Hardnesses of the elements (data page)

number symbol name Mohs hardness[1] Vickers hardness
(MPa)[1]
Brinell hardness
(MPa)[1]
Brinell hardness
(MPa)[note 1][2]
3 Li lithium 0.6 5
4 Be beryllium 5.5 1670 590–1320
5 B boron 9.3 4900
6 C carbon (graphite) 0.5
6 C carbon (diamond) 10.0
11 Na sodium 0.5 0.69
12 Mg magnesium 2.5 260 44 (cast)
13 Al aluminium 2.75 160–350 160–550 184 (annealed)
14 Si silicon 6.5
16 S sulfur 2.0
19 K potassium 0.4 0.363
20 Ca calcium 1.75 170 416
21 Sc scandium 736–1200
22 Ti titanium 6.0 830–3420 716–2770 1028 (annealed)
23 V vanadium 7.0 628–640 600–628 742 (annealed)
24 Cr chromium 8.5 1060 687-6500 688 (annealed)
25 Mn manganese 6.0 196
26 Fe iron 4.0 608 200-1180
27 Co cobalt 5.0 1043 470–3000 1291 (annealed)
28 Ni nickel 4.0 638 667–1600 900–1200 (annealed)
29 Cu copper 3.0 343–369 235–878 520 (rolled)
30 Zn zinc 2.5 327–412 480–520 (cast)
31 Ga gallium 1.5 56.8–68.7
32 Ge germanium 6.0
33 As arsenic 3.5 1440
34 Se selenium 2.0 736
37 Rb rubidium 0.3 0.216
38 Sr strontium 1.5
39 Y yttrium 200–589
40 Zr zirconium 5.0 820–1800 638–1880 333
41 Nb niobium 6.0 870–1320 735–2450 735 (annealed)
42 Mo molybdenum 5.5 1400–2740 1370–2500 1340 (cast)
44 Ru ruthenium 6.5 2160 1795 (annealed)
45 Rh rhodium 6.0 1100–8000 980–1350 540 (annealed)
46 Pd palladium 4.75 400–600 320–610 310 (cast)
47 Ag silver 2.5 250 245–250 206 (annealed)
48 Cd cadmium 2.0 203–220 196
49 In indium 1.2 8.83-10 9.8
50 Sn tin 1.5 51–75 292–441 (cast)
51 Sb antimony 3.0 294–384
52 Te tellurium 2.25 180–270
55 Cs caesium 0.2 0.147
56 Ba barium 1.25
57 La lanthanum 2.5 360–1750 350–400
58 Ce cerium 2.5 210–470 186–412
59 Pr praseodymium 250–746 250–638
60 Nd neodymium 343–746 265–700
61 Pm promethium 617.8
62 Sm samarium 412–441 441–600
63 Eu europium 167–200
64 Gd gadolinium 510–950
65 Tb terbium 450–863 677–1200
66 Dy dysprosium 412–550 500–1050
67 Ho holmium 412–600 500–1250
68 Er erbium 432–700 600–1070
69 Tm thulium 470–650 471–900
70 Yb ytterbium 206–250 343–441
71 Lu lutetium 755–1160 893–1300
72 Hf hafnium 5.5 1520–2060 1450–2100
73 Ta tantalum 6.5 873–1200 441-3430 441–1224 (annealed)
74 W tungsten 7.5 3430–4600 2000–4000 1960–2450 (annealed)
75 Re rhenium 7.0 1350-7850 1320–2500
76 Os osmium 7.0 3920–4000 3487
77 Ir iridium 6.5 1760–2200 1670 2120
78 Pt platinum 3.5 400–549 310–500 299 (annealed)
79 Au gold 2.5 188–216 188–245 189 (cast)
80 Hg mercury 1.5
81 Tl thallium 1.2 26.5–44.7
82 Pb lead 1.5 38–50 37.5–41.8 (cast)
83 Bi bismuth 2.25 70–94.2 70
90 Th thorium 3.0 294–687 390–1500
92 U uranium 6.0 1960–2500 2350–3850

Notes

  1. ^ Hardness can vary by several hundred percent depending on the pretreatment, see e.g. Iron#Mechanical properties and Angelo Basile; Fausto Gallucci (2011). Membranes for Membrane Reactors: Preparation, Optimization and Selection. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-0-470-74652-3.

References

  1. ^ a b c G.V. Samsonov, ed. (1968). "Mechanical Properties of the Elements". Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements. New York, USA: IFI-Plenum. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-6066-7_7. ISBN 978-1-4684-6066-7. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  2. ^ John Harris; Walter Benenson; Horst Stöcker (2002). Handbook of physics. Springer. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-387-95269-7.

See also

List of data references for chemical elements

Values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages.

Mohs scale of mineral hardness

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness () is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material. Created in 1812 by German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs, it is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science, some of which are more quantitative. The method of comparing hardness by observing which minerals can scratch others is of great antiquity, having been mentioned by Theophrastus in his treatise On Stones, c. 300 BC, followed by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia, c. AD 77. While greatly facilitating the identification of minerals in the field, the Mohs scale does not show how well hard materials perform in an industrial setting.

Outline of chemistry

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry:

Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions. Chemistry is centrally concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds.

Vanadium

Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery-grey, ductile, malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation.

Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from "ἐρυθρόν", greek word for "red") since upon heating most of the salts turned red. Four years later, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís (Freyja). Both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was later renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content. In 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element.

Vanadium occurs naturally in about 65 minerals and in fossil fuel deposits. It is produced in China and Russia from steel smelter slag. Other countries produce it either from magnetite directly, flue dust of heavy oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining. It is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels. The most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. The vanadium redox battery for energy storage may be an important application in the future.

Large amounts of vanadium ions are found in a few organisms, possibly as a toxin. The oxide and some other salts of vanadium have moderate toxicity. Particularly in the ocean, vanadium is used by some life forms as an active center of enzymes, such as the vanadium bromoperoxidase of some ocean algae.

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