Hardcore pornography

Hardcore pornography, or hardcore porn, is still photography or video footage that contains explicit forms of pornography, most commonly including depictions of sexual acts such as vaginal, anal or oral intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, fingering, anilingus, ejaculation, and fetish play. Hardcore pornography usually takes the form of photographs, often displayed in magazines or on the Internet, or films and cartoons. Since the 1990s it has been distributed widely over the Internet, making it more widely available than ever before.

Anna Bell Peaks 2018
Hardcore pornographic actress Anna Bell Peaks at the XBIZ Awards January 2018

Etymology

A distinction between "hardcore pornography" and "borderline pornography" (or "borderline obscenity") was made in the 1950s and 1960s by American jurists discussing obscenity laws. "Borderline pornography" appealed to sexual prurience, but had positive qualities, such as literary or artistic merit, and so was arguably permitted by obscenity laws; "hardcore pornography" lacked such merits and was definitely prohibited.[1] In Roth v. United States (1957) the government brief distinguished three classes of sexual material: "novels of apparently serious literary intent"; "borderline entertainment ... magazines, cartoons, nudist publications, etc."; and "hard core pornography, which no one would suggest had literary merit".[2] Eberhard and Phyllis Kronhausen in 1959 distinguished "erotic realism" from "pornography"; in the latter "the main purpose is to stimulate erotic response in the reader. And that is all."[3] Most famously, in Jacobellis v. Ohio (1964), Potter Stewart wrote:

I shall not today attempt further to define the kinds of material I understand to be embraced within that shorthand description ["hard-core pornography"], and perhaps I could never succeed in intelligibly doing so. But I know it when I see it, and the motion picture involved in this case [The Lovers] is not that.

In Jacobellis v. Ohio and other cases, the United States Supreme Court ruled that only "hardcore" pornography could be prohibited by obscenity laws, with the rest protected by the First Amendment. The category of "borderline obscenity" thus became obsolete. The 1970 report of the President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography said:[4]

[M]ailers dealing in sexually oriented materials define "hard-core pornography" as "photographic depictions of actual sexual intercourse with camera focus on the genitals and no accompanying text to provide a legal defense". This, of course, is not a legal definition.... Some judges have employed the term "hard-core pornography" as a synonym for "material which can be legally suppressed". In this Report, the term is used as a synonym for "under-the-counter" or covertly sold materials. This is, in effect, the definition of hard-core applied in the marketplace. It can be argued that because of the confusion about the meaning of the term, which stems primarily from an undefined legal concept, it would be well to avoid the use of the term altogether.... There is one genre of sexually oriented material which is almost universally sold under-the-counter in the United States: wholly photographic reproductions of actual sexual intercourse graphically depicting vaginal and/or oral penetration.... A[t] present, distinctions between materials sold openly and those sold covertly have become extremely unclear.

From the 1970s, the salient distinction was between hardcore pornography and softcore pornography, which may use simulated sex and limits the range and intensity of depictions of sexual activities. For example, William Rotsler's 1973 classification subdivided the X rating for erotic films: "The XXX-rating means hard-core, the XX-rating is for simulation, and an X-rating is for comparatively cool films."[5]

History

The prehistory of modern pornography is the classical American stag film, also known as blue movies, a body of clandestine short pornographic films produced during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. While the exact corpus of the distinctive stag film remains unknown, scholars at the Kinsey Institute believe there are approximately 2000 films produced between 1915-1968.[6] Stag cinema is a form of hardcore film and is characterized as silent, usually filling a single reel or less, and was illegally made and exhibited because of censorship laws in America. Women were excluded from these private screenings that were shown in American "smoker" houses such as fraternities or other exclusive institutions. In Europe, films of the same kind were screened in brothels. The mode of reception of the all-male audience of stag films was raucous, collective sexual banter[7] and sexual arousal. Film historians describe stag films as a primitive form of cinema because they were produced by anonymous and amateur male artists who failed to achieve narrative coherence and continuity. Today, many of these films have been archived by the Kinsey Institute, but most are in a state of decay and have no copyright, real credits, or acknowledged authorship. The stag film era inevitably ended with the beginnings of the sexual revolution in the fifties in combination with the new technologies of the post war era, such as 16mm, 8mm, and the Super 8. American stag cinema in general received scholarly attention first in the mid-seventies by heterosexual males, e.g. Di Lauro and Gerald Rabkin's Dirty Movies (1976) and more recently by feminist and queer cultural historians, e.g. Linda M. Williams' Hard Core: Power Pleasure, and the "Frenzy of the Visible" (1989) and Thomas Waugh's Homosociality in the Classical American Stag Film: Off-Screen, On-screen (2001).

Legality

Porn Set 5
On the set of a pornographic film

The distribution of hardcore pornography had been widely prohibited in many countries until the second half of the 20th century when many countries began to allow some dissemination of softcore material. Supply is now usually regulated by a motion picture rating system as well as by direct regulation of points of sale. Restrictions, as applicable, apply to the screening, or rental, sale, or giving of a movie, in the form of a DVD, video, computer file, etc. Public display and advertising of hardcore pornography is often prohibited, as is its supply to minors.

Most countries have eased the restrictions on the distribution of pornography, either by general or restricted legalization or by failure to enforce prohibitive legislation. Most easing of restrictions has been by way of changes to the criteria of a country's movie classification system. The anti-pornography movement often vigorously opposes legalization. In 1969, Denmark became the first country in the world to legalize pornography.[8] In the U.S., legal interpretations of pornography in relation to the constitutional right to free speech differ from state to state and from city to city. Hardcore pornography was legalized in the UK in 2000.[9]

Impact on society

Berl Kutchinsky's Studies on Pornography and Sex Crimes in Denmark (1970), a scientific report commissioned by the Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography, found that the legalizing of pornography in Denmark had not (as had been expected) resulted in an increase of sex crimes.[10]

A study conducted in Denmark in 2003 and later published in Archives of Sexual Behavior found that men and women generally believe that hardcore pornography has a positive influence on their lives.[11]

United Kingdom

The Independent reported in 2006 that Nielsen NetRatings found that more than nine million British male adults used Internet porn services.[12] The study also reported a one-third rise in the number of women visiting X-rated sites, from 1.05 million to 1.38 million. A 2003 study found that one third of all British Internet users accessed hardcore porn.[13]

United States

A 2005 study by Eric Schlosser estimated that revenues from hardcore porn matched Hollywood's domestic box office takings. Hardcore porn videos, Internet sites, live sex acts and cable TV programming generated US$10 billion, roughly equal to U.S. domestic box office receipts.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mulroy, Thomas R. (September 1963). "Obscenity, Pornography and Censorship". ABA Journal. 49 (9): 869–875. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  2. ^ "345 Mass. 11 Attorney General vs. Book Named "Tropic of Cancer.", 345 Mass. 11". Massachusetts SJC Cases. July 17, 1962. pp. 15, fn.5. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  3. ^ Kronhausen, Eberhard; Kronhausen, Phyllis (1959). Pornography and the Law: The Psychology of Erotic Realism and Pornography (1st ed.). New York: Ballantine.; cited in Mulroy p. 874
  4. ^ President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (September 1970). Report. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 112, 113, fn.10, 114. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  5. ^ Rotslter, William. Contemporary Erotic Cinema. New York: Penthouse/Ballantine Books, 1973. p. 251.
  6. ^ "Film Archive". The Kinsey Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  7. ^ Williams, Linda. Hard Core: Power, Pleasure, and the "Frenzy of the Visible" (PDF). p. 58. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  8. ^ Denmark in the International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. "... Denmark was the first country in the world to legitimize written pornography in 1967 (followed by pictorial pornography in 1969)."
  9. ^ "Green light for porn films". BBC News. May 22, 2000. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
  10. ^ Kutchinsky, Berl (1970). Studies on pornography and sex crimes in Denmark. A report to the US Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. New Social Science Monographs. Copenhagen, Denmark: Nyt fra samfunds videnskaberne. OCLC 155896..
  11. ^ Hald, G.M.; Malamuth, N.M. (2007). "Self-Perceived Effects of Pornography Consumption". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 37 (4): 614–625. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9212-1. PMID 17851749.
  12. ^ Sophie Good child and Severin Carrell (May 28, 2006). "Sex.com: We are a nation addicted to porn. And nearly 11 million of us got our fix on the net last year". The Independent. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  13. ^ Marriott, Edward (November 8, 2003). "Men and porn". The Guardian.
  14. ^ Campbell, Duncan (May 2, 2004). "With pot and porn outstripping corn, America's black economy is flying high". The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2008.

Further reading

  • O'Toole, L. (1998). : , Sex, Technology and Desire. London: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1-85242-395-1.
Blue Hustler

Blue Hustler is a subscription based premium adult entertainment television channel distributed throughout Europe and Israel via digital cable and satellite television. It is owned by the Dutch-based company Sapphire Media International BV.

Blue Hustler offers softcore pornography aimed at a hetero male audience. It is the sister channel to Hustler TV and Hustler HD who specializes in hardcore pornography.

Brazzers

Brazzers () is a pornographic production company based in Montreal, Canada. With an online network consisting of thirty-one hardcore pornography websites, the company's slogan is "The World's Best HD Porn Site!". As of October 2015, Brazzers.com has a traffic ranking of 936.

Club (magazine)

Club is a monthly American pornographic magazine which is a spin-off publication of the United Kingdom's Club International. Club features sexually oriented articles, video reviews, and pictorials that include hardcore pornography, masturbation, dildo usage, and lesbianism.

Dorcel TV

Dorcel TV is a subscription based pay-TV adult entertainment television channel distributed throughout Europe via digital cable and satellite television. It is owned by Marc Dorcel. Its content is mostly hardcore pornography, some including faked orgasms.

Dorcel TV will also launched in Quebec in 2018.

Female Vampire

Female Vampire is a 1975 film directed, written and co-edited by Jesús Franco. It was made in 1973, but was only distributed two years later. The film is set in Europe and stars actress Lina Romay as Irina von Karlstein, a vampire who has sex with both male and female victims. In an unusual variation of the vampire myth, Karlstein performs oral sex on her victims until they die, draining them of their sexual fluids.Three versions of the film were shot --- straight horror, horror mixed with sex and the hardcore pornography version. Franco's original title for the film was The Bare Breasted Countess, but it was released under many different titles over the years. The film was shown as The Bare Breasted Countess at the 2009 Fantastic Fest in the United States. The title was later changed to Female Vampire for its DVD release.

Fogging (censorship)

Fogging is a type of visual censorship. An area for a picture or movie is blurred to obscure it from sight. This form of censorship is used for sexually related images/scenes, hiding genitals, pubic hair, or sexual penetration of any sort. Pixelization is a form of fogging. In Japan, where it is called bokashi, fogging is employed on most films that show pubic hair or genitals, including hardcore pornography.This form of editing also appears in television programs where an individual's face may not be shown due to legal or privacy concerns. As it does not contrast with the surrounding image very much, it is preferable over most other forms of censorship. Fogging is also used if the scenes which are too bloody and gruesome to be rendered even in black and white, over vehicle license plates, mainly to protect the identities of the vehicles' owners, and over branded items and specific company names to obscure their background.

Hustler HD

Hustler HD or Hustler HD 3D is a subscription based adult entertainment pay television channel distributed throughout Europe via digital cable as naxoo (in Switzerland) and satellite television. The channel broadcasts in HDTV and 3DTV format. It is owned by the Dutch-based company Sapphire Media International BV.

Hustler HD and Hustler TV offers hardcore pornography aimed at a straight male audience. It is the sister channel to Blue Hustler who specializes in softcore pornography.

Hustler TV (Europe)

Hustler TV is a subscription based adult entertainment pay television channel distributed throughout Europe via digital cable as naxoo (in Switzerland) and satellite television. It is owned by the Dutch-based company Sapphire Media International BV.

Hustler TV and Hustler HD 3D offers hardcore pornography aimed at a straight male audience. It is the sister channel to Blue Hustler who specializes in softcore pornography.

Images in a Convent

Images in a Convent (Italian: Immagini di un convento) is a 1979 sexploitation film by Italian cult filmmaker Joe D'Amato starring Paola Senatore, Marina Hedman and Donald O'Brien.

The film belongs to the 'nunsploitation' subgenre. It contains strong scenes of graphic violence relating to demonic possession and is among few films containing original hardcore pornography that already passed Italian censorship in 1979 and were projected in some Italian cinemas. It includes explicit lesbianic depictions of digital penetration and cunnilingus.

Obscenity Prosecution Task Force

The Obscenity Prosecution Task Force (OPTF) was an organization created in 2005 by the United States Department of Justice. The OPTF's job was to investigate and prosecute producers and distributors of hardcore pornography that meets the legal tests for obscenity, as defined by the Supreme Court of the United States. The group was led by U.S. Attorney Brent Ward.The task force was formed during the Presidency of George W. Bush to investigate hardcore pornography at the urging of social conservative groups. Notable cases were brought against Joseph R. Francis' Mantra Films, Inc. (Girls Gone Wild), as well as producers Ira Isaacs and Max Hardcore.Eric Holder, Barack Obama's appointee for United States Attorney General, dissolved the task force in spring 2011, leaving obscenity prosecutions to the United States Department of Justice Criminal Division's Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section.

Pornochanchada

Pornochanchada (Portuguese pronunciation: [poʁnoʃɐ̃ˈʃadɐ]) is the name given to a genre of sex comedy films produced in Brazil that was popular from the late 1960s after popularity of commedia sexy all'italiana. By the 1980s, with the wide availability of hardcore pornography through clandestine video cassettes, the genre suffered a considerable decline. Its name combined pornô (porn) and chanchada (light comedy), as itself combines comedy and erotica.Pornochanchadas were massively produced in the downtown quarter of São Paulo that was nicknamed "Boca do Lixo" ("Garbage Mouth"). The genre was usually seen as a part of low-budget films produced there, collectively known as Mouth of Garbage Cinema. Later, there were productions in Rio de Janeiro as well, creating the subgenre pornochanchada carioca, which was to find its star in Alba Valeria during the early 1980s.

Pornochanchadas were generally in line with sex comedies produced in other countries (Italy, Germany, Spain, U.S., Argentina, Mexico, etc.), but also featured some Brazilian peculiarities.

Pornography in Canada

Pornography in Canada has changed since the 1960s when the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968-69 that suppressed various laws related to sexual norms was passed. There has been a shift in the mode of determining whether a material is obscene or not with the R v. Butler judgment. The obscenity laws were challenged as violative of freedom of expression in R. v Butler. Obscenity is defined as follows under the Criminal Code: "the undue exploitation of sex or of sex and one or more of the following subjects; namely, crime, horror, cruelty and violence." The court held that the term “undue” should be interpreted on the degree of harm which flows from such exposure that predisposes people to act in an anti-social manner. The court ruled that pornography is harmful if it contains violence or explicit sex which is degrading or dehumanizing and which creates a substantial risk of harm, as it harms women’s right to be equal. Therefore, there is a shift from the community standard’s test to the harm test post the Butler judgment.

R rating

R rating may refer to:

R rating, a rating of the Canadian Home Video Rating System

R rating, a rating of the Korea Media Rating Board

R rating, a rating of the Motion Picture Association of America film rating system

Restricted ratings of the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board in the Philippines

Restricted ratings of the Office of Film and Literature Classification in New Zealand

R18 (British Board of Film Classification), a rating by the British Board of Film Classification usually signifying hardcore pornography

R18+, a rating of the Australian Classification Board

R18 rating, a rating of Eirin in Japan

Reality Kings

Reality Kings is a brand launched by RK Netmedia, an internet-based hardcore pornography production company operating out of Miami Beach, Florida.

Sexploitation film

A sexploitation film (or "sex-exploitation film") is a class of independently produced, low-budget feature film that is generally associated with the 1960s, and that serves largely as a vehicle for the exhibition of non-explicit sexual situations and gratuitous nudity. The genre is a subgenre of exploitation films. Sexploitation films were generally exhibited in urban grindhouse theatres, the precursor to the adult movie theaters of the 1970s and 1980s that featured hardcore pornography content. The term soft-core is often used to designate non-explicit sexploitation films after the general legalisation of hardcore content. Nudist films are often considered to be subgenres of the sex-exploitation genre as well. "Nudie" films and "Nudie-cuties" are associated genres.

Snoop Dogg's Doggystyle

Snoop Dogg's Doggystyle is a mixed hardcore pornography and hip-hop music video featuring the music of rapper Snoop Dogg and presented by him. It was released in 2001. It was the first hardcore video ever listed on the Billboard music video sales chart. Because of its huge success, it started a trend where rappers are put into the mainstream of the porn industry by hosting X-rated films. Many films of the genre followed, starring Necro, Mystikal, Too Short, Ice-T and Yukmouth. It also allowed Hustler to expand its boundaries by launching new subsidiaries for their recently formed fashion line and CD label. The scenes were shot at Snoop Dogg's house in Claremont, California. Snoop Dogg himself however, does not appear nude or perform any explicit acts.

Softcore pornography

Softcore pornography or softcore porn is commercial still photography or film that has a pornographic or erotic component but is less sexually graphic and intrusive than hardcore pornography. It typically contains nude or semi-nude actors involved in love scenes, and is intended to be sexually arousing and aesthetically beautiful.

Telefono rosso

Il telefono rosso is also the Italian title of Étienne Périer's 1968 comedy Le Rouble à deux faces.Telefono rosso (Red Telephone) is a 1986 film, the first Italian hardcore pornography production. Starring Ilona Staller and directed by Riccardo Schicchi, it was produced by their company Diva Futura.

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