwall, England, and Ada Mae Roe of northern Illinois.[1] The Bartle family was musical, and at age thirteen Harold was playing the piano and organ at his father's church. The same year he also attempted to enlist in the army, but his father produced proof of his age and had him discharged.[2]

Between 1916 and 1920, Bartle attended Fork Union Military Academy, where his father taught history and military science. There Roe (as he now insisted on being called) became a championship debater.[3] Bartle attended the University of Chattanooga in 1920, where he proved a natural athlete, but he suffered a serious bout of pneumonia.[4] He returned to his family, now in Lebanon, Kentucky, where in 1921, he earned a law degree from Hamilton College of Law, a Chicago correspondence school.[5]

Personal life

Bartle met Margaret Ann Caroline Jarvis in Lebanon, and they were married on September 26, 1923, in St. Joseph, Missouri, where his father had taken another pastorate.[6] The Bartles had one child, Margaret Roe "Jimmy" Bartle Taylor.[7] Bartle, who was 6' 4", weighed well over 200 pounds before his marriage, and he continued to gain until at one point he may have reached 375.[8]

Scouting career

Harold Roe Bartle Scout Executive
H.Roe Bartle (c.1925)

Bartle was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1920 (before completing his correspondence degree) and worked for a Lebanon firm; he was also the Lebanon prosecuting attorney, 1920–22. Nevertheless, Bartle's gifts were as an organizer and promoter, and he was unwilling to spend his life in the law.[9] Bartle had supervised a Boy Scout troop in Lebanon, and in 1923–24, he accepted a position as the executive of the Cheyenne Council of the Boy Scouts of America in Casper, Wyoming, a responsibility that included oversight of the entire state.[10] From 1925 until 1928 he held a similar position in St. Joseph, Missouri;[11] and from 1928 until 1955, he was the Scout Executive at the Kansas City Area Council.[12]

In 1925 Bartle created the Tribe of Mic-O-Say, an honor camper program, in Saint Joseph, Missouri at Camp Brinton. (In 1930 it moved to Camp Geiger.) In 1929 he brought the Tribe of Mic-O-Say program to a Boy Scout Camp in Osceola, MO, at the time known as Camp Osceola but later named the H. Roe Bartle Scout Reservation in his honor.[13] Roe's inspiration for this program dated to his Wyoming years.[14]

Business career

While a scouting executive, Bartle also engaged in profitable business enterprises and made shrewd investment decisions. He also served on the board of directors of numerous corporations and banks, including largest independent liquor dealer in Missouri.[15] According to his daughter, when his friend, President Harry Truman, asked him to become the regional director of the Economic Stabilization Agency, Bartle had to resign from 57 boards of directors to avoid possible conflicts of interest.[16]

As a professional public speaker, he regularly addressed political, fraternal, educational, religious, civic, business, and service organizations. (He had a rich, powerful voice, and in Nice, France, he blew out the public address system.)[17] By the time he ran for mayor, he was making 200 speeches a year at fees that ranged upwards from $1,000 each.[18] One service club secretary was so dazzled by Bartle's rhetoric and humor that he announced Bartle had given "one of the most dynamic speeches ever heard by man." A slightly skeptical reporter added that, nevertheless, "just what he said...was not recorded."[19]

The money Bartle made in the private sector subsidized his public service and allowed him to fund organizations in which he took an interest.[20] For instance, for 30 years he donated his Boy Scout salary to the organization. There were three Bartles, he said, the Bartle "who makes money, the Bartle who gives it away, and the Bartle who works for free."[21]

Civic, philanthropic, and religious endeavors

Bartle seemed determined to participate in as many charitable organizations as possible. He accepted thirty appointments to philanthropic boards and commissions and in time became an executive in virtually all of them. During World War II, he served as director of American War Dads, a soldier-welfare group.[22] After the war, from 1945 to 1952, Bartle was president of Missouri Valley College, a small coeducational school associated with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.[23]

In 1948, as a college President, Bartle founded and contributed $100,000 toward establishing the American Humanics Foundation, now the Nonprofit Leadership Alliance,[24] a philanthropic organization at Missouri Valley College. Now at seventy-five colleges and universities nationwide, the program prepares students for leadership in nonprofit, public service organizations such as such organizations as the Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and the YWCA.[25]

Bartle was National President of Alpha Phi Omega service fraternity from 1931 until 1946.[26][27] Alpha Phi Omega grew from 18 chapters when he took office to 109 chapters when he stepped down. It was said that Bartle personally financed the fledgling organization.[28]

Bartle was a devout member of Central Presbyterian Church, Kansas City, from 1929 until his death, although he was often not in attendance because he was filling a pulpit somewhere else. (If Bartle was called to substitute for a pastor who was ill, he needed only the time to dress and get to the church. He could work out the sermon on the way.)[29] Bartle served as a member of the general council of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 1961–68, and was a member of the General Assembly, 1962–66. He was also a charter member of the National Conference of Christians and Jews.[23]

Bartle's wife said she believed he "could do anything on this earth that he sets out to do....and he has more energy than any other five men alive."[30] Bartle received numerous honors and awards for his public service, including honorary degrees from at least a dozen colleges and distinguished service medals from a dozen foreign governments.[31]


In 1955, Bartle, a Democrat, with no previous political experience, was asked to run for mayor of Kansas City on the Citizens' Association ticket. Although the Citizen's Association (of which Bartle had been a founder) had helped sweep the Pendergast political machine out of power in 1940, Bartle chose to run as an independent with Citizen Association support.[32] However, in his reelection campaign of 1959, Bartle also accepted the tacit support of the remnants of the Pendergast machine, leading to unfounded fears about the possible revival of "boss politics." In Kansas City, the mayor was comparatively weak, effectively an at-large city councilman; but Bartle, not surprisingly, was superb at performing the inspirational and ceremonial aspects of his office.[33]

During his two terms, Bartle oversaw the desegregation of the city hospitals and removed them from political influence. He also overhauled the city tax structure, organized the mayors and city managers of 67 nearby towns into a planning council, supported the advancement of African-American police officers, and oversaw initial construction of the Kansas City airport and a nearby freeway.[23] Also during his two terms, the Dallas Texans professional football team moved to Kansas City, adopting Bartle's nickname, "Chief."[34] While he was mayor, Bartle went to all two-alarm fires in a fireman's hat, coat and boots; and every weekday morning at 8:00-or when he could actually make it to the station—he broadcast a radio report to the city.[35]

Bartle found his first term the more enjoyable. Then he had carried into office virtually the entire Citizens Association ticket. During his second term, a block of councilmen stymied his plans. Although Bartle remained on the 1963 ticket, he asked voters not to reelect him.[36]


Bartle was a hail-fellow-well-met, who "never knew a stranger" and demonstrated an impressive recall of names.[37] On Christmas, he would regularly spend the day visiting orphanages, the Boy's Home, the city jail, and other places that might be overlooked on such a holiday.[38] For most of his life, Bartle lived simply, becoming more expansive in his personal spending only after being elected mayor. (His greatest extravagance until that point was fine cigars, of which he smoked 25 per day.)[19]

Bartle idolized his clergyman father and displayed some guilt for not having followed in his profession. Bartle continued to make major decisions only after deciding what his father would have done in a similar circumstance. But Roe Bartle hated the penury of the clergyman's life.[39] The first time he asked a girl for a date, she rejected him because he was dressed in ill-fitting, second-hand clothes. Crushed, he swore before a mirror, "hand upraised", that no child of his would ever know poverty. But once he had the money, he also acquired expensive hand-tailored suits.[39]

Kansas City Star editor Roy A. Roberts was puzzled by Bartle, "You can say almost anything you like about Roe Bartle—call him demagogue, opportunist, tycoon or dedicated saint—and you will be correct, but you will speak only half truths. Nobody knows Bartle. He is too complex to be figured out."[15]


In later years, Bartle was plagued by health problems including phlebitis and injuries to his back and legs caused by a 1944 plane crash. Bartle died on May 9, 1974, from complications of diabetes and heart disease.[40] He was buried in Forest Hill Cemetery.[41] The Kansas City Convention Center, opened in 1976,[42] was named Bartle Hall in his honor, and Bartle's wife and friends provided items for exhibit cases that there memorialize his life.[43] Bartle's papers are in the State Historical Society of Missouri.[44]


  • National Cyclopedia of American Biography. 58: 213-14. 1979.
  • Taylor, Jimmy Bartle (June 1995). Down Home with the Chief and Miss Maggie. Leathers Publishing. ISBN 0-9646898-0-4.
  • Eby, David. "Lone Bear: H. Roe Bartle".
  • Keith Monroe, "Kansas City's Colossal Scouter", Scouting (September 1976), 44-46, 86.
  • Hartzell Spence, "The Colossal Mayor of Kansas City", Saturday Evening Post, January 28, 1956, 17-19, 79-80.
  • William S. Worley, "Bartle, H. Roe", in Lawrence O. Christensen, et al., eds., Dictionary of Missouri Biography (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999), 31-32.


  1. ^ NCAB; The Bartles were married on November 24, 1897 in Chana, Illinois. Taylor, 18.
  2. ^ Taylor, 20. Bartle also developed a fine baritone singing voice. (27)
  3. ^ Taylor, 23-27; Monroe
  4. ^ Monroe, 45; Taylor, 27-29.
  5. ^ Cosmopolitan Magazine (April 1915), 31; Taylor, 28-29.
  6. ^ Taylor, 44.
  7. ^ Taylor, 48. She was born on Thanksgiving, November 27, 1924.
  8. ^ Monroe, 45-46; Taylor, 25, 45; Eby; Spence, 18. Bartle insisted on waffles every morning "swimming in butter and syrup", and he enjoyed dinners of meat (no chicken or eggs), potatoes, gravy, salad, bread, and dessert. His wife unsuccessfully tried to persuade him that he did not also need four or five slices of buttered bread with these meals.
  9. ^ Taylor, 41.
  10. ^ Taylor, 41; NCAB.
  11. ^ According to an undocumented story published in Scouting magazine several years after Bartle's death, when Bartle recruited a Roman Catholic commissioner in St. Joseph, a Ku Klux Klan mob demanded he be fired. Bartle is said to have replied, "If three or more of you will step right up here onto the porch, I'll whup you immediately." The Klan never bothered him again. Monroe, 46.
  12. ^ NCAB. The Boy Scouts eventually awarded Bartle the organization's Silver Buffalo, Silver Antelope and Silver Beaver Awards.
  13. ^ Taylor, 52-53.
  14. ^ According to his daughter, Bartle acquired his nickname "The Chief" when the Arapaho chief Lone Bear made him a blood brother and gave Bartle his own name. Taylor, 46.
  15. ^ a b Spence, 18.
  16. ^ Taylor, 137. Spence gives the number of boards as 17. (80)
  17. ^ Spence, 18. Bartle's response was, "That's all right, I'm wired for sound myself." When speaking to the Rotary Club in Phoenix, the Optimists in the next room complained he was drowning out their speaker through closed doors. Bartle replied, "Open the doors, and I'll talk to both clubs at once."
  18. ^ Time (April 11, 1955).
  19. ^ a b Spence, 80.
  20. ^ Worley, 31; NCAB; Taylor, 137-38.
  21. ^ Eby.
  22. ^ Spence, 80; Taylor, 134-35; W. F. McDermott, "They Call Themselves War Dads", Rotarian (September 1943), 37.
  23. ^ a b c NCAB.
  24. ^ http://www.humanics.org/site/c.omL2KiN4LvH/b.1098773/k.BE7C/Home.htm
  25. ^ NCAB; Spence, 19.
  26. ^ Alpha Phi Omega Pledge Manual p. 42. Bartle followed the founder, Frank Reed Horton, as head of the group. The National President was styled "Supreme Grand Master" until 1934.
  27. ^ "Torch & Trefoil" (PDF). Vol. 10 no. 1. May 1935.
  28. ^ Eby. Alpha Phi Omega twice recognized Bartle (the only person to be so honored) as Fall Pledge Class Namesake for 1946 and 1962, presented him with its National Distinguished Service Award in 1958, and named the H. Roe Bartle Chapter Award in his honor.
  29. ^ Taylor, 68-69, 136.
  30. ^ Taylor, 140.
  31. ^ These included the United Kingdom, Ecuador, Belgium, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Venezuela, Peru, Guatemala and Mexico. NCAB.
  32. ^ Time (April 11, 1955); Spence, 79. Bartle even had good words to say for his millionaire opponent, Berl Berry, a Lincoln-Mercury dealer. But when Berry promised lower taxes, Bartle replied that Berry had a 10' X 10' bed and ought to be willing to pay more taxes than those who slept in ordinary beds. Bartle had been Berry's guest, and the car dealer was chagrined that Bartle had taken advantage of his hospitality to make notes about his furnishings.
  33. ^ Worley, 31.
  34. ^ Worley, 32.
  35. ^ Eby; Taylor, 126.
  36. ^ Eby; Taylor, 126-27; Spence, 126.
  37. ^ Taylor, 134.
  38. ^ Taylor, 89.
  39. ^ a b Spence, 79-80.
  40. ^ Monroe, 86.
  41. ^ FBI Director Clarence M. Kelley and Chief Scout Executive Alden G. Barber attended his funeral. His pallbearers were six firemen and six police officers. From the road from the gates of Forest Hill Cemetery to the grave site was lined with thousands of saluting scouts. Taylor, 145.
  42. ^ "Missouri Valley Special Collections : Item Viewer". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-01-31.
  43. ^ Taylor, 152, 160. The exhibit was dedicated in November 1989, two years after Margaret Bartle's death.
  44. ^ State Historical Society of Missouri website.
Political offices
Preceded by
William E. Kemp
Mayor of Kansas City, Missouri
Succeeded by
Ilus W. Davis
American Football League

The American Football League (AFL) was a major professional American football league that operated for ten seasons from 1960 until 1969, when it merged with the older National Football League (NFL), and became the American Football Conference. The upstart AFL operated in direct competition with the more established NFL throughout its existence. It was more successful than earlier rivals to the NFL with the same name, the 1926, 1936 and 1940 leagues, and the later All-America Football Conference (which existed between 1944 and 1950 but only played between 1946 and 1949).

This fourth version of the AFL was the most successful, created by a number of owners who had been refused NFL expansion franchises or had minor shares of NFL franchises. The AFL's original lineup consisted of an Eastern division of the New York Titans, Boston Patriots, Buffalo Bills, and the Houston Oilers, and a Western division of the Los Angeles Chargers, Denver Broncos, Oakland Raiders, and Dallas Texans. The league first gained attention by signing 75% of the NFL's first-round draft choices in 1960, including Houston's successful signing of college star and Heisman Trophy winner Billy Cannon.

While the first years of the AFL saw uneven competition and low attendance, the league was buttressed by a generous television contract with the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) (followed by a contract with the competing National Broadcasting Company (NBC) for games starting with the 1965 season) that broadcast the more offense-oriented football league nationwide. Continuing to attract top talent from colleges and the NFL by the mid-1960s, as well as successful franchise shifts of the Chargers from L.A. south to San Diego and the Texans north to Kansas City (becoming the Kansas City Chiefs), the AFL established a dedicated following. The transformation of the struggling Titans into the New York Jets under new ownership further solidified the league's reputation among the major media.

As fierce competition made player salaries skyrocket in both leagues, especially after a series of "raids", the leagues agreed to a merger in 1966. Among the conditions were a common draft and a championship game played between the two league champions first played in early 1967, which would eventually become known as the Super Bowl.

The AFL and NFL operated as separate leagues until 1970, with separate regular season and playoff schedules except for the championship game. NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle also became chief executive of the AFL from July 26, 1966, through the completion of the merger. During this time the AFL expanded, adding the Miami Dolphins and Cincinnati Bengals. After losses by Kansas City and Oakland in the first two AFL-NFL World Championship Game to the Green Bay Packers (1967/1968), the New York Jets and Kansas City Chiefs won Super Bowls III and IV (1969/1970) respectively, cementing the league's claim to being an equal to the NFL.

In 1970, the AFL was absorbed into the NFL and the league reorganized with the ten AFL franchises along with the previous NFL teams Baltimore Colts, Cleveland Browns, and Pittsburgh Steelers becoming part of the newly-formed American Football Conference.


Bartle may refer to:

The Bartle Test of Gamer Psychology which categorises players of multiplayer online games.

R. v. Bartle, a key case in Canadian law.

Bartle Bogle Hegarty, a British advertising agency.

Bartle Hall Convention Center, a convention center in Kansas City, Missouri, United States

Bartle, Indiana, an unincorporated community in the United States

Country Club District

The Country Club District is the name of a group of neighborhoods composing a historic upscale residential district in Kansas City, developed by noted real estate developer J.C. Nichols. The district was developed in stages between 1906 and 1950, and today is home to approximately 60,000 and includes such well-known Kansas City neighborhoods as Sunset Hill and Brookside in Missouri, Mission Hills, Fairway, and the oldest parts of Prairie Village in Kansas, making it the largest planned community built by a single developer in the United States. Ward Parkway, a wide, manicured boulevard, traverses the district running south from the Country Club Plaza, the first suburban shopping district in the United States.

Fork Union Military Academy

Fork Union Military Academy (abbreviated as FUMA) is a private, all-male, college preparatory military boarding school located in Fork Union, Virginia. Founded in 1898, Fork Union is considered one of the premier military boarding academies in the United States.Fork Union is a member of the Association of Military Colleges and Schools of the United States and the National Association of Independent Schools, and is affiliated with the Baptist General Association of Virginia. FUMA's curriculum extends from the 7th to 12th grade and also hosts a one-year postgraduate program.

Ilus W. Davis

Ilus Winfield Davis (April 22, 1917 – September 4, 1996) was mayor of Kansas City, Missouri, United States from 1963 to 1971.

"Ike" Davis grew up on the east side of Kansas City and in 1933 was in the freshman class of the University of Kansas City which was to become the University of Missouri-Kansas City. He was instrumental in founding the student newspaper the University News. He was to get a law degree from the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri and served in the Army during World War II.

Davis was elected Kansas City mayor by 1,810 votes in nearly 110,000 cast in 1963. He oversaw the bond issue to build Kansas City International Airport and pushed for construction of the Truman Sports Complex for the Kansas City Chiefs and eventually the Kansas City Royals. He dealt with labor strife during the construction of the two projects and the 1968 Kansas City riot following the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King. In April 1968 following the King assassination Davis met with a large group of inner city school students on the steps of City Hall. A police officer fired tear gas canister into the crowd and a riot erupted in which five were to die.

J. Sterling Morton High School East

J. Sterling Morton High School East (often called Morton East) is a public secondary school located in Cicero, Illinois. Morton East is one of three schools in J. Sterling Morton High School District 201. Morton East is a sophomore through senior building, with future students attending the J. Sterling Morton Freshman Center for one year. Morton East's sister school, J. Sterling Morton High School West is a four-year secondary school.

From 1920–59, the school operated as Morton High School, changing its name when Morton West opened.

The district and its schools are named after Julius Sterling Morton because he was friends with Cicero resident and fur trader Portus Baxter Weare.In the high school district students living east of Ridgeland Avenue are zoned to Morton East; areas east of Ridgeland Avenue include Cicero and a small portion of Berwyn. There are small sections of Stickney and Forest View, but no Stickney residents live in that section.

June 25

June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 189 days remain until the end of the year.

Kansas City Chiefs

The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City, Missouri. The Chiefs compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) West division. The team was founded in 1960 as the Dallas Texans by businessman Lamar Hunt and was a charter member of the American Football League (AFL). (They are not associated with the NFL Dallas Texans.) In 1963, the team relocated to Kansas City and assumed their current name. The Chiefs joined the NFL as a result of the merger in 1970. The team is valued at over $2 billion. Hunt's son, Clark, serves as chairman and CEO. While Hunt's ownership stakes passed collectively to his widow and children after his death in 2006, Clark represents the Chiefs at all league meetings and has ultimate authority on personnel changes.

The Chiefs have won three AFL championships, in 1962, 1966, and 1969. They became the second AFL team (after the New York Jets) to defeat an NFL team in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game, when they defeated the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl IV. The team's victory on January 11, 1970, remains the club's last championship game victory and appearance to date, and occurred in the final such competition prior to the leagues' merger coming into full effect. The Chiefs were also the second team, after the Green Bay Packers, to appear in more than one Super Bowl (and the first AFL team to do so) and the first to appear in the championship game in two different decades. Despite post-season success early in the franchise's history, winning five of their first six postseason games, the team has struggled to find success in the playoffs since. As of the conclusion of the 2018–19 playoffs, they have lost 12 of their last 14 playoff games, including eight straight, at the time the longest playoff losing streak in NFL history. The playoff losing streak stretched from the 1993-94 AFC Championship game to the 2013-14 Divisional Round. The only playoffs wins over the last 14 playoff games were a 30–0 win over the Texans in the 2015–16 playoffs and a 31–13 over the Colts in the 2018–19 playoffs.

Kansas City Convention Center

The Kansas City Convention Center, often referred to as the Bartle Hall Convention Center or simply Bartle Hall, is a major convention center in downtown Kansas City, Missouri, USA. It is named for Harold Roe Bartle, a prominent, two-term mayor of Kansas City in the 1950s and early-1960s. Bartle Hall's four tall art deco inspired pylons are a striking fixture in the Kansas City skyline.

List of Freemasons (A–D)

This is a list of notable Freemasons. Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that exists in a number of forms worldwide. Throughout history some members of the fraternity have made no secret of their involvement, while others have not made their membership public. In some cases, membership can only be proven by searching through the fraternity's records. Such records are most often kept at the individual lodge level, and may be lost due to fire, flood, deterioration, or simple carelessness. Grand Lodge governance may have shifted or reorganized, resulting in further loss of records on the member or the name, number, location or even existence of the lodge in question. In areas of the world where Masonry has been suppressed by governments, records of entire grand lodges have been destroyed. Because of this, masonic membership can sometimes be difficult to verify.

Standards of "proof" for those on this list may vary widely; some figures with no verified lodge affiliation are claimed as Masons if reliable sources give anecdotal evidence suggesting they were familiar with the "secret" signs and passes, but other figures are rejected over technical questions of regularity in the lodge that initiated them. Where available, specific lodge membership information is provided; where serious questions of verification have been noted by other sources, this is also indicated.

List of convention centers named after people

This is a list of convention centers named after people. It details the name of the convention center, its location and eponym.

List of people from Wyoming

This is a list of prominent people who were born in or lived for a significant period of time in U.S. state of Wyoming.

List of recipients of the Silver Buffalo Award

This list of recipients of the Silver Buffalo Award includes people who have been awarded the highest commendation of the Boy Scouts of America. Since the Silver Buffalo Award was first awarded in 1926, 764 have been presented as of 2016.

List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples

While the history of colonization and marginalization is not unique to the Americas, the practice of deriving sports team names, imagery, and mascots from indigenous peoples of North America is a significant phenomenon in the United States and Canada. The popularity of the American Indian in global culture has led to a number of teams in Europe also adopting team names derived from Native Americans. In Asia, Africa, Australia and South America, the adoption of indigenous names generally indicates that the team members are themselves indigenous. While there are team names in North America derived from other ethnic groups, such as the Boston Celtics, the New York Yankees, the University of Notre Dame "Fighting Irish" and the Minnesota Vikings, these are names selected by immigrant/settler groups to represent themselves.

The rise of indigenous rights movements has led to controversy regarding the continuation of practices rooted in colonialism. Such practices maintain the power relationship between the dominant culture and the indigenous culture, and can be seen as a form of cultural imperialism. Such practices are seen as particularly harmful in schools and universities, which have the a stated purpose of promoting ethnic diversity and inclusion. In recognition of the responsibility of higher education to eliminate behaviors that creates a hostile environment for education, in 2005 the NCAA initiated a policy against "hostile and abusive" names and mascots that led to the change of many derived from Native American culture, with the exception of those that established an agreement with particular tribes for the use of their specific names. Other schools retain their names because they were founded for the education of Native Americans, and continue to have a significant number of indigenous students.

The trend towards the elimination of indigenous names and mascots in local schools has been steady, with two thirds having been eliminated over the past 50 years according to the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI). In a few states with significant Native American populations, change has been mandated by law, such in Wisconsin, Oregon, and Washington.Little League International has updated its 2019 rulebook to include a statement prohibiting "the use of team names, mascots, nicknames or logos that are racially insensitive, derogatory or discriminatory in nature." This decision has been applauded by the National Congress of American Indians.

Missouri Valley College

Missouri Valley College is a private liberal arts college that is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA) and located in Marshall, Missouri. The college was founded in 1889 and supports 40 academic majors and an enrollment close to 1,800 students. Missouri Valley College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, a Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

Native American mascot controversy

The use of terms and images referring to Native Americans/First Nations as the name or mascot for a sports team is a topic of public controversy in the United States and Canada. Since the 1960s, as part of the indigenous civil rights movements, there have been a number of protests and other actions by Native Americans and their supporters. The protests target the prominent use of such names and images by professional franchises such as the Cleveland Indians (in particular their "Chief Wahoo" logo, now officially retired); and the Washington Redskins (the term "redskins" being defined in most American English dictionaries as "derogatory slang"). Changes, such as the retirement of Native American names and mascots in a wide array of schools, has been a steady trend since the 1970s.

The issue is often discussed in the media only in terms of the offensiveness of certain terms, images, and performances to individuals of Native American heritage, which tends to reduce the problem to one of feelings and personal opinions. This prevents a fuller understanding of the history and context of the use of Native American names and images, and the reasons why sports teams should eliminate the utilization of such terms. Social science research says that sports mascots and images, rather than being mere entertainment, are important symbols with deeper psychological and social effects. The accumulation of research on the harm done has led to over 115 professional organizations representing civil rights, educational, athletic, and scientific experts adopting resolutions or policies that state that the use of Native American names and/or symbols by non-native sports teams is a form of ethnic stereotyping that promotes misunderstanding and prejudice which contributes to other problems faced by Native Americans.Defenders of the current usage often state their intention to honor Native Americans by referring to positive traits, such as fighting spirit and being strong, brave, stoic, dedicated, and proud; while opponents see these traits as being based upon stereotypes of Native Americans as savages. In general, the social sciences recognize that all stereotypes, whether positive or negative, are harmful because they promote false or misleading associations between a group and an attribute, fostering a disrespectful relationship. The injustice of such stereotypes is recognized with regard to other racial or ethnic groups, thus mascots are morally questionable regardless of offense being taken by individuals. Defenders of the status quo also state that the issue is not important, being only about sports, and that the opposition is nothing more than "political correctness", which change advocates argue ignores the extensive evidence of harmful effects of stereotypes and bias. Although there has been a steady decline in the number of teams doing so, Native American images and nicknames nevertheless remain fairly common in American and Canadian sports, and may be found in use at all levels, from youth teams to professional sports franchises.

Tribe of Mic-O-Say

The Tribe of Mic-O-Say is an honor society used by two local councils of the Boy Scouts of America, Heart of America Council and Pony Express Council; it is not a program of the National Council of the BSA. Mic-O-Say's ceremonies, customs, and traditions are based on the folklore of the American Indian. Both councils use both the Tribe of Mic-O-Say and the Order of the Arrow.

William E. Kemp

William Ewing Kemp (February 8, 1889 – July 29, 1968) was a mayor of Kansas City, Missouri from 1946 to 1955.

Kemp was born in La Monte, Missouri and received his undergraduate degree from Central Missouri State University. He was a law graduate of Washington University in St. Louis in 1917 and World War I veteran.

In 1940 he was appointed by mayor Joe Gage to be city counsel and prosecuted several city employees in the fall of the Thomas Pendergast machine. Kemp was elected to a two-year term in 1946, re-elected to a three-year term in 1949 and then re-elected to a four-year term in 1952.

During his tenure the Chouteau Bridge and Paseo Bridge were built across the Missouri River and Starlight Theatre (Kansas City) opened.

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