A hardcover or hardback (also known as hardbound, and sometimes as case-bound) book is one bound with rigid protective covers (typically of Binder's board or heavy paperboard covered with buckram or other cloth, heavy paper, or occasionally leather). It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk.
Hardcover books are often printed on acid-free paper, and they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible, easily damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are frequently protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming increasingly popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding.
If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is typically released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition (same format as hardcover) the next year. Some publishers publish paperback originals if slow hardback sales are anticipated. For very popular books these sales cycles may be extended, and followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper. This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers. It is very unusual for a book that was first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, and later in hardcover.
Hardcover books are usually sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are usually printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels; however, many academic books are often only published in hardcover editions.
Hardcovers typically consist of a page block, two boards, and a cloth or heavy paper covering. The pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, and it too is covered by the cloth. A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is usually put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is generally a blurb, or a summary of the book. The back flap is where the biography of the author can be found. Reviews are often placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, and only boards covering the rest of the book.
The AFI Catalog of Feature Films, also known as the AFI Catalog is an ongoing project by the American Film Institute to catalog all commercially made and theatrically exhibited American motion pictures, from the earliest days of the industry to the present. It has begun as a series of hardcover books known as The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures, and subsequently became an online database exclusively.
Each entry in the catalog typically includes the film's title, physical description, production and distribution companies, production and release dates, personal credits, a plot summary, and notes on the film's history. The films are indexed by personal credits, production and distribution companies, year of release, and major and minor plot subjects.
To qualify for the "Feature Films" volumes, a film must have been commercially made by an American company, and given a theatrical release in 35 mm or larger gauge to the general public, with a running time of at least 40 minutes.Berkley Books
Berkley Books is an imprint of Penguin Group (USA) that began as an independent company in 1955. It was established by Charles Byrne and Frederick Klein, who were working for Avon and formed "Chic News Company". They renamed it Berkley Publishing Co. in 1955. They soon found a niche in science fiction works. They were bought out in 1965 by G. P. Putnam's Sons and became their paperback publisher.
In 1982, Putnam bought Grosset & Dunlap and Playboy Press, and the Ace and Playboy paperback lists were added to Berkley. The Playboy list was eventually absorbed into Berkley, while the Jove and Ace lists have continued as distinct imprints.
Following its publication of Tom Clancy's The Hunt for Red October, Berkley Books became increasingly interested in publishing military fiction and technothrillers. The publicity campaigns at military bases were part of the success Dale Brown's Flight of the Old Dog.Penguin Group purchased Putnam in 1996. Penguin merged with Random House in 2013 to form Penguin Random House. Today, Berkley is part of PRH's Penguin Adult group and prints in mass-market paperback, trade paperback, and hardcover formats. In 2015, sister paperback group New American Library was merged into Berkley.In December 2008, Berkley canceled publication of the Herman Rosenblat Holocaust memoir titled Angel at the Fence when it was discovered that the book's central events were untrue.Constellation
A constellation is a group of stars that forms an imaginary outline or pattern on the celestial sphere, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, a god, or an inanimate object.The origins of the earliest constellations likely go back to prehistory. People used them to relate stories of their beliefs, experiences, creation, or mythology. Different cultures and countries adopted their own constellations, some of which lasted into the early 20th century before today's constellations were internationally recognized. Adoption of constellations has changed significantly over time. Many have changed in size or shape. Some became popular, only to drop into obscurity. Others were limited to single cultures or nations.
The 48 traditional Western constellations are Greek. They are given in Aratus' work Phenomena and Ptolemy's Almagest, though their origin probably predates these works by several centuries. Constellations in the far southern sky were added from the 15th century until the mid-18th century when European explorers began traveling to the Southern Hemisphere. Twelve ancient constellations belong to the zodiac (straddling the ecliptic, which the Sun, Moon, and planets all traverse). The origins of the zodiac remain historically uncertain; its astrological divisions became prominent c. 400 BC in Babylonian or Chaldean astronomy, probably dates back to prehistory.
In 1928, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) formally accepted 88 modern constellations, with contiguous boundaries that together cover the entire celestial sphere. Any given point in a celestial coordinate system lies in one of the modern constellations. Some astronomical naming systems include the constellation where a given celestial object is found to convey its approximate location in the sky. The Flamsteed designation of a star, for example, consists of a number and the genitive form of the constellation name.
Other star patterns or groups called asterisms are not constellations per se but are used by observers to navigate the night sky. Examples of bright asterisms include the Pleiades and Hyades within the constellation Taurus or Venus' Mirror in the constellation of Orion.. Some asterisms, like the False Cross, are split between two constellations; others, like the Summer Triangle, share stars across several constellations.Dark Avengers
Dark Avengers is an American comic book series published by Marvel Comics. It is part of a series of titles that have featured various iterations of the superhero team the Avengers. Unusually, the series stars a version of the team that, unknown to the public in its fictional universe, contains several members who are supervillains disguised as established superheroes.Green Lantern (comic book)
Green Lantern is an ongoing American comic book series featuring the DC Comics heroes of the same name. The character's first incarnation, Alan Scott, appeared in All-American Comics #16 (July 1940), and was later spun off into the first volume of Green Lantern in 1941. That series was canceled in 1949 after 38 issues. When the Silver Age Green Lantern, Hal Jordan, was introduced, the character starred in a new volume of Green Lantern starting in 1960 and has been the lead protagonist of the Green Lantern mythos for the majority of the last 60 years.
Although Green Lantern is considered a mainstay in the DC Comics stable, the series has been canceled and rebooted several times. The first series featuring Hal Jordan was canceled at issue #224, but was restarted with a third volume and a new #1 issue in June 1990. When sales began slipping in the early 1990s, DC Comics instituted a controversial editorial mandate that turned Jordan into the supervillain Parallax and created a new protagonist named Kyle Rayner. This third volume ended publication in 2004, when the miniseries Green Lantern: Rebirth brought Hal Jordan back as a heroic character and made him the protagonist once again. After Rebirth's conclusion, writer Geoff Johns began a fourth volume of Green Lantern from 2005 to 2011, and a fifth volume which started immediately after, this time initially showcasing both Hal Jordan and Sinestro as Green Lanterns.Legacy of the Force
The Legacy of the Force is a series of nine science fiction novels set in the Star Wars expanded universe, taking place approximately 40 years after the events of Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (in Star Wars chronology, from 40 ABY to 41 ABY). The series was written by Troy Denning, Aaron Allston and Karen Traviss in an alternating cycle.
The series contains a mix of hardcover and paperback releases. The plan was to allow each author to write one hardcover novel and two paperbacks, with the first, middle (fifth), and final (ninth) novels being the hardcover releases, and the other novels being in paperback. An abridged audiobook version of each story was released concurrently with each book.New American Library
The New American Library (NAL) is an American publisher based in New York, founded in 1948. Its initial focus was affordable paperback reprints of classics and scholarly works, as well as popular and pulp fiction but now publishes trade and hardcover titles. It is currently an imprint of Penguin Random House; it was announced in 2015 that the imprint would publish only nonfiction titles.Paperback
A paperback, also known as a softcover or softback, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth. The pages on the inside are made of paper.
Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, yellowbacks, dime novels, and airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U.S., there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U.K., there are A-format, B-format, and the largest C-format sizes.Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper; glued (rather than stapled or sewn) bindings; and the lack of a hard cover may contribute to the lower cost of paperbacks. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, and newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books, especially genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide.Penguin Classics
Penguin Classics is an imprint of Penguin Books under which classic works of literature are published in English, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, and Korean among other languages. Literary critics see books in this series as important members of the Western canon, though many titles are translated or of non-Western origin; indeed, the series for decades from its creation included only translations, until it eventually incorporated the Penguin English Library imprint in 1986. The first Penguin Classic was E. V. Rieu's translation of The Odyssey, published in 1946, and Rieu went on to become general editor of the series. Rieu sought out literary novelists such as Robert Graves and Dorothy Sayers as translators, believing they would avoid "the archaic flavour and the foreign idiom that renders many existing translations repellent to modern taste."
In 1964 Betty Radice and William Baldick succeeded Rieu as joint editors, with Radice becoming sole editor in 1974 and serving as an editor for 21 years. As editor, Radice argued for the place of scholarship in popular editions, and modified the earlier Penguin convention of the plain text, adding line references, bibliographies, maps, explanatory notes and indexes. She broadened the canon of the 'Classics', and encouraged and diversified their readership while upholding academic standards.Penguin Group
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House. It is owned by Pearson PLC, the global education and publishing company, and Bertelsmann, the German media conglomerate. The new company was created by a merger that was finalised on 1 July 2013, with Bertelsmann owning 53% of the joint venture, and Pearson controlling the remaining 47%.Penguin Books has its registered office in City of Westminster, London.Its British division is Penguin Books Ltd. Other separate divisions can be found in the United States, Ireland, New Zealand, India, Australia, Canada, China, Brazil and South Africa.Riverhead Books
Riverhead Books is a division of Penguin Group (USA) founded in 1993 by Susan Petersen Kennedy.
Writers published by Riverhead include Cass Browne, Marlon James, Junot Díaz, George Saunders, Khaled Hosseini, Nick Hornby, Anne Lamott, Patricia Lockwood, Sarah Vowell, the Dalai Lama, Chang-rae Lee, Meg Wolitzer, Dinaw Mengestu, Daniel Alarcón, Daniel H. Pink, Steven Johnson, Jon Ronson, Ellen Burstyn, Elizabeth Gilbert, and James McBride.
Authors published by Riverhead won the Dayton Literary Peace Prize for four out of its first six years. Four authors won MacArthur Genius Grants; many writers Riverhead has published have given TED Talks. Riverhead authors have won PEN and other literary awards, including the Booker Prize, the Hurston/Wright Legacy Award for writers of African descent, the Stonewall Award for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender fiction, and the National Book Foundation’s 5 Under 35 for the best young emerging voices. Four authors were included in the New Yorker's "20 under 40" list of young fiction writers.
As of 2015 the publisher of Riverhead was Geoffrey Kloske. Current company officers are listed on the Penguin Group (USA) website.Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press. The SOED is a two-volume abridgement of the twenty-volume Oxford English Dictionary (OED).Thanos
Thanos (UK: , US: ) is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character, created by writer/artist Jim Starlin, first appeared in The Invincible Iron Man #55 (cover dated February 1973). Thanos is one of the most powerful villains in the Marvel Universe and has clashed with many heroes including the Avengers, the Guardians of the Galaxy, the Fantastic Four, and the X-Men.
The character appears in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, portrayed by Damion Poitier in The Avengers (2012), and by Josh Brolin in Guardians of the Galaxy (2014), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), and Avengers: Endgame (2019) through voice and motion capture. The character has also appeared in various comic adaptations, including animated television series, arcade, and video games.The Avengers (comic book)
The Avengers is the name of several comic book titles featuring the team the Avengers and published by Marvel Comics, beginning with the original The Avengers comic book series which debuted in 1963.The Dark Tower (comics)
The Dark Tower, first published in 2007, is a series of comic books (originally published by Marvel Comics and later republished by Gallery 13) based on Stephen King's The Dark Tower series of novels. Overall, it is plotted by Robin Furth and scripted by Peter David. Stephen King serves as Creative and Executive Director of the project.The Honorable Barbarian
The Honorable Barbarian is a fantasy novel by American writer L. Sprague de Camp, the fifth and final book of his Novarian series. It is a sequel both to the "Reluctant King" trilogy and to the Novarian sequence's only short story, "The Emperor's Fan". It was first published in hardcover by Del Rey Books in July 1989, with a limited edition hardcover following from The Easton Press in its "Signed First Editions of Science Fiction" series in August of the same year. Another hardcover edition issued by Del Rey in conjunction with the Science Fiction Book Club appeared in January 1990. The first paperback edition was issued by Del Rey in May 1990. The novel has also been translated into French. An E-book edition was published as The Honourable Barbarian by Gollancz's SF Gateway imprint on September 29, 2011 as part of a general release of de Camp's works in electronic form.The Overlook Press
The Overlook Press is an American publishing house based in New York, New York, that considers itself "a home for distinguished books that had been 'overlooked' by larger houses".Trade paperback (comics)
In comics, a trade paperback (often shortened to trade) is a collection of stories originally published in comic books, reprinted in book format, usually capturing one story arc from a single title or a series of stories with a connected story arc or common theme, or an earlier mini-series.
Traditionally, a trade paperback will reproduce the stories at the same size as they were originally presented in comic book format. However, certain trades have been published in a smaller, "digest-sized" format, similar in size to a paperback novel. Other works (usually material likely to sell well) are published in a larger-than-original hardcover format.
Many comics collections are published in hardcover (or in both formats). The bulk of this article applies to both paperback and hardcover collections. In the comics industry, the term "trade paperback market" can be casually used to refer to the market for any collection, regardless of actual cover.
A graphic novel differs from a trade paperback in that it is usually a square-bound printing with largely original material. Also it should not be confused with the publishing term trade paperback, which is a book with a flexible cardstock cover which is larger than the standard mass market paperback format.