Harmukh (also known as Mount Haramukh or Harmukh mountain) is a mountain with a peak elevation[2] of 5,142 metres (16,870 ft), in Ganderbal district of Jammu and Kashmir in India. Harmukh is part of the Himalaya Range, and is located between Nallah Sindh in the south and Kishanganga Neelum River in the north, rising above Gangabal Lake[3] in the vicinity of Kashmir valley. It is mostly climbed from the northwestern side of Arin Bandipore.

Highest point
Elevation5,142 m (16,870 ft) [1]
Prominence1,462 m (4,797 ft) [1]
Coordinates34°24′00″N 74°54′30″E / 34.40000°N 74.90833°ECoordinates: 34°24′00″N 74°54′30″E / 34.40000°N 74.90833°E[1]
Harmukh is located in Jammu and Kashmir
Harmukh on a map of Jammu and Kashmir, India
Harmukh is located in India
Harmukh (India)
LocationGanderbal, Kashmir Valley, India
Parent rangeHimalayas
First ascent1856 by Thomas Montgomerie, United Kingdom
Easiest routeArin Bandipore
Harmukh Peak, Kashmir
Mount Harmukh's summit

Religious beliefs

Harmukh, with Gangbal Lake at its foot, is considered a sacred mountain by Hindus.[4] According to Kashmiri Hindus theology, Harmukh is the abode of Lord Shiva.[5][6] According to the legend of "Hurmukhuk Gosoni"[7]

Once a hermit tried to reach the summit of Harmukh to see Lord Shiva face to face. For twelve long years he tried to scale the summit, but failed until one day he saw a Gujar descending the summit. When the Gujar approached him, the hermit enquired as to what he had seen there. The Gujar said he had been searching for a stray goat, and that while searching he saw a couple milking a cow and drinking the milk from a human skull. The couple had offered him some milk, which he refused to drink; when they departed they rubbed a little of the milk on his forehead. When the Gujar indicated the spot where the milk was rubbed, the hermit was extremely joyful and rushed to lick his forehead. It is said that the hermit attained Nirvana and disappeared from the place, to the complete surprise of the Gujar.

Geographical setting

Harmukh lies in the northwestern Himalayan Range. The Karakoram Range borders it on the north and the Kashmir Valley on the south. Melt waters from glaciers form Gangabal Lake which lies at its foot to the north east side and contribute significantly to the regional fresh-water supply, supporting irrigation through Nallah Sindh. This Himalayan Range lies along the southern edge of the Eurasian tectonic plate and is made up of ancient sedimentary rocks (more than 390 million years old). Those strata were folded and thrust-faulted, and granite masses were intruded, when the Indian plate collided with Eurasia, beginning more than 100 million years ago.[8] It is notable for its local relief as it is a consistently steep pyramid, dropping sharply to the east and south, with the eastern slope the steepest.

Climbing history

Harmukh was first climbed by members of the Great Trigonometric Survey led by Thomas Montgomerie in 1856. Montgomerie made the first survey of the Karakoram some 210 km (130 miles) to the north, and sketched the two most prominent peaks, labelling them K1 and K2.[9] Harmukh was later climbed by many other climbers. Most Recently the Haramukh peak was climbed by a local group of climbers from Alpine Adventurers on September 20, 2015. This was the first successful ascent to the eastern peak after nearly 3 decades.[10]

The policy of the Great Trigonometric Survey was to use local names for mountains wherever possible[11] and K1 was found to be known locally as Masherbrum. K2, however, appeared not to have acquired a local name, possibly due to its remoteness. The mountain is not visible from Askole, the last village to the south, or from the nearest habitation to the north, and is only fleetingly glimpsed from the end of the Baltoro Glacier, beyond which few local people would have ventured.[12] Therefore, Harmukh is the mountain from which the world's second-highest mountain peak, K2, was discovered[13] and the name given it by the Survey, K2, continues to be used.

Climbing routes

The easiest route among the different routes of Harmukh is via Arin Bandipore,[14] 47 km motorable road from Srinagar to Arin and 18 kilometers of high altitude alpine trek leads to the base of Harmukh. Another trek leads from Naranag[15] to the base of Harmukh at Gangabal Lake, but it is a steep climb at some places.[16]


  1. ^ a b c "The Karakoram, Pakistan Himalaya and India Himalaya (north of Nepal) - 68 Mountain Summits with Prominence of 1,500 meters or greater". Peaklist.org. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  2. ^ "How high is Harmukh". wolframalpha.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  3. ^ "Geography of Kashmir". kousa.org. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  4. ^ "Bhag-P 5.25.1". Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  5. ^ "Gangabal Harmukh pilgrimage". searchkashmir.org. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  6. ^ "Know Your Motherland – Gangabal Lake".
  7. ^ Some Marvels of Kashmir
  8. ^  This article incorporates public domain material from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration document "STS106-705-9".
  9. ^ Curran, Jim (1995). K2: The Story of the Savage Mountain. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 25. ISBN 978-0340660072.
  10. ^ "Rimo expeditions". rimoriverexpeditions.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  11. ^ The most obvious exception to this policy was Mount Everest, where the local name Chomolungma was probably known, but ignored in order to pay tribute to George Everest. See Curran, p. 29-30.
  12. ^ Curran, p. 30
  13. ^ Robert Hicks Bates (1939). Five miles high: the story of an attack on second highest mountain in the world. Dodd, Mead & company, 1939. p. 25–. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  14. ^ M.S. Kohli (1983). The Himalayas: Play Ground of the Gods Trekking Climbling Adventure. Indus Publishing, 1983. p. 40–. ISBN 9788173871078. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  15. ^ Parvez Dewan (2004). Parvéz Dewân's Jammû, Kashmîr, and Ladâkh: Kashmîr. Manas Publications, 2004. p. 260–. ISBN 9788170491798. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  16. ^ "Treks of Kashmir". KashmirTreks.com. Retrieved 24 October 2013.

External links

Arshad Sauleh

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Bandipore district

Bandipore district or (also spelt as Bandipora) is one of the 22 districts in Jammu and Kashmir state in northern India. Bandipore town is the administrative headquarters of the district. Bandipore, a township with peculiar scenic beauty is located in the foothills of the snow clad peaks of Harmukh overlooking the schores of Wular has produced hundreds, of scholars and intellectuals. Before, 1947, this town was a big trade and literary centre of Kashmir. Bandipore, the birthplace of great Historian, Hassan Khoehami. This district was carved out from the erstwhile Baramulla district in 2007. The district is bounded by Kupwara district in the west, Baramulla district in the south and Kargil, Srinagar and Ganderbal districts in the east. This district occupies an area of 398 km². The district has a population of 392,232 as per 2011 census.

Doru Shahabad

Doru Shahabad (also written as Dooru Shahabad or only Doru) is a town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district of the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. It is also known as historical township in South Kashmir's Anantnag district. Doru shahabad has been known as a place of intelligentia where great scholars like Mehmood shah Gami, Rasul Mir shahabadi, were borne who contributed to the literature and culture of kashmir. In present times shahabad has produced chief minister like syed mir qasim and many other politicians, beuracrates and some leading agricultural scientists.

Ganderbal district

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Gangabal Lake

The Gangbal Lake also called Gangbal Lake, is a lake situated at the foothills of Mount Haramukh (the second highest mountain peak in the vicinity of Kashmir valley) in Ganderbal district, north of Srinagar city in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is an alpine high altitude oligotrophic lake, home to many species of fish, including the brown trout.The lake has a maximum length of two and a half kilometers and maximum width of one kilometre. It is fed by precipitation, glaciers and springs. The lake water outflows to a nearby Nundkol Lake and then via Wangath Nallah to Sind River.


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The main occupations of the people include agriculture, trade and services.

Nadihal has a government dispensary, a panchayat ghar, and a recently allocated ISM (Indian System of Medicine) hospital. Nadihal has several sweet water springs. The famous one is located near the Dispensary.. There are also two bank branches : Grameen Bank and recently established J&K Bank branch (inaugurated 2017).

In Nadihal, there are 8 mosques, a Jamia mosque and an Eid Gah. The main Jamia Masjid called "Markazi Jamia Masjid Nadihal" run by local Auqaf committee (that consists of people from all walks of life, to given due representation all al mosques), is located near the main bus stop. It is beautifully decorated and has almost 4 storeys.

Nadihal market consists of almost 50 shops selling daily consumables including groceries, vegetables and fruits, medicine, timber, steel, iron. The Nadihal market is now so well established that you can find everything in the market from the Roofings to tiles to medicines etc.

In common with other parts of the district, Nadihal village is also well known for its scenic beauty, and plentiful availability of water. It is located on the banks of world-famous Wular Lake. A beautiful panoramic view of the village can be seen from a nearby resort Wular Vintage Park. One can also have a scintillating view of the picturesque Harmukh mountains in the background.

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