Hare

Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. Hares are classified in the same family as rabbits. They are similar in size and form to rabbits and have similar herbivorous diets, but generally have longer ears and live solitarily or in pairs. Also unlike rabbits, their young are able to fend for themselves shortly after birth (precocial) rather than emerging blind and helpless (altricial). Most are fast runners. Hare species are native to Africa, Eurasia, North America, and the Japanese archipelago.

Five leporid species with "hare" in their common names are not considered true hares: the hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), and four species known as red rock hares (comprising Pronolagus). Conversely, Jackrabbits are hares, rather than rabbits.

A hare less than one year old is called a leveret. A group of hares is called a "drove".

Hares
Scrub Hare (Lepus saxatilis) close-up (30544290256) (2)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Lagomorpha
Family: Leporidae
Genus: Lepus
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Lepus timidus
Species

See text

Biology

Hares are swift animals: The European hare (Lepus europaeus) can run up to 56 km/h (35 mph).[1][2] The five species of jackrabbits found in central and western North America are able to run at 64 km/h (40 mph), and can leap up to 3 m (10 ft) at a time.[3]

Normally a shy animal, the European brown hare changes its behavior in spring, when they can be seen in daytime chasing one another. This appears to be competition between males to attain dominance for breeding. During this spring frenzy, animals of both sexes can be seen "boxing", one hare striking another with its paws. This notable behavior gives rise to the idiom, mad as a March hare.[4] This is present not only in intermale competition, but among females toward males to prevent copulation.[5][6]

Differences from rabbits

Hare-Edmonton-Alberta-Canada-05A
Wild hare doe in city garden

Hares do not bear their young below ground in a burrow as do other leporids, but rather in a shallow depression or flattened nest of grass called a form. Young hares are adapted to the lack of physical protection, relative to that afforded by a burrow, by being born fully furred and with eyes open. They are hence precocial, and are able to fend for themselves soon after birth. By contrast, rabbits are altricial, having young that are born blind and hairless.[7]

All rabbits (except the cottontail rabbits) live underground in burrows or warrens, while hares (and cottontail rabbits) live in simple nests above the ground, and usually do not live in groups. Hares are generally larger than rabbits, with longer ears, and have black markings on their fur. Hares have not been domesticated, while rabbits are raised for food and kept as house pets. The domestic pet known as the "Belgian Hare" is a rabbit that has been selectively bred to resemble a hare.[8]

Hares have jointed, or kinetic, skulls, unique among mammals. They have 48 chromosomes while rabbits have 44.

Classification

The 32 species listed are:

Jack Rabbit Ears
Hare
Brooklyn Museum - California Hare - John J. Audubon
Brooklyn Museum - California Hare - John J. Audubon
Brown Hare444
Cape hare Lepus capensis

As food

Albrecht Dürer - Hare, 1502 - Google Art Project
Young Hare, a watercolour, 1502, by Albrecht Dürer

Hares and rabbits are plentiful in many areas, adapt to a wide variety of conditions, and reproduce quickly, so hunting is often less regulated than for other varieties of game. In rural areas of North America and particularly in pioneer times,[10] they were a common source of meat. Because of their extremely low fat content, they are a poor choice as a survival food.[11]

Hares can be prepared in the same manner as rabbits — commonly roasted or parted for breading and frying.

Hasenpfeffer (also spelled Hasenfeffer) is a traditional German stew made from marinated rabbit or hare. Pfeffer here means not only the obvious spicing with pepper and other spices, but also means a dish in which the animal's blood is used as a thickening agent for the sauce. Wine or vinegar is also a prominent ingredient, to lend a sourness to the recipe.

Lagos Stifado (Λαγός στιφάδο) — hare stew with pearl onions, vinegar, red wine and cinnamon — is a much-prized dish enjoyed in Greece and Cyprus and communities in the diaspora, particularly in Australia where the hare is hunted as a feral pest.

Jugged hare, known as civet de lièvre in France, is a whole hare, cut into pieces, marinated, and cooked with red wine and juniper berries in a tall jug that stands in a pan of water. It traditionally is served with the hare's blood (or the blood is added right at the very end of the cooking process) and port wine.[12][13][14][15]

Jugged hare is described in the influential 18th-century cookbook, The Art of Cookery by Hannah Glasse, with a recipe titled, "A Jugged Hare", that begins, "Cut it into little pieces, lard them here and there ..." The recipe goes on to describe cooking the pieces of hare in water in a jug set within a bath of boiling water to cook for three hours.[16] Beginning in the 19th century, Glasse has been widely credited with having started the recipe with the words "First, catch your hare," as in this citation.[13] This attribution is apocryphal.

Having a freshly caught (or shot) hare enables one to obtain its blood. A freshly killed hare is prepared for jugging by removing its entrails and then hanging it in a larder by its hind legs, which causes the blood to accumulate in the chest cavity. One method of preserving the blood after draining it from the hare (since the hare is usually hung for a week or more) is to mix it with red wine vinegar to prevent coagulation, and then to store it in a freezer.[17][18]

Many other British cookbooks from before the middle of the 20th century have recipes for jugged hare. Merle and Reitch[19] have this to say about jugged hare, for example:

The best part of the hare, when roasted, is the loin and the thick part of the hind leg; the other parts are only fit for stewing, hashing, or jugging. It is usual to roast a hare first, and to stew or jug the portion which is not eaten the first day. [...]
To Jug A Hare. This mode of cooking a hare is very desirable when there is any doubt as to its age, as an old hare, which would be otherwise uneatable, may be made into an agreeable dish. [...]

In 2006, a survey of 2021 people for the UKTV Food television channel found only 1.6% of the people under 25 recognized jugged hare by name. Seven of 10 stated they would refuse to eat jugged hare if it were served at the house of a friend or a relative.[20]

The hare (and in recent times, the rabbit) is a staple of Maltese cuisine. The dish was presented to the island's Grandmasters of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, as well as Renaissance Inquisitors resident on the island, several of whom went on to become pope.

According to Jewish tradition, the hare is among mammals deemed not kosher, and therefore not eaten by observant Jews. According to Islamic dietary laws, Muslims deem coney meat (rabbit, pika, hyrax) halal, and in Egypt, hare and rabbit are popular meats for mulukhiyah (jute leaf soup), especially in Cairo.[21] The Shia, though, have difference in opinion.

In England, a now rarely served dish is potted hare. The hare meat is cooked, then covered in at least one inch (preferably more) of butter. The butter is a preservative (excludes air); the dish can be stored for up to several months. It is served cold, often on bread or as an appetizer.

Folklore and mythology

The hare in African folk tales is a trickster; some of the stories about the hare were retold among African slaves in America, and are the basis of the Br'er Rabbit stories. The hare appears in English folklore in the saying "as mad as a March hare" and in the legend of the White Hare that alternatively tells of a witch who takes the form of a white hare and goes out looking for prey at night or of the spirit of a broken-hearted maiden who cannot rest and who haunts her unfaithful lover.[22][23]

Many cultures, including the Chinese, Japanese, and Mexican, see a hare in the pattern of dark patches in the moon (see Moon rabbit). The constellation Lepus is also taken to represent a hare.

The hare was once regarded as an animal sacred to Aphrodite and Eros because of its high libido. Live hares were often presented as a gift of love.[24] Now the hare is commonly associated with the Anglo-Saxon goddess Ēostre, and therefore pagan symbols like the Easter Bunny have been appropriated into the Christian tradition. However, no primary sources support this belief, which seems to be a modern invention.[25]

In European tradition, the hare symbolises the two qualities of swiftness[26] and timidity.[27] The latter once gave the European hare the Linnaean name Lepus timidus[28] that is now limited to the Mountain hare. Several ancient fables depict the Hare in flight; in one concerning The Hares and the Frogs they even decide to commit mass suicide until they come across a creature so timid that it is even frightened of them. Conversely, in The Tortoise and the Hare, the best-known among Aesop's Fables, the hare loses a race through being too confident in its swiftness. In Irish folklore, the hare is often associated with Sidh (Fairy) or other pagan elements. In these stories, characters who harm hares often suffer dreadful consequences.

In June 2014, the Pushkin House (the Institute of Russian Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences) hosted the international conference, "The Philosophy of the Hare: Unexpected perspectives in the research in the humanities".[29] The conference organizers came up with the idea as a retort to an earlier claim by Russia's Minister of Culture Vladimir Medinsky that humanities scholars were wasting government money conducting research on incomprehensible topics with names such as the one they chose.

Three hares

Paderborner Dom Dreihasenfenster
Dreihasenfenster (Window of Three Hares) in Paderborn Cathedral

A study in 2004 followed the history and migration of a symbolic image of three hares with conjoined ears. In this image, three hares are seen chasing each other in a circle with their heads near its centre. While each of the animals appears to have two ears, only three ears are depicted. The ears form a triangle at the centre of the circle and each is shared by two of the hares. The image has been traced from Christian churches in the English county of Devon right back along the Silk Road to China, via western and eastern Europe and the Middle East. Before its appearance in China, it was possibly first depicted in the Middle East before being reimported centuries later. Its use is associated with Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Buddhist sites stretching back to about 600 CE.[30]

Place names

The hare has given rise to local place names, as they can often be observed in favoured localities. An example in Scotland is 'Murchland', 'murchen' being a Scots word for a hare.[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ McKay, George; McGhee, Karen (10 October 2006). National Geographic Encyclopedia of Animals. National Geographic Books. p. 68. ISBN 9780792259367.
  2. ^ Vu, Alan. "Lepus europaeus: European hare". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
  3. ^ "Jackrabbits, Jackrabbit Pictures, Jackrabbit Facts - National Geographic". Animals.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  4. ^ "Definition of 'March hare'". Collins.
  5. ^ Holly, A.J.F. & Greenwood, P.J. (1984). "The myth of the mad March hare". Nature. 309: 549–550.
  6. ^ Flux, J.E.C. (1987). "Myths and mad March hares". Nature. 325: 737. doi:10.1038/325737a0.
  7. ^ Langley, Liz (19 December 2014). "What's the Difference Between Rabbits and Hares?". National Geographic.
  8. ^ Pet Planet - Small Breed Profile - Belgian Hare
  9. ^ Hoffman, R.S.; Smith, A.T. (2005). "Order Lagomorpha". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 195–205. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  10. ^ Brock (2009-05-18). "Mormon Pioneer Foodways: Rabbit, anyone?". Pioneerfoodie.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  11. ^ Gary L. Benton. "Vitamins, Minerals, and Survival". Preparedness and Self-Reliance. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  12. ^ Tom Jaine. "A Glossery of Cookery and other Terms". The History of English Cookery. Prospect Books.
  13. ^ a b "Chips are down for Britain's old culinary classics". The Guardian. 2006-07-25. p. 6.
  14. ^ "Jugged". The Great British Kitchen. The British Food Trust.
  15. ^ "Recipes: Game: Jugged Hare". The Great British Kitchen. The British Food Trust.
  16. ^ Glasse, Hannah. The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy. London, 1747. page 50
  17. ^ Bill Deans. "Hares, Brown, Blue or White". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.
  18. ^ John Seymour & Sally Seymour (September–October 1976). "Farming for Self-Sufficiency Independence on a 5-acre (20,000 m2) Farm". Mother Earth News (41). Archived from the original on 2006-09-01.
  19. ^ Gibbons Merle & John Reitch (1842). The domestic dictionary and housekeeper's manual. London: William Strange. p. 113.
  20. ^ "Hannah Glasse's Jugged Hare". Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  21. ^ "Rabbit Molokhia". SBS Food.
  22. ^ "The White Hare". Folk-this.tripod.com. 1969-05-13. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  23. ^ "Legends of Britain: The White Hare". Britannia.com. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  24. ^ John Layard, The Lady of the Hare, "The Hare in Classical Antiquity", pp.208 - 21
  25. ^ Hunt-Anschütz, A. Æ. (2006). "Eostre and Easter Customs". Association of Polytheist Traditions.
  26. ^ As fast as a hare
  27. ^ Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Cambridge University 2014, p.32
  28. ^ The Popular Encyclopaedia 3.2., Glasgow 1836, p.634
  29. ^ "Философия зайца": неожиданные перспективы гуманитарных исследований" ("The Philosophy of the Hare: Unexpected perspectives in the research in the humanities")
  30. ^ Chris Chapman (2004). "The three hares project". Retrieved 2008-11-11.
  31. ^ Warrack, Alexander, ed. (1984). Chambers Scots dictionary. Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers. ISBN 9780550118011.

Further reading

External links

Arctic hare

The Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) is a species of hare which is highly adapted to living in the Arctic tundra, and other icy biomes. The Arctic hare survives with shortened ears and limbs, a small nose, fat that makes up 20% of its body, and a thick coat of fur. It usually digs holes in the ground or under snow to keep warm and sleep. Arctic hares look like rabbits but have shorter ears, are taller when standing, and, unlike rabbits, can thrive in extreme cold. They can travel together with many other hares, sometimes huddling with dozens or more, but are usually found alone, sometimes taking more than one partner. The Arctic hare can run up to 60 kilometres per hour (40 mph).

Bugs Bunny

Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character, created in the late 1930s by Leon Schlesinger Productions (later Warner Bros. Cartoons) and voiced originally by Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short films, produced by Warner Bros. Though a similar character debuted in the WB cartoon Porky's Hare Hunt (1938) and appeared in a few subsequent shorts, the definitive character of Bugs is widely credited to have made his debut in director Tex Avery's Oscar-nominated film A Wild Hare (1940).Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray and white rabbit who is famous for his flippant, insouciant personality. He is also characterized by a Brooklyn accent, his portrayal as a trickster, and his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?" Due to Bugs' popularity during the golden age of American animation, he became an American cultural icon and the official mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment. He can thus be seen in the older Warner Bros. company logos.Since his debut, Bugs has appeared in various short films, feature films, compilations, TV series, music records, comics, video games, award shows, amusement park rides, and commercials. He has also appeared in more films than any other cartoon character, is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world, and has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Burke and Hare murders

The Burke and Hare murders were a series of 16 killings committed over a period of about ten months in 1828 in Edinburgh, Scotland. They were undertaken by William Burke and William Hare, who sold the corpses to Robert Knox for dissection at his anatomy lectures.

Edinburgh was a leading European centre of anatomical study in the early 19th century, in a time when the demand for cadavers led to a shortfall in legal supply. Scottish law required that corpses used for medical research should only come from those who had died in prison, suicide victims, or from foundlings and orphans. The shortage of corpses led to an increase in body snatching by what were known as "resurrection men". Measures to ensure graves were left undisturbed exacerbated the shortage. When a lodger in Hare's house died, Hare turned to his friend Burke for advice and they decided to sell the body to Knox. They received what was, for them, the generous sum of £7 10s. A little over two months later, when Hare was concerned that a lodger suffering from fever would deter others from staying in the house, he and Burke murdered her and sold the body to Knox. The men continued their murder spree, probably with the knowledge of their wives. Burke and Hare's actions were uncovered after other lodgers discovered their last victim, Margaret Docherty, and contacted the police.

A forensic examination of Docherty's body indicated she had probably been suffocated, but this could not be proven. Although the police suspected Burke and Hare of other murders, there was no evidence on which they could take action. An offer was put to Hare granting immunity from prosecution if he turned king's evidence. He provided the details of Docherty's murder and confessed to all 16 deaths; formal charges were made against Burke and his wife for three murders. At the subsequent trial Burke was found guilty of one murder and sentenced to death. The case against his wife was found not proven—a Scottish legal verdict to acquit an individual but not declare them innocent. Burke was hanged shortly afterwards; his corpse was dissected and his skeleton displayed at the Anatomical Museum of Edinburgh Medical School where, as at 2018, it remains.

The murders raised public awareness of the need for bodies for medical research and contributed to the passing of the Anatomy Act 1832. The events have made appearances in literature, and been portrayed on screen, either in heavily fictionalised accounts or as the inspiration for fictional works.

David Hare (playwright)

Sir David Hare (born 5 June 1947) is an English playwright, screenwriter and theatre and film director. Best known for his stage work, Hare has also enjoyed great success with films, receiving two Academy Award nominations for Best Adapted Screenplay for writing The Hours in 2002, based on the novel written by Michael Cunningham, and The Reader in 2008, based on the novel of the same name written by Bernhard Schlink.

In the West End, he had his greatest success with the plays Plenty, which he adapted into a film starring Meryl Streep in 1985, Racing Demon (1990), Skylight (1997), and Amy's View (1998). The four plays ran on Broadway in 1982–83, 1996, 1998 and 1999 respectively, earning Hare three Tony Award nominations for Best Play for the first three and two Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Play. Other notable projects on stage include A Map of the World, Pravda, Murmuring Judges, The Absence of War and The Vertical Hour. He wrote screenplays for films including The Hours (2002) and The Reader (2008) and the BBC dramas Page Eight (2011) and Collateral (2018).

As at 2013, Hare has received two Academy Award nominations, three Golden Globe Award nominations, three Tony Award nominations and has won a BAFTA Award, a Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and two Laurence Olivier Awards. He has also been awarded several critics' awards such as the New York Drama Critics Circle Award, and received the Golden Bear in 1985. He was knighted in 1998.

Desert hare

The desert hare (Lepus tibetanus) is a species of hare found in Northwest China and countries adjacent to it. Little is known about this species except that it inhabits grassland and scrub areas of desert and semi-desert. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being of "least concern."

Easter Bunny

The Easter Bunny (also called the Easter Rabbit or Easter Hare) is a folkloric figure and symbol of Easter, depicted as a rabbit bringing Easter eggs. Originating among German Lutherans, the "Easter Hare" originally played the role of a judge, evaluating whether children were good or disobedient in behavior at the start of the season of Eastertide. The Easter Bunny is sometimes depicted with clothes. In legend, the creature carries colored eggs in his basket, candy, and sometimes also toys to the homes of children, and as such shows similarities to Santa Claus or the Christkind, as they both bring gifts to children on the night before their respective holidays. The custom was first mentioned in Georg Franck von Franckenau's De ovis paschalibus ('About Easter Eggs') in 1682, referring to a German tradition of an Easter Hare bringing Easter eggs for the children.

European hare

The European hare (Lepus europaeus), also known as the brown hare, is a species of hare native to Europe and parts of Asia. It is among the largest hare species and is adapted to temperate, open country. Hares are herbivorous and feed mainly on grasses and herbs, supplementing these with twigs, buds, bark and field crops, particularly in winter. Their natural predators include large birds of prey, canids and felids. They rely on high-speed endurance running to escape predation, having long, powerful limbs and large nostrils.

Generally nocturnal and shy in nature, hares change their behaviour in the spring, when they can be seen in broad daylight chasing one another around in fields. During this spring frenzy, they sometimes strike one another with their paws ("boxing"). This is usually not competition between males, but a female hitting a male, either to show she is not yet ready to mate or as a test of his determination. The female nests in a depression on the surface of the ground rather than in a burrow, and the young are active as soon as they are born. Litters may consist of three or four young and a female can bear three litters a year, with hares living for up to twelve years. The breeding season lasts from January to August.

The European hare is listed as being of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature because it has a wide range and is moderately abundant. However, populations have been declining in mainland Europe since the 1960s, at least partly due to changes in farming practices. The hare has been hunted across Europe for centuries, with more than five million being shot each year; in Britain, it has traditionally been hunted by beagling and hare coursing, but these field sports are now illegal. The hare has been a traditional symbol of fertility and reproduction in some cultures, and its courtship behaviour in the spring inspired the English idiom mad as a March hare.

Hare Krishna

Hare Krishna may refer to:

International Society for Krishna Consciousness, a group commonly known as "Hare Krishnas" or the "Hare Krishna movement"

Hare Krishna (mantra), a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra also known as the "Maha Mantra" (Great Mantra)

Hare Krishna (mantra)

The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra ("Great Mantra"), is a 16-word Vaishnava mantra which is mentioned in the Kali-Santarana Upanishad, and which from the 15th century rose to importance in the Bhakti movement following the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. This Mantra is composed of two Sanskrit names of the Supreme Being, "Krishna," and "Rama."According to Gaudiya Vaishnava theology, one's original consciousness and goal of life is pure love of the god Krishna.

Since the 1960s, the mantra has been made well known outside India by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada and his movement, International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as "the Hare Krishnas").

International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation. ISKCON was founded in 1966 in New York City by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada known to his followers as Guru and spiritual master. Its core beliefs are said to be based on select Hindu scriptures, particularly the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana, and the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, which has had adherents in India since the late 15th century and American and European converts since the early 1900s in North America . In West Virginia, the Prabhupada's Palace of Gold is now a shrine for the founder, who died in 1977.The movement has been labelled a sect by anti-cult organizations, but the New York State Supreme Court determined that ISKCON is a "bonafide religion". ISKCON was formed to spread the practice of Bhakti yoga, in which those involved (bhaktas) dedicate their thoughts and actions towards pleasing, Krishna, their Supreme Lord. Its most rapid expansions in membership as of 2007 have been within India and especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, in Russia.

Jordan–Hare Stadium

Jordan–Hare Stadium ( (listen) JUR-dən) is the playing venue for the Auburn University Tigers football team located on campus in Auburn, Alabama. The stadium is named for Ralph "Shug" Jordan, who owns the most wins in school history, and Cliff Hare, a member of Auburn's first football team as well as Dean of the Auburn University School of Chemistry and President of the Southern Conference.

On November 19, 2005, the playing field at the stadium was named in honor of former Auburn coach and athletic director Pat Dye. The venue is now known as Pat Dye Field at Jordan–Hare Stadium. The stadium reached its current seating capacity of 87,451 with the 2004 expansion and is the 10th largest stadium in the NCAA. By the end of the 2006 season, it was estimated that 19,308,753 spectators had attended a football game in Jordan–Hare. Jordan–Hare Stadium regularly makes lists of the best gameday atmospheres and most intimidating places to play.

Lagomorpha

The lagomorphs are the members of the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, of which there are two living families: the Leporidae (hares and rabbits) and the Ochotonidae (pikas). The name of the order is derived from the Ancient Greek lagos (λαγώς, "hare") + morphē (μορφή, "form"). There are about eighty-seven species of lagomorph, including about twenty-nine species of pika, twenty-eight species of rabbit and cottontail, and thirty species of hare.Lagomorphs share a common ancestor with rodents, together forming the clade Glires (Latin: "dormice"). Like the ancestors of most modern mammalian groups, this most recent common ancestor lived after the last great extinction event, the K–Pg extinction 66 million years ago that drove all dinosaurs except birds to extinction. Early lagomorphs arose perhaps in Asia and spread across the northern hemisphere. Later, rodents came to dominate more environmental niches, and lagomorphs seem to have been in decline.

Leporidae

Leporidae is the family of rabbits and hares, containing over 60 species of extant mammals in all. The Latin word Leporidae means "those that resemble lepus" (hare). Together with the pikas, the Leporidae constitute the mammalian order Lagomorpha. Leporidae differ from pikas in that they have short, furry tails and elongated ears and hind legs.

The common name "rabbit" usually applies to all genera in the family except Lepus, while members of Lepus (almost half the species) usually are called hares. Like most common names however, the distinction does not match current taxonomy completely; jackrabbits are members of Lepus, and members of the genera Pronolagus and Caprolagus sometimes are called hares.

Various countries across all continents except Antarctica and Australia have indigenous species of Leporidae. Furthermore, rabbits, most significantly the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, also have been introduced to most of Oceania and to many other islands, where they pose serious ecological and commercial threats.

O'Hare International Airport

O'Hare International Airport (IATA: ORD, ICAO: KORD, FAA LID: ORD), typically referred to as O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or simply O'Hare, is an international airport located on the far Northwest Side of Chicago, Illinois, 14 miles (23 km) northwest of the Loop business district, operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation and covering 7,627 acres (3,087 ha). O'Hare has non-stop flights to 217 destinations in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania.Established to be the successor to Chicago’s "busiest square mile in the world" Midway Airport, O'Hare began as an airfield serving a Douglas manufacturing plant for C-54 military transports during World War II. It was named for Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first Medal of Honor recipient during that war. Later, at the height of the Cold War, O'Hare served as an active fighter base for the Air Force.As the first major airport planned post-war, O’Hare's innovative design pioneered concepts such as concourses, direct highway access to the terminal, jet bridges, and underground refueling systems. It became famous as the first World’s Busiest Airport of the jet age, holding that distinction from 1963 to 1998; today, it is the world's sixth-busiest airport, serving 79.8 million passengers in 2017.

O'Hare is unusual in that it serves a major hub for more than one of the three U.S. mainline carriers; it is United's largest hub in both passengers and flights, while it is American's third-largest hub. It is also a focus city for Frontier Airlines and Spirit Airlines.While Terminals 2 and 3 remain of the original design, the airport has been engaged in a massive modernization of the airfield, and is beginning an expansion of passenger facilities that will remake it as North America’s first airport built around airline alliances.

Pika

A pika ( PY-kə; archaically spelled pica) is a small mammal, with short limbs, very round body, rounded ears, and no external tail. They resemble their close cousin the rabbit, but with shorter ears. They live in mountainous countries in Asia, and there are also two species in North America. Most pikas prefer rocky slopes. The large-eared pika of the Himalayas and nearby mountains is one of the highest living mammals; it is found at heights of more than 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). Pikas graze on a range of plants, mostly grasses, flowers and young stems. In the autumn, they pull hay, soft twigs and other stores of food into their burrows to eat during the long, cold winter. The name "pika" is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs; the latter also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). One genus, Ochotona, is recognised within the family, and it includes 30 species. It is also known as the "whistling hare" due to its high-pitched alarm call when diving into its burrow. In the United States, the pika is colloquially called a "coney", a nonspecific term also used for rabbits, hares, and hyraxes. The name "pika" appears to be derived from the Tungus piika and the scientific name Ochotona is from the Mongolian word ogdoi which means pika.

Rabbit

Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika). Oryctolagus cuniculus includes the European rabbit species and its descendants, the world's 305 breeds of domestic rabbit. Sylvilagus includes thirteen wild rabbit species, among them the seven types of cottontail. The European rabbit, which has been introduced on every continent except Antarctica, is familiar throughout the world as a wild prey animal and as a domesticated form of livestock and pet. With its widespread effect on ecologies and cultures, the rabbit (or bunny) is, in many areas of the world, a part of daily life—as food, clothing, a companion, and as a source of artistic inspiration.

Rabbit (zodiac)

The Rabbit (卯) is the fourth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Rabbit is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 卯.

In the Vietnamese zodiac and the Gurung zodiac, the cat takes the place of the Rabbit.

Single transferable vote

The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts). Under STV, an elector (voter) has a single vote that is initially allocated to their most preferred candidate. Votes are totalled and a quota (the number of votes required to win a seat) derived. If their candidate achieves quota, he/she is elected and in some STV systems any surplus vote is transferred to other candidates in proportion to the voters' stated preferences. If more candidates than seats remain, the bottom candidate is eliminated with his/her votes being transferred to other candidates as determined by the voters' stated preferences. These elections and eliminations, and vote transfers if applicable, continue until there are only as many candidates as there are unfilled seats. The specific method of transferring votes varies in different systems (see § Counting methods).

The system provides approximately proportional representation while mostly ensuring that the party with the most votes gets the most seats and that minorities have some representation; enables votes to be cast for individual candidates rather than for parties and party machine-controlled party lists, and – compared to first-past-the-post voting – reduces "wasted" votes (votes being wasted on losers and surplus votes being wasted on sure winners) by transferring them to other candidates.

STV is the system of choice of groups such as the Proportional Representation Society of Australia (which calls it quota-preferential proportional representation), the Electoral Reform Society in the United Kingdom and FairVote in the USA (which refers to STV as fair representation voting and instant-runoff voting as ranked-choice voting, although there are other preferential voting methods that use ranked-choice ballots). Its critics contend that some voters find the mechanisms behind STV difficult to understand, but this does not make it more difficult for voters to rank the list of candidates in order of preference on an STV ballot paper (see § Voting).

Snowshoe hare

The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), also called the varying hare, or snowshoe rabbit, is a species of hare found in North America. It has the name "snowshoe" because of the large size of its hind feet. The animal's feet prevent it from sinking into the snow when it hops and walks. Its feet also have fur on the soles to protect it from freezing temperatures.

For camouflage, its fur turns white during the winter and rusty brown during the summer. Its flanks are white year-round. The snowshoe hare is also distinguishable by the black tufts of fur on the edge of its ears. Its ears are shorter than those of most other hares.

In summer, it feeds on plants such as grass, ferns and leaves; in winter, it eats twigs, the bark from trees, and buds from flowers and plants and, similar to the Arctic hare, has been known to steal meat from baited traps. Hares are carnivorous under the availability of dead animals, and have been known to eat dead rodents such as mice due to low availability of protein in a herbivorous diet. It can sometimes be seen feeding in small groups. This animal is mainly active at night and does not hibernate.

The snowshoe hare may have up to four litters in a year which average three to eight young. Males compete for females, and females may breed with several males.

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